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National Assessment of Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes



Bachelet, D., Ferschweiler, K., Sheehan, T.J., Sleeter, B.M., and Zhu, Z. 2015. Projected carbon stocks in the conterminous USA with land use and variable fire regimes, Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/gcb.13048

Reddy, A.D., Hawbaker, T.J., Wurseter, F., Zhu, Z., Newcomb, D., and Murray, R., 2015, Quantifying soil carbon loss and uncertainty from a peatland wildfire using multi-temporal LiDAR: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 170, p. 306-316.

Zhengxi Tan, Shuguang Liu, Terry L. Sohl, Yiping Wu, and Claudia J. Young, 2015, Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1512542112

David W. Clow, Sarah M. Stackpoole, Kristine L. Verdin, David E. Butman, Zhiliang Zhu, David P. Krabbenhoft, and Robert G. Striegl, 2015, Organic Carbon Burial in Lakes and Reservoirs of the Conterminous United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(13), p. 7614-7622, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00373

Sleeter, R.R., W. Acevedo, C.E. Soulard, and B.M. Sleeter, 2015, Methods used to parameterize the spatially-explicit components of a state-and-transition simulation model. AIMS Environmental Science 2(3): 668-696.

Sherba, J.T., B.M. Sleeter, A.W. Davis, and O. Parker, 2015, Downscaling global land-use/land-cover projections for use in region-level state-and-transition simulation modeling. AIMS Environmental Science 2(3): 623-647.

Wu, Y., S. Liu, C.J. Young, D. Dahal, T.L. Sohl, B. Davis, 2015, Projection of corn production and stover-harvesting impacts on soil organic carbon dynamics in the U.S. Temperate Prairies, Sci. Rep. 5, 10830, doi: 10.1038/srep10830

Pastick, N.J., Jorgenson, M.T., Wylie, B.K., Nield, S.J., Johnson, K.D., and Finley, A.O., 2015, Distribution of near-surface permafrost in Alaska: Estimates of present and future conditions: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 168, p. 301-315, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.07.019.

Minsley, B.J., N.J. Pastick, B.K. Wylie , D.R.N. Brown, and M.A. Kass, 2015 (in review), Evidence for non-uniform permafrost degradation after fire across boreal landscapes, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf.

Wilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, J. Sherba, and D. Cameron, 2015, Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenarios. AIMS Environmental Science 2(2): 282-301.

Sleeter, B.M., J. Liu, C. Daniel, L. Frid, and Z. Zhu, 2015, An integrated approach to modeling changes in land use, land cover, and disturbance and their impact on ecosystem carbon dynamics: a case study in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. AIMS Environmental Science 2(3): 577-606. doi:10.3934/environsci.2015.3.577

Byrd, K.B., L.E. Flint, P. Alvarez, C.F. Casey, B.M. Sleeter, C.E. Soulard, A.L. Flint, and T.L. Sohl, 2015, Integrated climate and land use change scenarios for California rangeland ecosystem services: wildlife habitat, soil carbon, and water supply, Landscape Ecology, DOI: 10.1007/s10980-015-0159-7

Crawford, J.T., M.M. Dornblaser, E.H. Stanley, D.W. Clow, and R.G. Striegl, 2015, Source limitation of carbon gas emissions in high-elevation mountain streams and lakes, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 120, doi:10.1002/2014JG002861.

Huang, S., S. Liu, J. Liu, D. Dahal, C. Young, B. Davis, T.L. Sohl, T.J. Hawbaker, B. Sleeter, and Z. Zhu, 2015, Projecting the spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem from 2006 to 2050. Carbon Balance and Management 2015, 10:7 . doi:10.1186/s13021-015-0017-6.

Ji, L., B.K. Wylie, D.R.N. Brown, B. Peterson, H.D. Alexander, M.C. Mack, J. Rover, M.P. Waldrop, J.W. McFarland, X. Chen, and N.J. Pastick, 2015, Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36:4, 939-953, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1004764

Minsley, B.J., T.P. Wellman, M.A. Walvoord, and A. Revil, 2015, Sensitivity of airborne geophysical data to sublacustrine and near-surface permafrost thaw. The Cryosphere, 9(2), 781–794, doi:10.5194/tc-9-781-2015.

Wu, Y., S. Liu, and Z. Tan, 2015, Quantitative attribution of major driving forces on soil organic carbon dynamics, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 07. doi:10.1002/2014MS000361

Zhao, F., C. Huang, and Z. Zhu, 2015, Use of Vegetation Change Tracker and Support Vector Machine to Map Disturbance Types in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystems in a 1984–2010 Landsat Time Series. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters (Volume:PP, Issue: 99 ) doi 10.1109/LGRS.2015.2418159.

Zhao, F., R. Keane, Z. Zhu, and C. Huang, 2015, Comparing historical and current wildfire regimes in the Northern Rocky Mountains using a landscape succession model. Forest Ecology and Management 343 (2015) 9–21.


Richardson, L., C. Huber, Z. Zhu, and L. Koontz. 2014. Terrestrial carbon sequestration in national parks: Values for the conterminous United States. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/EQD/NRR-2014/880. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Drexler, J.Z., J. Paces, C.N. Alpers, L. Windham-Myers, L. Neymark, T. Bullen, and H.E. Taylor, 2014, 234U/238U and δ87Sr/86Sr in Peat as Tracers of Paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California. Applied Geochemistry 40: 164–179.

Pastick, N.J., M.T. Jorgenson, B.K. Wylie, J.R. Rose, M. Rigge, and M.A. Walvoord, 2014, Spatial variability and landscape controls of near-surface permafrost within the Alaskan Yukon River Basin, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 119, 1244–1265, doi:10.1002/2013JG002594

Wilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, and A.W. Davis, 2014, Projected future land use threats to California’s protected areas. Regional Environmental Change, DOI: 10.1007/s10113-014-0686-9.

Wilson, T.S., 2014, Potential future land-use conversion scenarios in the Pacific Northwest from 2000-2100. Map database of land use threats in the Pacific Northwest based on the Land publication. ScienceBase

Wilson, T.S., 2014, Map database of land use threats in the Pacific Northwest. Conservation Biology Institute. Published on

Dahal, D., S. Liu, and J. Oeding, 2014, The Carbon Cycle and Hurricanes in the United States between 1900 and 2011. Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 5197. DOI: 10.1038.

Liang, L., Y. Chen, T.J. Hawbaker, Z. Zhu, and P. Gong, 2014, Mapping Mountain Pine Beetle Mortality through Growth Trend Analysis of Time-Series Landsat Data. Remote Sensing 2014, 6, p. 5696-5716. DOI: 10.3390.

Pastick, N.J., M. Rigge, B.K. Wylie, M.T. Jorgenson, J.R. Rose, K.D. Johnson, and L. Ji, 2014, Distribution and landscape controls of organic layer thickness and carbon within the Alaskan Yukon River Basin, Geoderma 230-231: 79-94.

Sohl, T.L., K.L. Sayler, M.A. Bouchard, R.R. Reker, A.M. Friesz, S.L. Bennett, B.M. Sleeter, R.R. Sleeter, T. Wilson, C.E. Soulard, M. Knuppe, and T. Van Hofwegen, 2014, Spatially explicit modeling of 1992 - 2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States. Ecological Applications 24(5): 1015-1036.

Stackpoole, S. M., E.G. Stets, and R.G. Striegl, 2014, The impact of climate and reservoirs on longitudinal riverine carbon fluxes from two major watersheds in the Central and Intermontane West. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 119, p. 848-863. DOI:10.1002.

Wilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, R.R. Sleeter, and C.E. Soulard, 2014, Land-use threads and protected areas: a scenario-based, landscape-level approach, Land (3): 362-389.

Wylie, B.K., M.B. Rigge, B. Brisco, K. Murnaghan, J.A. Rover, and J.B. Long, 2014, Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest: Remote Sensing, v. 6, no. 10, p. 9145-9169.

Young, C.J., S. Liu, J.A. Schumacher, T.E. Schumacher, T.C. Kaspar, G.W. McCarty, D. Napton, and D.B. Jaynes, 2014, Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields. Geoderma 232–234, 2014, p. 437–448 DOI: 10.1016.

Zhu, Zhiliang; Reed, B.C., eds., 2014, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the eastern United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: 1804, 204 p.


Wilson, T.S., B.M. Sleeter, T.L. Sohl, T. Griffith, W. Acevedo, S. Bennett, M. Bouchard, R. Reker, C. Ryan, K.L. Sayler, R. Sleeter, and C.E. Soulard, 2013, Future Scenarios of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change in the United States: The Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2012-1252, 23p.

Byrd, K., J. Ratliff, N. Bliss, A. Wein, B. Sleeter, T. Sohl, and Z. Li, 2013, Quantifying climate change mitigation potential in the United States Great Plains wetlands for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change:1-27. 10.1007/s11027-013-9500-0.

Caldwell, M.K., T.J. Hawbaker, J.S. Briggs, P.W. Cigan, and S. Stitt, 2013, Simulated impacts of mountain pine beetle and wildfire disturbances on forest vegetation composition and carbon stocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains, Biogeosciences, 10, 8203-8222, doi:10.5194/bg-10-8203-2013, 2013.

Hawbaker, T.J., J.S. Briggs, M.K. Caldwell, and S. Stitt, 2013, Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2013-3095, 2 p.,

McDonald, C.P., E.G. Stets, R.G. Striegl, and D. Butman, 2013, Inorganic carbon loading as a primary driver of dissolved carbon dioxideconcentrations in the lakes and reservoirs of the contiguous United States, Global Biogeochemical Cycles. (DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20032)

Pastick, N.J., M.T. Jorgenson, B.K. Wylie, B.J. Minsley, L. Ji, M.A. Walvoord, B.D. Smith, J.D. Abraham, and J.R. Rose, 2013, Extending Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys for Regional Active Layer and Permafrost Mapping with Remote Sensing and Ancillary Data, Yukon Flats Ecoregion, Central Alaska. Permafrost Periglac. Process. doi: 10.1002/ppp.1775

Zhao, S., L. Shuguang, T. Sohl, C. Young, and J. Werner, 2013, Land use and carbon dynamics in the southeastern United States from 1992 to 2050. Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044022, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044022.

Sohl, T.L., K.L. Sayler, M.A. Bouchard, R.R. Reker, A.M. Friesz, S.L. Bennett, B.M. Sleeter, R.R. Sleeter, T.S. Wilson, M. Knuppe, M., and T. Van Hofwegen, 2013, Spatially explicit modeling of 1992 to 2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States, Ecological Applications:

Zhang, Z., H. Jiang, J. Liu, J. Weimin, and Z. Xiuying, 2013, Effect of heterogeneous atmospheric CO2 on simulated global carbon budget: Global and Planetary Change, v. 101, p. 33-51.


Minsley, B.J., J.D. Abraham, B.D. Smith, J.C. Cannia, C.I. Voss, M.T. Jorgenson, M.A. Walvoord, B.K. Wylie, L. Anderson, L., L.B. Ball, M. Deszcz-Pan, T.P. Wellman, and T.A. Ager, 2012, Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 39, p. L02503, doi: 10.1029/2011GL050079.

Bergamaschi, B.A., D.P. Krabbenhoft, G.R. Aiken, E. Patino, D.G. Rumbold, W.H. Orem, 2012, Tidally driven export of dissolved organic carbon, total mercury, and methylmercury from a mangrove-dominated estuary. Environmental Science & Technology 46(3):1371-1378. (Also available at

Liu, S., Z. Tan, M. Chen, J. Liu, A. Wein, Z. Li, S. Huang, J. Oeding, C. Young, S.B. Verma, A.E. Suyker, S. Faulkner, and G.W. McCarty, 2012, The General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) and its Applications to Agricultural Systems in the United States. p. 309-323. In Liebig, M.A., A.J. Franzluebbers, and R.F. Follett (Eds.) Managing agricultural greenhouse gases: Coordinated agricultural research through GRACEnet to address our changing climate. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

McDonald, C.P., J.A. Rover, E.G. Stets, and R.G. Striegl, 2012, The regional abundance and size distribution of lakes and reservoirs in the United States and implications for estimates of global lake extent, Limnol. Oceanogr., 57(2), 597-606.

Sleeter, B.M., T.L. Sohl, M.A. Bouchard, R.R. Reker, C.E. Soulard, W. Acevedo, G.E. Griffith, R.R. Sleeter, R.F. Auch, K.L. Sayler, S. Prisley, and Z. Zhu, 2012, Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales. Global Environ. Change, 22(4): 896-914.

Sohl, T.L., B.M. Sleeter, Z. Zhu, K.L. Sayler, S. Bennett, M. Bouchard, R. Reker, T. Hawbaker, A. Wein, S. Liu, R. Kanengieter, and W. Acevedo, 2012, A land-use and land-cover modeling strategy to support a national assessment of carbon stocks and fluxes, Applied Geography: 34:111-124.

Sohl, T.L., B.M. Sleeter, K.L. Sayler, M.A. Bouchard, R.R. Reker, S.L. Bennett, R.R. Sleeter, R.L. Kanengieter and Z. Zhu, 2012, Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 153: pp 1-15.

Warwick, P. and Z. Zhu, 2012, New insights into the Nation's carbon storage potential. Eos, 93(26):241-242

Zhu, Zhiliang, and Reed, B.C., eds., 2012, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the Western United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797, 192 p. (Also available at


Butman, D, and P.A. Raymond, 2011, Significant efflux of carbon dioxide from streams and rivers in the United States: Nature Geoscience, advance online letter published October 16, 2011, doi:10.1038/ngeo1294.

Liu, S, B.B. Lamberty, J.A. Hicke, R. Vargas, S. Zhao, J. Chen, S.L. Edburg, Y. Hu, J. Liu, A.D. McGuire, J. Xiao, R. Keane, W. Yuan, J. Tang, Y. Luo, C. Potter and J. Oeding, 2011, Simulating the impacts of disturbances on forest carbon cycling in North America; processes, data, models, and challenges: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, G00K08, 22 p., doi:10.1029/2010JG001585.

Liu, J., J.E. Vogelmannb, Z. Zhu, C.H. Key, B.M. Sleeter, D.T. Price, J.M. Cheng, M.A. Cochrane, J.C. Eidenshink, S.M. Howard, N.B. Bliss, and H. Jiangj, 2011, Estimating California ecosystem carbon change using process model and land cover disturbance data: 1951-2000. Ecological Modeling, 222:2333-2341.

Schmidt, Gail, Liu, Shuguang, and Oeding, Jennifer, 2011, Derived crop management data for the LandCarbon project: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 2011-1305, 15 p. (

Zhu, Zhiliang, ed., Bouchard, Michelle, Butman, David, Hawbaker, Todd, Li, Zhengpeng, Liu, Jinxun, Liu, Shuguang, McDonald, Cory, Reker, Ryan, Sayler, Kristi, Sleeter, Benjamin, Sohl, Terry, Stackpoole, Sarah, Wein, Anne, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2011, Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1787, 28 p. (Also available at

Zhu, Zhiliang, and Stackpoole, Sarah, 2011, Assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011-3007, 2 p. (Also available at


Chengquan Huang, Nancy Thomas, Samuel N. Goward, Jeffrey G. Masek, Zhiliang Zhu, John R. G. Townshend and James E. Vogelmann, 2010, Automated masking of cloud and cloud shadow for forest change analysis using Landsat images. International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 31, no. 20, p. 5449-5464. DOI:10.1080/01431160903369642

Zhu, Zhiliang, ed., Bergamaschi, Brian, Bernknopf, Richard, Clow, David, Dye, Dennis, Faulkner, Stephen, Forney, William, Gleason, Robert, Hawbaker, Todd, Liu, Jinxun, Liu, Shuguang, Prisley, Stephen, Reed, Bradley, Reeves, Matthew, Rollins, Matthew, Sleeter, Benjamin, Sohl, Terry, Stackpoole, Sarah, Stehman, Stephen, Striegl, Robert, Wein, Anne, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of the United States under present conditions and future scenarios: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010 - 5233, 188 p. (Also available at

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