U.S. Geological Survey - Environmental Health

Vol. 7, No. 2 – Winter 2009/2010

GeoHealth Newsletter

  USGS Activities Related to Human Health
graphic spacer

Is the Dust in My House Toxic?

Contaminated House Dust Linked to Parking Lots with Coal Tar Sealant

USGS scientist collecting house dust with a specialized vacuum.
USGS scientist collecting house dust with a specialized vacuum. The dust was analyzed for contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked inside from sealcoated parking lots.

USGS scientists found that house dust in apartments with coal-tar sealcoated parking lots contained concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that were 25 times higher than in house dust from apartments with other types of parking lot surfaces. Several PAHs are classified as probable cancer-causing agents.

USGS scientists analyzed house dust from 23 ground-floor apartments in Austin, Texas. Half of the apartments had parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat. Small particles of the coal-tar-based sealcoat, which contain high concentrations of PAHs, could be tracked indoors by residents after they walk across the parking lot. Coal tar is a byproduct of the coking of coal, and can contain 50 percent or more PAHs by weight. Coal-tar-based pavement sealants have higher levels of PAHs compared to other sealants and other local contributors to the dust, including soot, vehicle emissions, and used motor oil.

USGS is also actively investigating the occurrence of other potentially toxic compounds in household dusts, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

More Information


United States and Canada Discuss New Groundwater Arsenic Study

Map of the probability of arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter in New England's groundwater wells in bedrock aquifers
Probability maps, such as this early effort to predict the probability of arsenic concentrations greater than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in New England's groundwater wells in bedrock aquifers, can help water resource managers on both sides of the border develop sound policies regarding human health and the occurrence of arsenic in groundwater.

USGS scientists and their Canadian counterparts are considering the posiblity of conducting a collaborative study to develop tools to predict the probability of elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater in the eastern United States and Canada. In many areas of New England and Atlantic Canada, the groundwater concentrations of arsenic are above levels considered safe for human consumption. This is a concern because a significant portion of the population in these areas uses groundwater as their source of drinking water, and many households have domestic wells that are not tested periodically, as are community supply wells. The team of USGS and Canadian scientists seek to (1) coordinate North American soil and sediment sampling, (2) develop cross-border data sets for analysis of arsenic and other potential contaminants, (3) identify potential factors that can be used to predict the occurrence of arsenic, and (4) coordinate the research of scientists in the United States and Canada working on this environmental and health issue. The proposed predictive tools will help water resource managers on both sides of the border develop sound policies regarding human health and the occurrence of arsenic in groundwater.

More Information


Can Dust from Africa Make You Sick?

Over the past few decades, increasing quantities of African dust have blown across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean and the Americas. During that time, the dust’s composition has changed. USGS scientists have sampled dust in air in Africa and the Caribbean, and tested the dust for persistent organic contaminants and metals. These potentially toxic contaminants can originate from the burning of plastics, plant materials, animal waste, and human waste; from the widespread use of pesticides, plastics, and pharmaceuticals; and from increased industrialization. Multiple pesticides and other contaminants, including carcinogens, suppressors of immune systems, endocrine disruptors, and nervous system or liver toxins were identified from all sample sites. All are known to persist in the environment, accumulate in organisms, and are toxic at very low concentrations.

Satellite image showing dust storms exiting north-west Africa June 16, 1999
Satellite image showing dust storms (called harmattans) exiting north-west Africa June 16, 1999.

More Information


From Drain Water to Drinking Water

Las Vegas Wash, Nevada
Las Vegas Wash, Nevada, receives treated wastewater from sewage treatment plants. Las Vegas Wash is a tributary of Lake Mead, the source of drinking water for Las Vegas, Nevada. Photo taken from the 3D Photographic Geology Tour of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area Web site

Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada, and surrounding communities. Besides snowmelt from the Rockies, water levels are supplemented by the discharge of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas. This "use-reuse" practice is becoming commonplace in the arid Southwest and begs the question: "Are organic contaminants in our wastewaters ending up in our drinking water?" USGS scientists conducted studies using passive sampling devices ( semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) [pdf]) to track the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants (including pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides, and industrial chemicals) at sites in Las Vegas Wash (which carries treated wastewater from sewage treatment plants into Lake Mead). Samplers were also placed in the lake near Hemingway Harbor, and in tap water within the City of Las Vegas.

Numerous chemicals including wood preservatives, plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and flame retardants were detected in the treated wastewater. The concentrations of these chemicals decreased as the wastewater entered Lake Mead due to removal by processes like dilution by the lake water and sorption to the bed sediments. A few of the flame retardants and pesticides also were detected in the drinking water, albeit at very low concentrations (nanogram per liter levels). A screen for hormonally active chemicals, such as those suspected to interfere with reproductive systems in fish, was used to test samples from each site. This screen indicated the potential for an estrogenic response in fish exposed to the wastewater in Las Vegas Wash; however, no potential response was detected in the samples from Lake Mead at Hemingway Harbor or in the finished drinking water samples. Little is know about the potential health effects of being exposed to the chemicals detected in drinking water.

More Information


Quality of Water Sources for Community Water Systems in the United States

Map of the location of Source Water-Quality Assessments, 2002-07.
Location of Source Water-Quality Assessments, 2002-07.

In 2002, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the USGS implemented the Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) Program to characterize the quality of selected rivers and aquifers used as a source of supply to community water systems in the United States. Findings from 9 surface-water and 15 groundwater studies have been published. However, more studies have been completed and as many as 20 surface-water and 30 groundwater studies are planned to be completed by 2013.

The primary objective of assessments is to determine the occurrence of about 280 primarily unregulated anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems. Source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at a supply well or surface-water intake prior to water treatment used to produce finished water. A secondary objective is to understand occurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water prior to distribution. The assessments are intended to complement drinking water monitoring required by Federal, State, and local programs, which focus primarily on post-treatment compliance monitoring.

More Information

Recent SWQA Program Publications

Banks, W.S.L., and Reyes, B., 2009, Anthropogenic organic compounds in source and finished groundwater of community water systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5064, 33 p.

Brown, C.J., and Trombley, T.J., 2009, Organic compounds in Running Gutter Brook water used for public supply near Hatfield, Massachusetts, 2003-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3076, 6 p.

Carpenter, K., and McGhee, G., 2009, Organic compounds in Clackamas River water used for public supply near Portland, Oregon, 2003-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3030, 6 p.

Ging, P.B., Delzer, G.C., and Hamilton, P.A., 2009, Organic compounds in Elm Fork Trinity River water used for public supply near Carrollton, Texas, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3090, 6 p.

Hopple, J.A., Delzer, G.C., and Kingsbury, J.A., 2009, Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of selected community water systems that use groundwater, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5200, 74 p.

Thomas, K.A., 2009, Organic compounds in Truckee River water used for public supply near Reno, Nevada, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3100, 6 p.


Can Geoscientists Help Understand Disasters?

The answer is an unequivocal yes! After disaster strikes, many types of expertise are needed to understand the environmental health effects of the disaster and how best to respond to similar disasters in the future. The role of the geoscientist and USGS in general is the subject of a recent article in American Geological Institute's magazine Earth. The article, entitled "Report from Ground Zero: How Geoscientists Aid in the Aftermath of Environmental Disasters," recounts the efforts of a team of USGS scientists to help public officials understand the potential health and environmental implications of disasters and the ensuing rescue, recovery, and cleanup efforts. Since 2001, the team and their collaborators have responded to a number of disasters including:

  • The aftermath of the attacks on New York City's World Trade Center on September 11, 2001;
  • Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which struck the Gulf Coast in 2005;
  • Wildfires in Southern California in 2007 and 2009;
  • Volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens in 2004, Kilauea volcano in 2008, Alaska volcanoes in 2008 and 2009; and
  • The ongoing East Java mud volcano eruption.
Dust and debris in New York City Dust and debris in New York City Dust and debris in New Your City
Dust and debris in New York City from attacks on New York City's World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

Earth scientists have an important role to play in the aftermath of disasters that involves working with a wide range of partners, such as emergency responders, public health professionals, environmental cleanup managers, and others. Earth scientists can help these partners understand the environmental contamination that results from disasters, the extent and behavior of contamination in the environment, and the potential health risk to emergency responders and the public as they return to their homes.

More Information


Pesticide Levels Decline in Corn Belt Rivers

Graph of total agricultural use of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, and alachlor in the Corn Belt from 1996 to 2006.
Graph of total agricultural use of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, and alachlor in the Corn Belt from 1996 to 2006 (total for states of South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio). The annual application rates for these herbicides have steadily declined.
Modified version of figure 2 from Vecchia and others, 2009

USGS scientists find that concentrations of several major pesticides mostly declined or stayed the same in rivers and streams throughout the Nation’s Corn Belt from 1996 to 2006. The declines in pesticide concentrations closely followed declines in their annual application rates, indicating that reducing pesticide use is an effective and reliable strategy for reducing pesticide contamination in rivers.

Scientists studied 11 herbicides and insecticides frequently detected in the Corn Belt region, which generally includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska and Ohio, as well as parts of adjoining states. The commonly used herbicides cyanazine, alachlor, and metolachlor and the insecticide diazinon were included in the 11 herbicides and insecticides studied. The Corn Belt has among the highest rates of pesticide use in the Nation — mostly herbicides used for weed control in corn and soybeans. As a result, these pesticides are widespread in the region’s rivers and streams, largely resulting from runoff from cropland and urban areas.

Elevated concentrations can affect aquatic organisms in streams as well as the quality of drinking water in some high-use areas where surface water is used for municipal supply. The USGS works closely with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which uses USGS findings on pesticide trends to track the effectiveness of changes in pesticide regulations and use.

More Information


Planning for a Fun and Healthy Day at the Beach

The 63rd Street Beach, Chicago, Ill.
The 63rd Street Beach, Chicago, Ill., has experienced frequent exceedances of recreational water-quality E. coli standards.

Playing in the sand is a big part of a fun day at the beach. After digging in beach sand and making sand castles, however, washing your hands could greatly reduce your risk of ingesting bacteria that could make you sick. USGS scientists have determined that, although beach sand is a potential source of bacteria and viruses, hand washing may effectively reduce exposure to microbes that cause gastrointestinal illnesses.

"Our mothers were right! Cleaning our hands before eating really works, especially after handling sand at the beach," said Dr. Richard Whitman, the lead scientist of the study. "Simply rinsing hands may help reduce risk, but a good scrubbing is the best way to avoid illness."

The scientists measured how many Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria could be transferred to people’s hands when they dug in sand, and they analyzed sand from the shores of Lake Michigan in Chicago. Using past findings on illness rates, the scientists found that if individuals were to ingest all of the sand and the associated microbial community retained on their fingertips alone, 11 individuals in 1,000 would develop symptoms of gastrointestinal illness.

More Information


Vaccines Protect Prairie Dogs Against Plague

Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dogs are quite susceptible to sylvatic plague, but a new plague vaccine put in their food shows significant promise in the laboratory.

A new oral vaccine is showing significant promise in the laboratory as a way to protect prairie dogs against sylvatic plague. It may eventually protect endangered black-footed ferrets who now get the disease by eating infected prairie dogs. Black-footed ferrets are one of the rarest mammals in North America. Sylvatic plague is an infectious bacterial disease usually transmitted from animal to animal by fleas. This exotic disease is usually deadly for black-footed ferrets and their primary prey, prairie dogs, resulting in local extinctions or regional population reductions. Along with other wild rodents, prairie dogs are also considered a significant source of plague for other wildlife, domestic animals, and people in the western United States. An oral vaccine could be put into bait and delivered into the field without having to handle any animals; handling is a process that is time-consuming, costly, and sometimes stressful for the animals. Prevention of plague in wild rodents by immunization could reduce outbreaks of the disease in animals, thereby reducing the risk for human exposure to the disease.

More Information


Engaging the Public-Health Education Community

USGS geologist Geoffrey Plumlee
USGS geologist Geoffrey Plumlee

The increasing complexity of today's public health issues requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes broad expertise in the earth and environmental sciences. Two USGS scientists are engaging the public-health community with cross-discipline course offerings at universities.

USGS geologist Geoffrey Plumlee is co-teaching a class at the University of Colorado School of Public Health (UCSPH) titled "Environmental Health from the Ground Up: Exploring Natural and Manmade Disasters." Co-taught with an industrial hygienist and a pulmonary physician, the course provides a unique integration of the earth sciences, exposure sciences, and medical sciences. The course's instructors present various recent disasters to illustrate fundamental concepts of environmental and occupational health. Plumlee's participation has highlighted a broad spectrum of USGS work on natural sciences and health to the public health community, including USGS work on the World Trade Center, asbestos, hurricane Katrina, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and mining-related environmental health issues.

USGS geographer Lee De Cola
USGS geographer Lee De Cola teaching in an out-door setting.

As part of George Mason University's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) certificate program, USGS geographer Lee De Cola is teaching a three-day class on analysis of environmental and public health issues using GIS entitled Public Health & Analysis. The course teaches how to use GIS both to manage and visualize data about environmental quality and biological resources; and to analyze complex interactions that affect the health of organisms within regions. Methods such as multivariate mapping, interpolation and forecasting, as well as such key concepts of epidemiology as cluster detection, transmission, and incidence are covered in the course.

More Information

graphic spacer
 Upcoming Meetings go to top of page 
graphic spacer

National Environmental Health Association 74th Annual Educational Conference and Exhibition, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 5-9, 2010

National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) is hosting the National Environmental Health Association 74th Annual Educational Conference and Exhibition in Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 5-9, 2010. The conference will hold educational sessions covering a broad range of environmental health topics and issues. NEHA’s 74th AEC and Exhibition looks to advance the field of environmental health and protection and the professionals that seek to provide a healthful environment for all.

Meeting Web Site


16th International Interdisciplinary Conference on the Environment, Tucson, Arizona, September 22-25, 2010

The Interdisciplinary Environmental Association (IEA) is conducting its 16th International Interdisciplinary Conference on the Environment. The conference is motivated by the increasing need to combine ideas and research findings from different disciplines to enhance our understanding of the interactions between the natural environment and human institutions.

Meeting Web Site


138th American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, Denver, Colorado, November 6-10, 2010

The theme of this year's meeting is Social Justice: A Public Health Imperative. The meeting is the largest gathering of public health professionals in the world.

Meeting Web Site

graphic spacer
 New Publications go to top of page 
graphic spacer

Bails, J.B., Dietsch, B.J., Landon, M.K., and Paschke, S.S., 2009, Occurrence of selected organic compounds in groundwater used for public supply in the plio-pleistocene deposits in east-central Nebraska and the Dawson and Denver aquifers near Denver, Colorado, 2002-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5243, 30 p.

Banks, W.S.L., and Reyes, B., 2009, Anthropogenic organic compounds in source and finished groundwater of community water systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5064, 33 p.

Berhanu, D., Dybowska, A., Misra, S.K., Stanley, C.J., Ruenraroengsak, P., Boccaccini, A.R., Tetley, T.D., Luoma, S.N., Plant, J.A., and Valsami-Jones, E., 2009, Characterisation of carbon nanotubes in the context of toxicity studies: Environmental Health--A Global Access Science Source, v. 8, no. SUPPL. 1, doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-S1-S3 (SUPPL. 1).

Boehm, A.B., Griffith, J., McGee, C.D., Edge, T., Solo-Gabriele, H.M., Whitman, R.L., Cao, Y., Getrich, M., Jay, J.A., Ferguson, D.M., Goodwin, K.D., Lee, C.M., Madison, M., and Weisberg, S.B., 2009, Faecal indicator bacteria enumeration in beach sand--A comparison study of extraction methods in medium to coarse sands: Journal of Applied Microbiology, v. 107, no. 5, p. 1740-1750, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04440.x.

Brown, C.J., Starn, J.J., Stollenwerk, K.G., Mondazzi, R.A., and Trombley, T.J., 2009, Aquifer chemistry and transport processes in the zone of contribution to a public-supply well in Woodbury, Connecticut, 2002-06: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5051, 158 p.

Brown, C.J., and Trombley, T.J., 2009, Organic compounds in Running Gutter Brook water used for public supply near Hatfield, Massachusetts, 2003-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3076, 6 p.

Byappanahalli, M.N., and Whitman, R.L., 2009, Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 66, no. 6, p. 879-882, doi:10.1139/F09-052.

Crandall, C.A., Kauffman, L.J., Katz, B.G., Metz, P.A., McBride, W.S., and Berndt, M.P., 2009, Simulations of groundwater flow and particle tracking analysis in the area contributing recharge to a public-supply well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5231, 53 p.

Docherty, D.E., Samuel, M.D., Egstad, K.F., Griffin, K.M., Nolden, C.A., Karwal, L., and Ip, H.S., 2009, Short report--Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 81, no. 1, p. 177-179.

Duris, J.W., Haack, S.K., and Fogarty, L.R., 2009, Gene and antigen markers of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli from Michigan and Indiana river water--Occurrence and relation to recreational water quality criteria: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 38, no. 5, p. 1878-1886, doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0225.

Dusek, R.J., Bortner, J.B., DeLiberto, T.J., Hoskins, J., Christian Franson, J., Bales, B.D., Yparraguirre, D., Swafford, S.R., and Ip, H.S., 2009, Surveillance for high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States, 2006-2007: Muestreo para detectar influenza aviar de alta patogenicidad en aves silvestres de la ruta migratoria del Pacífico de los Estados Unidos, 2006-2007, v. 53, no. 2, p. 222-230, doi:10.1637/8462-082908-Reg.1.

Fassbinder-Orth, C.A., Hofmeister, E.K., Weeks-Levy, C., and Karasov, W.H., 2009, Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein: Avian Diseases, v. 53, no. 4, p. 502-509, doi:10.1637/8688-031009-Reg.1.

Ferrell, G.M., 2009, Occurrence of selected pharmaceutical and organic wastewater compounds in effluent and water samples from municipal wastewater and drinking-water treatment facilities in the Tar and Cape Fear River basins, North Carolina, 2003-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1046, 45 p.

Francy, D.S., Bushon, R.N., Brady, A.M.G., Bertke, E.E., Kephart, C.M., Likirdopulos, C.A., Mailot, B.E., Schaefer, F.W., III, and Lindquist, H.D.A., 2009, Performance of traditional and molecular methods for detecting biological agents in drinking water: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5097, 17 p.

Gao, X., Metge, D.W., Ray, C., Harvey, R.W., and Chorover, J., 2009, Surface complexation of carboxylate adheres Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts to the hematite-water interface: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 19, p. 7423-7429, doi:10.1021/es901346z.

Ging, P.B., Delzer, G.C., and Hamilton, P.A., 2009, Organic compounds in Elm Fork Trinity River water used for public supply near Carrollton, Texas, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3090, 6 p.

Glassmeyer, S.T., Furlong, E.T., and Kolpin, D.W., 2009, Prevalence of emerging contaminants in drinking water across the United States: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Brief, June 2009, 1 p.

Graham, J.L., Loftin, K.A., and Kamman, N., 2009, Algal toxins--Monitoring recreation freshwaters: LakeLine, v. 29, p. 16-22 (pdf).

Griffin, D.W., Petrosky, T., Morman, S.A., and Luna, V.A., 2009, A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 8, p. 1464-1471, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.04.016.

Haack, S.K., Duris, J.W., Fogarty, L.R., Kolpin, D.W., Focazio, M.J., Furlong, E.T., and Meyer, M.T., 2009, Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 38, no. 1, p. 248-258, doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0173.

Hall, J.S., Ip, H.S., Franson, J.C., Meteyer, C., Nashold, S., TeSlaa, J.L., French, J., Redig, P., and Brand, C., 2009, Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1): PLoS ONE, v. 4, no. 10, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007555.

Hopple, J.A., Delzer, G.C., and Kingsbury, J.A., 2009, Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of selected community water systems that use groundwater, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5200, 74 p.

Jagucki, M.L., Katz, B.G., Crandall, C.A., and Eberts, S.M., 2009, Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination--Floridan Aquifer system near Tampa, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3062, 6 p.

James-Pirri, M.J., Ginsberg, H.S., Erwin, R.M., and Taylor, J., 2009, Effects of open marsh water management on numbers of larval salt marsh mosquitoes: Journal of medical entomology, v. 46, no. 6, p. 1392-1399, doi:10.1603/033.046.0620.

Katz, B.G., Griffin, D.W., and Davis, J.H., 2009, Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators: Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, no. 8, p. 2872-2886, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.01.022.

Kolker, A., Panov, B.S., Panov, Y.B., Landa, E.R., Conko, K.M., Korchemagin, V.A., Shendrik, T., and McCord, J.D., 2009, Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk, Ukraine: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 79, no. 3, p. 83-91, doi:10.1016/j.coal.2009.06.003.

Lapointe, D.A., Hofmeister, E.K., Atkinson, C.T., Porter, R.E., and Dusek, R.J., 2009, Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus--Potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna: Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 45, no. 2, p. 257-271.

McCarthy, K.A., Alvarez, D., Anderson, C.W., Cranor, W.L., Perkins, S.D., and Schroeder, V., 2009, Evaluation of passive samplers for long-term monitoring of organic compounds in the untreated drinking water supply for the City of Eugene, Oregon, September-October 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5178, 20 p.

McMahon, P.B., Burow, K.R., Kauffman, L.J., Eberts, S.M., Böhlke, J.K., and Gurdak, J.J., 2009, Simulated response of water quality in public supply wells to land use change: Water Resources Research, v. 45, no. 7, doi:10.1029/2007WR006731.

Moeller Jr, R.B., Puschner, B., Walker, R.L., Rocke, T.E., Smith, S.R., Cullor, J.S., and Ardans, A.A., 2009, Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows: Journal of Dairy Science, v. 92, no. 6, p. 2529-2533, doi:10.3168/jds.2008-1919.

Morman, S.A., Plumlee, G.S., and Smith, D.B., 2009, Application of in vitro extraction studies to evaluate element bioaccessibility in soils from a transect across the United States and Canada: Applied Geochemistry, v. 24, no. 8, p. 1454-1463, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.04.015.

Nevers, M.B., Shively, D.A., Kleinheinz, G.T., McDermott, C.M., Schuster, W., Chomeau, V., and Whitman, R.L., 2009, Geographic relatedness and predictability of E. coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 38, no. 6, p. 2357-2364.

Osorio, J.E., Iams, K.P., Meteyer, C.U., and Rocke, T.E., 2009, Comparison of monkeypox viruses pathogenesis in mice by in vivo imaging: PLoS ONE, v. 4, no. 8, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006592.

Plumlee, G., 2009, Report from ground zero--How geoscientists aid in the aftermath of environmental disasters: Earth, v. 54, no. 10, p. 38-47.

Rocke, T.E., Iams, K.P., Dawe, S., Smith, S.R., Williamson, J.L., Heisey, D.M., and Osorio, J.E., 2009, Further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (Yersinia pestis): Vaccine, v. 28, no. 2, p. 338-344, doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.043.

Scudder, B.C., Chasar, L.C., Wentz, D.A., Bauch, N.J., Brigham, M.E., Moran, P.W., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 2009, Mercury in fish, bed sediment, and water from streams across the United States, 1998-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5109, 74 p.

Smith, D.J., Griffin, D.W., and Schuerger, A.C., 2009, Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean: Aerobiologia, p. 1-12, doi:10.1007/s10453-009-9141-7.

Sullivan, D.J., Vecchia, A.V., Lorenz, D.L., Gilliom, R.J., and Martin, J.D., 2009, Trends in pesticide concentrations in Corn-Belt streams, 1996-2006: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5132, 76 p.

Symonds, E.M., Griffin, D.W., and Breitbart, M., 2009, Eukaryotic viruses in wastewater samples from the United States: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 75, no. 5, p. 1402-1409, doi:10.1128/AEM.01899-08.

Thomas, K.A., 2009, Organic compounds in Truckee River water used for public supply near Reno, Nevada, 2002-05: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3100, 6 p.

Vecchia, A.V., Gilliom, R.J., Sullivan, D.J., Lorenz, D.L., and Martin, J.D., 2009, Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for corn belt rivers, 1996-2006: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 43, no. 24, p. 9,096-9,102, doi:10.1021/es902122j.

Welch, H.L., Kingsbury, J.A., Tollett, R.W., and Seanor, R.C., 2009, Quality of shallow groundwater and drinking water in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2004: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5091, 51 p.

Whitman, R.L., Przybyla-Kelly, K., Shively, D.A., Nevers, M.B., and Byappanahalli, M.N., 2009, Hand-mouth transfer and potential for exposure to E. coli and F+ coliphage in beach sand, Chicago, Illinois: Journal of Water and Health, v. 7, no. 4, p. 623-629, doi:10.2166/wh.2009.115.

Compiled and Edited by David W. Morganwalp

Errata, 3/31/2014

Subscribe or unsubscribe to e-mail announcements on the availability of new issues.


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Content Contact Information: geohealth@usgs.gov
Page URL: http://www.usgs.gov/envirohealth/geohealth/v07_n02.html
Page Last Modified: 25-Aug-2014 @ 11:35:42 AM EDT