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Office of Budget, Planning, and Integration
The Budget Process
Development of the President's Budget Proposal
- The Department of the Interior and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provide guidance on Secretarial and Presidential priorities.
- The USGS interacts with stakeholdersthrough lectures and conferences and customer listening sessions
May – June
- Preparation of the "Budget Request" to Department
July – August
- The USGS presents the budget to the Secretary
- Secretary's decision
- Preparation and finalization of the "Budget Estimates" for OMB
- OMB Hearing
- Decisions made by
- the OMB Examiner for the USGS and OMB Branch Chief for Interior
- top management, including OMB Director
- "Passback" (The OMB sends its proposed budget amendments back to the Department and USGS)
- The USGS makes its appeals through the Department
December – January
- Final decisions by the OMB and Department
- Finishing touches on the "Greenbook," which is due to Congress on the first Monday in February
- Rollout of President's Budget Proposal ("Greenbook" sent to Congress)
Development of an Appropriations Law
February – September (in a normal budget cycle)
- President's Budget Proposal
- Congressional Hearings
- Congressional Markup
- Passage of Appropriations Law or Continuing Resolution
- Supplemental Appropriations
House and Senate appropriations subcommittees hold hearings to allow the agencies to describe and defend their budget proposals.
- The USGS budget is handled by the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee.
- The USGS Director may be invited to testify on the USGS budget.
- All testimony must comport with Administration policy.
Congressional Questions for the Record
- After the hearings, the subcommittees submit questions about the budget.
- The USGS prepares answers that must be cleared by the Department and the OMB.
- The Hearing Record includes written and oral testimony as well as questions and answers.
- In addition to our budget request, the appropriations subcommittees consider requests from other sources with divergent interests, including lobby groups and other members of Congress.
- "Markup" is the process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation
- The prior year's bill language is physically "marked up" according to current congressional priorities.
- Differences between the House and Senate bills are settled in "Conference."
- When the Conference Agreement has been approved by the full House and full Senate, the Appropriations Bill has passed Congress.
- Once the Appropriations Bill has been passed, it is sent to the White House.
- The President has 10 days to sign the bill into law or veto it.
What happens if an appropriations bill does not become law before October 1 (the beginning of the fiscal year)?
- A continuing resolution allows government to continue operating with certain limitations (such as a timeframe and spending rate).
- Congress passes a continuing resolution for a specified period of time, the continuing resolution bill goes to the President for signature.
- No new projects are started while a continuing resolution is in effect.
- Without an appropriation or a continuing resolution, agencies would have to shut down.
- Supplemental appropriations may be passed at any point in the year to make funds available immediately.
- These are usually associated with one or more emergencies that require additional funding.
- For the USGS, these typically fund the repair or replacement of damaged equipment or facilities related to natural disasters.
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