The term “Benchmark Glaciers” refers to three North American glaciers that have been selected to be the subjects of a long-term glacier monitoring program which investigates climate, glacier geometry, glacier mass balance, glacier motion, and stream...
Repeat photographs provide a good way to see how Alaska's glaciers are changing. Muir and Riggs glaciers, 1950 and  Muir and Riggs glaciers, 2004.  Also, two glaciers - the Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers - are studied as part of the Benchmark Glacier...
Glaciers act as reservoirs of water that persist through summer. Continual melt from glaciers contributes water to the ecosystem throughout dry months, creating perennial stream habitat and a water source for plants and animals. The cold runoff from...
 “Eustacy” refers to a change in global sea level. For much of its multi-billion year history, Earth has experienced hundreds of periods of eustatic rise and eustatic fall of sea level. In simplest terms, there are two primary causes of sea level change...
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) occurred about 20,000 years ago, during the last phase of the Pleistocene. At that time, glaciers covered:             ~ 8 % of Earth’s surface            ~ 25 % of Earth’s land area, and            ~ 33% of AlaskaDuring...
Today, glaciers exists on every continent on Earth except Australia. If we use the analogy that 1,000 ice crystals represent all of the glacier ice on Planet Earth, then we learn that:   914 ice crystals are in Antarctica (91.4%) 79 ice crystals are in...
Temperate glaciers exist on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, on both islands of New Zealand, and on the island of Irian Jaya. Additionally, some of the glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula and some of Greenland’s...
Water is the most abundant chemical compound present on Earth's surface. About 2.1% of all of Earth's water is frozen in glaciers. If we use the analogy that 1,000 drops of water represent all of the water on Planet Earth, then we learn that: * 972 drops...
Today, there are glaciers in both the United States and Canada. In the US, glaciers exist in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nevada. Both Utah (Timpanogos Glacier) and Idaho (Otto Glacier) had glaciers throughout...
About 99.3% of Earth’s glacier ice is located in the polar ice sheets, with about 91.4% in Antarctica and about 7.9% in Greenland. Therefore, the remaining glacier ice, about 0.7% is located in “temperate” ice caps, ice fields, and glaciers. A temperate...