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In the Spotlight

Genetic Assessments of Jabiru Storks Important for Conservation
A male northern pintail duck. Photo credit: John Pearce, USGS
Photo: Jabiru storks (Jabiru mycteria) in Brazil. Photo credit: © 2010 Susan Haig, USGS.

Jabiru storks (Jabiru mycteria) are large waterbirds that are found in wetland areas in Central America, northern South America, and southern Brazil. They are considered regionally threatened in Central America due to habitat loss. Little is known about the current and historic population structure of jabirus. USGS scientist Susan Haig and co-authors from Brazil used genetic tools to provide the first species-wide assessment of jabiru storks over their entire range. They also compared historic and contemporary genetic diversity in birds from the same locations. Findings showed lower levels of genetic diversity in Central and northern South American populations when compared to the Brazilian population. If genetic structure is a goal of management agencies, reconnection of populations, particularly in Central America, would be important. The information will be beneficial to the development of conservation strategies to restore genetic diversity in all populations.
Lopes, I.F., Haig, S.M., Del Lama, S.N., 2010, Genetic characterization of neotropical jabiru storks- Insights for conservation: Waterbirds, v. 33, no. 4, p. 425-437. Catalog No: 1740.

For more information view the study description Genetic Characterization of Neotropical Jabiru Storks- Insights for Conservation and contact Susan M. Haig, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center.

Posted: March 28, 2011

 
Interspecific Exchange Of Avian Influenza Virus Genes In Alaska: The Influence Of Trans-Hemispheric Migratory Tendency And Breeding Ground Sympatry

A male northern pintail duck. Photo credit: John Pearce, USGS
Photo: Two mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) float in a city lake. Photo credit: © 2008 Elizabeth A. Sellers, Courtesy of

The movement and transmission of avian influenza viral strains via wild migratory birds may vary by host species as a result of migratory tendency and sympatry with other infected individuals.  A 50-year band recovery data set of Mallards in North America suggests that unlike Northern Pintail ducks, Mallards rarely make trans-hemispheric migrations between Alaska and Eurasia.  Concordantly, fewer low pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Mallards contained Eurasian gene segments compared to those from Northern Pintails.  Aerial survey and banding data suggest that Mallards and Northern Pintails are largely sympatric throughout Alaska during the breeding season, promoting opportunities for interspecific transmission.  Comparisons of viruses from these two species confirmed nearly identical genomes in seven cases.  These results suggest that Mallards are unlikely to transfer Asian origin viruses directly to North America via Alaska, but that they are likely infected with Asian origin viruses via interspecific transfer from species with migratory connectivity to the Eastern Hemisphere.

For more information contact John Pearce, Alaska Science Center.

Abstract: Interspecific Exchange Of Avian Influenza Virus Genes In Alaska: The Influence Of Trans-Hemispheric Migratory Tendency And Breeding Ground Sympatry

Posted: March 9, 2011

Effects of Mercury on Reproductive Function in Fish and Associated Gene Expression
Zebrafish. Photo credit: ZFIN and Oregon Zebrafish Laboratories
Zebrafish. Photo credit: ZFIN and Oregon Zebrafish Laboratories

Mercury is a widespread contaminant in aquatic systems throughout the United States, due to direct inputs and atmospheric deposition.  In aquatic systems, elemental mercury is transformed to methylmercury, enhancing its toxicity to the brain and reproductive system.  USGS researchers are conducting three related investigations of functional genomics of methylmercury exposure in fish, using goldfish, fathead minnow, and zebrafish, and defining gene expression profiles in the brain, liver, and gonad. Read More >>

Posted: February 7, 2011

Kenai Peninsula Steelhead

USGS Alaska Science Center biologists Jennifer Nielsen, Sara Turner, and Christian Zimmerman have published a paper in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences concerning steelhead in the Ninilchik River.  The paper describes a combination of new technologies to study behavior and population genetic structure.  Acoustic tags were implanted in steelhead kelts (fish that have spawned and are returning to sea) and their migration back to sea was monitored using an array of receivers set as a gate around the river mouth.   Archival tags that collect temperature and pressure data were used to describe oceanographic conditions encountered by steelhead in the ocean.  Two archival tags that were released in 2002 and recovered in 2004 indicated that steelhead spent 97% of time at sea within six meters of the surface.  No significant genetic differences were detected suggesting that steelhead in the Ninilchik River exist as a single population with highly diverse lfe history characteristics.  For more information contact Jennifer Nielsen (jnielsen@usgs.gov) or Christian Zimmerman (czimmerman@usgs.gov). 

Posted: December 20, 2010

The Genetic Landscapes GIS Toolbox
Figure: Genetic landscape produced for the western shovel-nosed snake and a screen, credit: Amy Vandergast.

Figure: Genetic landscape produced for the western shovel-nosed snake and a screen, credit: Amy Vandergast.

A new analysis approach in landscape genetics and phylogeography is the creation of “genetic landscapes” to visualize genetic structure across geographic space. The Genetic Landscape GIS Toolbox contains four tools to map genetic landscapes and to summarize multiple genetic landscapes as average and variance surfaces in ArcGIS ® (Environmental Science Research Institute (ESRI), Redlands, CA, USA). Together, these tools automate a series of calculations and data manipulations to create genetic landscape surfaces directly from tables containing genetic distance or diversity data and sample location coordinates.  This allows users with little GIS experience to create and analyze these complex raster surfaces with efficiency and accuracy.  The analysis steps implemented in the Genetic Landscape GIS Toolbox were originally developed for an ecoregional assessment of genetic divergence and diversity patterns of multiple species in southern California. For more information, contact Amy Vandergast at the Western Ecological research Center (WERC).

Posted: December 20, 2010

U.S. Department of Interior National Park Service, Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop: Report and Recommendations
bison image

Photo: Bison near Soda Butte Creek; Photo credit: Jim Peaco; March 2005

The Workshop held in Nebraska in September 2008 brought together government and non-government scientists to develop guidance for genetic management of federal bison herds.  Most of the twelve DOI herds show low levels of cattle introgression. Herds showing no evidence of cattle ancestry by current molecular methods are the highest priority for protection. Most of these herds were founded with very few bison and have been maintained at relatively low population sizes.  There are no apparent effects of inbreeding and they have retained significant amounts of genetic variation. To preserve genetic variation, it is recommended that herds should be managed at a population  level of 1,000 animals or more, with a sex ratio that enables competition between breeding bulls. Wildlife refuges and national parks  with the exception of Yellowstone National Park that currently  have bison herds, do not have enough land to support populations of this size. It will be important to develop satellite herds to attain population targets, and develop a metapopulation structure between herds. Incorporating genomics and additional genetic markers will aid in selection of individual bison for breeding or translocation to other herds. The Report:  Bison Conservation Initiative Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop: Report and Recommendations, Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/BRMD/NRR—2010/257 is attached.  For additional information contact Peter Dratch (Peter_Dratch@nps.gov) or Peter Gogan (Peter_Gogan@usgs.gov).

Posted: November 2, 2010

Belize Manatee Study Identifies Low Nuclear DNA Diversity and Confirms Subspecies Delineation

The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is found throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Because of severe hunting pressure during the 17th through 19th centuries, only small populations of the once widespread aquatic mammal remain. Compared with other mammal populations, a low degree of genetic diversity was detected in Belize (HE=0.455; NA=3.4), corresponding to the small population size and long-term exploitation. Manatees from the Belize City Cayes and Southern Lagoon system were genetically different, with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.029 and 0.078, respectively (P≤0.05). This, along with the distinct habitats and threats, indicates that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region's diversity. The Belize population and Florida subspecies appear to be unrelated with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.141 and 0.63, respectively (P≤0.001), supporting the subspecies designations and suggesting low vagility throughout the northern Caribbean habitat. Further monitoring and protection may allow an increase in the Belize manatee genetic diversity and population size. A large and expanding Belize population could potentially assist in the recovery of other threatened or functionally extinct Central American Antillean manatee populations.

The study, Low Genetic Variation and Evidence of Limited Dispersal in the Regionally Important Belize Manatee, was published in the journal Animal Conservation.

 

Award Winners: Best Professional Paper in Biology by a New Scientist
Figure: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Credit: Wayne Davis, USEPA

Photo: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Credit: Wayne Davis, USEPA

Dr. Maureen Purcell of the Western Fisheries Research Center is the winner of the award for the Best Professional Paper in Biology by a New Scientist (5 years or less with USGS). The paper entitled "Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes" was published in Fish and Shellfish Immunology in 2009. Her paper represents a state-of-the-science discovery concerning the mechanisms of innate immunity in teleost fishes. The findings provide significant evidence as to how finfish mount and control their immune response and serve as important information for the comparative immunology of vertebrates, including humans. The discovery also has application to development of novel approaches to increase the health of fish reared in both public and private aquaculture.

Read the award-winning journal article:

Purcell MK, Laing KJ, Woodson JC, Thorgaard GH, Hansen JD. Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009 Feb;26(2):293-304. Epub 2008 Dec 3. (online abstract)

Posted: July 13, 2010

Molecular (qPCR) and Predictive Modeling Techniques for Rapid Assessment of Beach Water Quality
Lake Michigan beach. Photo credit: USGS

Lake Michigan beach. Photo credit: USGS

Regulatory officials and beach managers need fast, reliable tests for analyzing the hygienic quality of beach waters.  In recent years, predictive modeling based on weather and ambient water conditions and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for enterococci have both been proposed as rapid analytical tools for testing beach water quality.  In this study, the two methods were analyzed in association with each other to determine if enterococci concentrations could be predicted using available ambient weather and water conditions.  Results indicated that enterococci counts measured by the current culturing method correlated with qPCR results, but different parameters were predictive of bacterial (enterococci) counts.  The combined use of these two rapid methods could reduce the current analytical time and increase affordability and accuracy of monitoring beaches for recreational use.

Read the journal article:

Byappanahalli, M. N., R. L. Whitman, D. A. Shively, and M. B. Nevers. 2010.  Linking non-culturable (qPCR) and culturable enterococci densities with hydrometeorological conditions.  Science of the Total Environment 408(16):3096-3101 (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.051). (online abstract)

Read also research summaries about beach health and microbiology.

Posted: June 29, 2010

Genomes Revealed for Imperiled Freshwater Mussels
The endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). Photo credit: Kira Hawk

The endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). Photo credit: Kira Hawk.

Native freshwater mussels belonging to the Family Unionidae are the most imperiled group of animals in North America, yet the ability of conservationists to take action is severely limited by the lack of knowledge about the fauna's basic biology, taxonomy, and ecology.

USGS scientists are advancing the understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes by characterizing unionid genomes. The preliminary genomes (based on 1.2 million DNA sequences) of three unionid species -- the endangered dwarfwedge mussel (Alasmidonta heterodon), the brook floater (A. varicosa), and the Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata) -- will be revealed mid-July 2010 in GenBank. Among other discoveries, the scientists' annotations of the DNA information has identified sequences of functional genes for many different purposes, including genome-wide studies of gene expression differences, and the study of gene family evolution. This research has also led to the development of genomic tools and resources for population genetic studies, research on mating systems, and aids to modern breeding efforts.

This effort was made possible by the Unionid Transcriptome Project funded by the USGS-Leetown Science Center's Aquatic Ecology and Northern Appalachian Research Branches.

For more information, contact Tim L. King. Also read about USGS research in the conservation genetics of mollusks.

Posted: June 3, 2010

Genetics Reveals the Historical Impact of Climate Change on the Gray Wolf
Gray wolf (Canis lupus). Photo credit: Gary Kramer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Gray wolf (Canis lupus). Photo credit: Gary Kramer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

How have gray wolves responded in the past to large-scale climate change? In a new study, scientists use genetic information to track the response of North American wolves to past glacial cycles. Mitochondrial DNA suggests that the range of the gray wolf in North America was modified by the expansion and contraction of glaciers during the late Pleistocene epoch, resulting in different demographic histories for wolves currently occupying either coastal or continental North Pacific and Alaskan habitats. Uncovering the historical events that impacted genetic variation in gray wolves will help interpret how future climatic events may influence evolutionary adaptation in this species.

Read the article:

Weckworth, Byron V.; Talbot, Sandra L.; and Joseph A. Cook. 2010. Phylogeography of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Mammology, 91(2):363-375. (online abstract)

Posted: April 28, 2010

Genetics to Screen Spartina Plants for Suitability in Ecosystem Restoration
Spartina. Photo credit: Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Spartina. Photo credit: Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Can genetics predict the success of plant transplants in ecosystem restoration projects? In a new experimental study, scientists found that the performance of Spartina transplants used in restorations in southwest Louisiana marshes were directly dependent on the genetic distance (degree of dissimilarity) between the donor populations and those in the local area receiving the transplants. Just as important, it was found that genetic distance, and therefore transplant performance, could be predicted from geographic distance and latitudinal distance, which means genetic studies are not always needed to screen plants for suitability. The scientists used this information to propose maximum geographic distances for donor materials for the use of this species, which is widely used in coastal restorations in the region.

Read the article, recently rated "Recommended" by the Faculty of 1000 Biology, from USGS National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) scientist James B. Grace and former NWRC scientist Steve Travis (now with the University of New England):

Steven E. Travis, James B. Grace (2010) Predicting performance for ecological restoration: a case study using Spartina alterniflora. Ecological Applications: Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 192-204. doi: 10.1890/08-1443.1 (online abstract)

Posted: March 18, 2010

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Ancient DNA from Newly Discovered Fossil Reveals the Origins of Polar Bears
Polar bear. Photo credit: Copyright Klaus Jost, courtesy Animal Diversity Web

Polar bear. Photo credit: Copyright Klaus Jost, courtesy Animal Diversity Web

A lower jawbone recently excavated from Svalbard Archipelago, Norway is revealing much about the ancient evolutionary history of polar bears (Urus maritimus). Using ancient DNA extraction techniques, scientists have estimated the specimen's age to be 130,000 to 110,000 years old, older than any other known partly fossilized specimen of polar bear. This discovery helps settle wide-ranging estimates of when brown bears and polar bears diverged, and may help answer questions about how past climate influenced the polar bear's evolution and persistence.

Read more about the polar bear discovery from Science and Nature:

Early Polar Bear Discovered in Arctic Tundra

Ancient Polar-Bear Fossil Yields Genome

Also read the article co-authored by USGS Alaska Science Center scientist Sandra L. Talbot:

Lindqvist C, Schuster SC, Sun Y, Talbot SL, Qi J, Ratan A, Tomsho LP, Kasson L, Zeyl E, Aars J, Miller W, IngĂłlfsson O, Bachmann L, Wiig O. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. 2010. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (online abstract >>)

Posted: March 6, 2010

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New Software Packages Now Available for Molecular Pedigree Analysis
Evolutionary Ecology Software logo

Evolutionary Ecology Software logo

Who is the mother and who is the father? This simple question can be difficult to judge for natural populations of fish due to lack of parental care, the high mobility of offspring, and the tendency of fish to mate with multiple partners. Nevertheless, this information can be highly useful to answer basic life history questions about a fish species such as how traits are related to lifetime fitness, variability in reproductive success, and how offspring disperse. To use molecular pedigree analysis for studying wild brook trout, USGS and US Forest Service scientists and partners developed new software packages that have wide applications for molecular marker studies.

To download these free software packages, visit the Evolutionary Ecology Software Web site.

Posted: February 25, 2010

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A Showcase of USGS Genetics and Genomics: Genetics Helping Solve Today's Conservation Issues

 

Announcement/flyer

Announcement/flyer

Meet the scientists, listen to short talks, and view posters of conservation genetics at an informal setting. Tasty edibles will be served! Announcement/Flyer (1.12 MB, .pdf).

Wednesday, March 10, 2010
10:00AM 2:00PM
South Interior Building, South Interior Auditorium
1951 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC
Agenda of Presentations >>

Files in .pdf format require Adobe Acrobat Reader. Users should download a free copy of the most recent Acrobat Reader.

Posted: February 16, 2010

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Pacific Common Eiders: Females Nest with Close Relatives
CommonEider close up. Photo credit: Jeff Wasley, USGS

Common Eider close up. Photo credit: Jeff Wasley, USGS

When it comes to choosing a nesting site, female Pacific common eiders may rely more on finding close relatives than on site fidelity. New genetic tests conducted on Pacific common eiders in Alaska show that females tend to nest with more genetically related neighbors, despite annual changes to their habitat.  These findings lead to new questions about what influences genetic diversity of the species, and builds insight into the basic breeding behaviors of sea ducks.

Read about Pacific common eiders in the following publications:

  • Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Sandy L. Talbot, Richard B. Lanctot, and Kevin G. Mccraken. Do common eiders nest in kin groups? Microgeographic genetic structure in philopatric sea duck. 2010. Molecular Ecology, 19, 647-657. (Online summary of journal article)
  • Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Sandy L. Talbot, Richard B. Lanctot, Kim T. Scribner, and Kevin G. McCracken.  Hierarchical spatial genetic structure of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding along a migratory corridor.  2009. The Auk, 126, 744-754.
  • Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Sandy L. Talbot, and Kevin G. McCracken.  Genetic characterization of common eiders breeding in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska.  2007. Condor, 106, 826-836.

Posted: January 29, 2010

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Genetics and Genomics Revolution in Fisheries Management
School of fish. Photo credit: Danilo Cedrone, NOAA Photo Library

School of fish. Photo credit: Danilo Cedrone, NOAA Photo Library

The late 20th century has seen a revolution in the use of genetics and genomics for fish conservation and management. New tools have changed the way we think of the distribution and abundance of fish populations, and given managers new, powerful ways to determine the origin, disease resistance, and potential to restore important fish species.

Read about the new revolution in fisheries management, with special focus on gene expression for functional and adaptive genes:

Nielsen, J. L. and S. A. Pavey. 2009. Perspectives: Gene expression in fisheries management. Current Zoology. (Online article available at Current Zoology).

Read also the related research summary: Gene Expression of Sockeye Life History in Katmai National Park and Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve

Posted: January 22, 2010

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Complexities of Thiamine Deficiency in Aquatic Organisms
Yellow color shows thiamine degradation on an agar plate of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus strain 8120. Photo credit: Catherine A. Richter, USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center

Yellow color shows thiamine degradation on an agar plate of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus strain 8120. Photo credit: Catherine A. Richter, USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center

The underlying causes of thiamine deficiency that lead to early mortality syndrome (EMS) in salmonines have yet to be fully understood. Currently, only one agent—Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from alewives—has been linked to thiamine deficiency in EMS. Scientists have recently developed new quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assays to detect the bacteria P. thiaminolyticus. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected in samples with high thiaminase activity reveal that there may be additional, undefined sources of thiaminase activity in alewives.

The complexity of thiamine deficiency in aquatic organisms is the topic of the December 2009 issue of the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. USGS scientists are co-authors in eight articles of this issue, including the article below:

Catherine A. Richter, Maureen K. Wright-Osment, James L. Zajicek, Dale C. Honeyfield, and Donald E. Tillitt. December 2009. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays for a Bacterial Thiaminase I Gene and the Thiaminase-Producing Bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, vol 21, issue 4, pp 229-238. DOI: 10.1577/H07-054.1 (online abstract of journal article)

Posted: January 14, 2010

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Editor's Choice: Surveillance of Avian Influenza Viruses using Genetic Analysis
Anas acuta. Photo credit: George Gentry, courtesy USFWS Digital Library

Anas acuta. Photo credit: George Gentry, courtesy USFWS Digital Library

Some migratory birds can carry foreign origin highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) as they fly into North America. How can surveillance activities prioritize which species to track, and which locations? USGS scientists reveal a new approach to optimize surveillance activities. Using viral genomes from northern pintails (Anas acuta), scientists found that genomic analyses of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses can identify the species and regions where the relative risk of HPAI introduction is highest.

Read the article that made Editor’s Choice in the journal Evolutionary Applications:

John M. Pearce, Andrew M. Ramey, Paul L. Flint, Anson V. Koehler, Joseph P. Fleskes, J. Christian Franson, Jeffrey S. Hall, Dirk V. Derksen, and Hon S. Ip. 2009. Avian influenza at both ends of a migratory flyway: characterizing viral genomic diversity to optimize surveillance plans for North America. Evolutionary Applications, vol 2, issue 4, pp 457-468. (online abstract of journal article)

Posted: Januray 7, 2010

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Award Winners: Best Paper in the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Dr. Maureen K. Purcell (right) accepting the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Best Paper Award from American Fisheries Society president Bill Franzin (left). Photo credit: Todd Maszaros, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, used with permission.

Dr. Maureen K. Purcell (right) accepting the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Best Paper Award from American Fisheries Society president Bill Franzin (left). Photo credit: Todd Maszaros, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, used with permission.

How do species introduced into new environments adapt to disease? A recent study compared Bacterial Kidney disease resistance of introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan to its progenitor stock from Washington State.  The journal article that studied these questions was recently awarded Best Paper in the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health by the American Fisheries Society (AFS).

Read the announcement in ASF’s December 2009 Fisheries publication (PDF, 4.36MB), and the award-winning journal article:

Maureen K. Purcell, Anthony L. Murray, Anna Elz, Linda K. Park, Susan V. Marcquenski, James R. Winton, Stewart W. Alcorn, Ronald J. Pascho, and Diane G. Elliott. Decreased Mortality of Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon after Bacterial Kidney Disease Challenge: Evidence for Pathogen-Driven Selection? Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 2008; 20:225-235. (online abstract of journal article)

Image caption: Dr. Maureen K. Purcell (right) accepting the Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Best Paper Award from American Fisheries Society president Bill Franzin (left). Photo credit: Todd Maszaros, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, used with permission.

Posted: December 28, 2009

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New Technique Can Identify Endangered Atlantic Salmon in Multistock Fisheries
Atlantic salmon. Photo credit: Troutlodge Inc., courtesy USDA Image Gallery

Atlantic salmon. Photo credit: Troutlodge Inc., courtesy USDA Image Gallery

Atlantic salmon that migrate from Canada, Europe, and the United States are the mainstay of Greenland's subsistence fishery. If some salmon populations have unique conservation needs, such as Maine's endangered Atlantic salmon, how can they be distinguished from other fish to see if they are being overharvested?

Scientists have developed a fine-scaled technique that traces the origin of fish to Maine and Canada. This method was used to estimate how much North American fish contribute to Greenland's fishery. This technique can also be applied to other multistock fisheries where the effects of fishing need to be distinguished for unique stocks.

Read the research summary. For more information about the new technique, read the latest publication:

Timothy F. Sheehan, Christopher M. Legault, Timothy L. King, and Adrian P. Spidle. Probabilistic-based genetic assignment model: assignments to subcontinent of origin of the West Greenland Atlantic salmon harvest. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. Advance Access published on November 11, 2009, DOI 10.1093/icesjms/fsp247.

Posted: December 3, 2009

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