USGS Data Lifecycle Diagram
Data Management: Publication & Sharing
The ability to prepare and issue, or disseminate, quality data to the public and to other agencies is an important part of the lifecycle process. The data should be medium- and agent-independent, with an understanding that transfer may occur via automated or non-automated mechanisms. We need to ensure that data are shared, but with controls to protect proprietary and pre-decisional data and the integrity of the data itself. Data sharing also requires complete metadata to be useful to those who are receiving the data.
Data sharing benefits the researcher, research sponsors, data repositories, the scientific community, and the public. It encourages more connection and collaboration between scientists, and better science leads to better decisionmaking. Learn more about the benefits of data sharing.
Data Catalogs and Portals are places where one can search for data. While Repositories physically hold datasets, Data Catalogs and Portals provide searchable directories of data. Submitting your datasets to Data Portals and Catalogs makes them more visible and more likely to be employed by others. Learn more about data catalogs & portals.
Publishing is an essential means of conveying USGS science to support and inform decisions of national significance. The USGS provides tools and resources for the support of and access to USGS publications including the Science Publishing Network and the Publications Warehouse..
In certain situations, full or even partial data release may not be practical. When such situations arise, they must be handled appropriately. Learn more about sensitive data.
Setting a guideline for data releases or establishing data embargos can be useful tools for data producers to manage and analyze their data before sharing. Data embargo is a policy in which data are submitted to a repository but not released to the public for a specified amount of time. Learn more about Data Release / Embargo.
Several software platforms are in use within the USGS that facilitate collaboration. Learn more about data collaboration services.
It is important not only to cite published articles but also datasets within a publication. Citing datasets gives proper credit to the researcher and reduces the risk of plagiarism. Learn more about citing your data.
What the U. S. Geological Survey Manual Says:
Chapter 1100.3 - U.S. Geological Survey Publication Series discusses the publication of information products, which includes data products:
"As a public agency, the USGS has a responsibility to make the results of its scientific investigations widely and promptly available to the public in the form of technically sound and professionally presented information products."
Chapter 1100.6 - Use of Copyrighted Material in USGS Information Products covers the use of copyrighted material in information products, which includes data products:
"Policy: Copyrighted material will not knowingly be incorporated into any information product prepared by or for the USGS, except with the written consent of the copyright owner. . . . Purchase agreements should refer to both the material that is copyrighted and the copyright permission because they are distinct and both need to be acquired."
Note: Information Product: An information product is the compilation of scientific communication or knowledge such as facts, data, or interpretations in any medium (e.g., print, digital, Web) or form, including textual, numerical, graphical, cartographic, or audiovisual, to be disseminated to a defined audience or customer, scientific or nonscientific, internal or external.
Chapter 1100.4 - Use of Outside Publications, Including Abstracts addresses the issue of copyright in external publications:
"Policy: Generally, Government information prepared by an employee as part of that person's official duties that is submitted to outside publication is in the public domain and may not be copyrighted. . . . Questions on copyright in jointly created works should be referred to the Bureau solicitor."
Chapter SM 502.2 - Fundamental Science Practices: Planning and Conducting Data Collection and Research describes planning and conducting data collection and Research:
“The USGS has a legacy as the producer of long-term datasets for multiple uses, many of which are geographically extensive. Part of the value of these datasets is dependent on USGS scientists describing and documenting the methods used to collect data and making these data accessible in information products.”
Chapter SM 502.5 - Fundamental Science Practices: Safeguarding Unpublished U.S. Geological Survey Data, Information, and Associated Scientific Materials describes the safeguard and release of USGS data and Information:
“It is the policy of the USGS to conduct its activities and to make the results of its scientific and engineering investigations available in a manner that will best serve the whole public rather than the interest or benefit of any particular group, corporation, individual, or other entity. Preliminary release of USGS data or information, including early release of USGS publications, is not made exclusively to any group or individual.”