Hydraulic Fracturing ("Fracking")

The most well-known targets of hydraulic fracturing are tight formations, such as tight sands, coal beds, and shale formations.
Fracking is an informal name for hydraulic fracturing, an oil and gas well development process that typically involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well.
A public Web site known as FracFocus has been established by industry that lists fluids used in many, but not all, hydraulically fractured wells.
The USGS performs research related to the formation, occurrence, and exploitation of unconventional oil and gas enabled by the application of hydraulic fracturing.
Hydraulic fracturing in vertical wells has been used for over half a century, particularly in tight gas sands, in order to stimulate production in wells that previously produced in subeconomic quantities.
Hydraulic fracturing is used in many established oil and gas producing regions of the country as well as some areas new to the petroleum industry.
The states regulate many aspects of oil and gas exploration and production. Federal land managers, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the U.S.
Prior to the recent widespread use of directional drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other enabling technologies, petroleum geologists and engineers were aware that oil and gas resources were present in “tight” or impermeable formations such as shale.