Publications

USGS publishes an array of scientific products including maps, reports, data and models. Those pertaining to Hurricane Sandy can be found here. You can also find maps, imagery and publications or visit the USGS Publications Warehouse.

Most Recent
OFR2015-1238 cover image
Assessing the impact of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy on the morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York

1/15/16 This report documents the changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness detected on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, before and after Hurricanes Irene and Sandy made landfall. See the report here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151238

preliminary 5 meter bathymetric data
High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula in 2015, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2015-001-FA

12/31/15 High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula in 2015, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2015-001-FA Preliminary bathymetric and backscatter data from the 2015 USGS geophysical survey off of the Eastern Shore of Virginia. See the data release here:http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7P55KK3

location and analysis of sediment samples
High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-002-FA

12/31/15 High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-002-FA The full suite of geophysical data and bottom samples (photos, grain size analysis) collected by the USGS in 2014 off of Assateague Island. See the data release here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7MW2F60

cover image of Data Series
Back-island and open-ocean shorelines, and sand areas of the undeveloped areas of New Jersey barrier islands, March 9, 1991, to July 30, 2013

11/19/15 This Data Series Report includes open-ocean shorelines, back-island shorelines, back-island shoreline points, sand polygons, and sand lines for the undeveloped areas of New Jersey barrier islands. These data were extracted from orthoimagery (aerial photography) taken between March 9, 1991, and July 30, 2013. See the report here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds960

cover image of Open File Report 2015-1188-A
Continuous terrain model for water circulation studies, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, U. S. Geological Survey Data Release

11/5/15 Water quality in the Barnegat Bay estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. This narrow estuary is the drainage for the Barnegat Bay watershed and flushed by just three inlets connecting it to the Atlantic Ocean, is experiencing degraded water quality, algal blooms, loss of seagrass, and increases in oxygen-depletion events. See the data release here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7PK0D6B

cover image of Open File Report 2015-1188-A
Strategy to Evaluate Persistent Contaminant Hazards Resulting from Sea Level Rise and Storm-Derived Disturbances—Study Design and Methodology for Station Prioritization

10/26/15 This report describes the purpose and design of the Sediment-Bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response [SCoRR] strategy and the methods used to construct a decision-support tool to identify candidate sampling stations vulnerable to contaminants that may be mobilized by coastal storms. See the report here: .http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151188A.

5-meter swath bathymetric grid
Swath bathymetry collected offshore of Fire Island and western Long Island, New York in 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-072-FA

10/15/2015 This data release presents bathymetry, backscatter, and log files from a 2014 collection offshore of Fire Island and western Long Island, NY. These data were collected by Alpine Ocean Seismic Survey, Inc., as part of a collaborative effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the inner shelf morphology and sediment distribution offshore of Long Island, New York. See the Field Activity Data Display here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7C827BX

Cover image for Data Series 0958
Baseline Coastal Oblique Aerial Photographs collected from the Virginia/North Carolina Border to Montauk Point, New York, October 5-6, 2014

10/2/2015 This mission was flown to collect baseline data to assess incremental changes since the last survey, flown in November 2012 after Hurricane Sandy. The data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey in October 2014.  See the data release here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0958/index.html

image of topography for Fire Island, New York
Ground-Based Lidar Beach Topography of Fire Island, New York, April 2014

9/23/2015 This high-resolution elevation dataset was collaboratively collected as part of the post-Sandy beach monitoring effort.  See the data release here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F77H1GNN

cover image for Data Series 956
Chemical and Ancillary Data Associated with Bed Sediment, Young of Year Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) Tissue, and Mussel (Mytilus edulis and Geukensia demissa) Tissue Collected after Hurricane Sandy in Bays and Estuaries of New Jersey and New York, 2013–14, USGS Data Series 956

9/9/2015 This report describes the methods and data associated with a reconnaissance study of young of year bluefish and mussel tissue samples as well as bed sediment collected as bluefish habitat indicators during August 2013–April 2014 in New Jersey and New York following Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.  See the report here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds956

Barnegat Bay Data Series Report Cover Image
Marine Geophysical Data Collected in a Shallow Back-Barrier Estuary, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

6/25/2015 This report presents the data collected, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, for use in understanding the morphology and the distribution of sea-floor and sub-sea-floor sediments within Barnegat Bay, describes the methods used to collect and process those data, and includes links to the final processed datasets. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0937/

Screen Shot of Field Activity Data Display for Fire Island
High-resolution geophysical data collected offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2011-005-FA

6/15/2015 This data release presents bathymetry, backscatter, seismic and navigation data from 2011 collection offshore of Fire Island, NY. See the Field Activity Data Display here: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/field-activity-data/2011-005-FA/

study area location
Enhancing Evaluation of Post-storm Morphologic Response Using Aerial Orthoimagery from Hurricane Sandy

5/01/2015 Morphological responses to Hurricane Sandy were measured using lidar and orthophotos taken before and after the storm. Changes to dune features measured from lidar were compared to the occurrence of overwash deposits measured using orthophotos. See the report here: http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70143988

example of spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes
A Method for Determining Average Beach Slope and Beach Slope Variability for U.S. Sandy Coastlines

4/01/2015 This report compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. See the report here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151053

Images of backscatter and swath bathymetry collected by the USGS in Fire Island
Coastal Change Processes Project Data Report for Oceanographic Observations Near Fire Island, New York, February Through May 2014

3/30/2015 An oceanographic field study during February through May 2014 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics along the western part of Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected, including meteorological observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1033/


Images of backscatter and swath bathymetry collected by the USGS in Fire Island
The Impact of Hurricane Sandy on the Shoreface and Inner Shelf of Fire Island, New York: Large Bedform Migration and Limited Erosion: Continental Shelf Research, v. 98, pp. 13–25.

3/4/2015 Scientific journal article where authors investigate the impact of superstorm Sandy on the lower shoreface and inner shelf offshore the barrier island system of Fire Island, NY using before-and-after surveys involving swath bathymetry, backscatter and CHIRP acoustic reflection data. See the article here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434315000485

Fire Island Bathymetry
Maps showing bathymetry and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1203

2/19/2015 This report presents maps of bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, and modern sediment thickness to support research on the evolution of the Fire Island coastal system and provide baseline information for research on coastal processes along southern Long Island. See the report here:  http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1203/

OFR 2014 1238 cover image
Maps showing the change in modern sediment thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island, New York, between 1996–97 and 2011: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1238

2/19/2015 This report presents maps of bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, and modern sediment thickness that describe long-term coastal processes and short-term impacts associated with Hurricane Sandy. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1238/

image of oceanographic equipment
Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Fire Island, New York, January to April 2012: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1159

2/19/2015 This report describes an oceanographic field study during Jan-Apr 2012 that measured oceanographic and sediment transport processes offshore of Fire Island to provide baseline data for research on coastal sediment transport. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1159/

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers survey vehicle collecting ground-based lidar along the upper beach near Fire Island Lighthouse on Fire Island, New York.
Ground-Based Lidar Beach Topography of Fire Island, New York, April 2013

2/16/2015 This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on April 10, 2013, to characterize beach topography following substantial erosion that occurred during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and multiple, strong winter storms. The ongoing beach monitoring is part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM). See the report here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds921

cover image of data series 905
Estuarine Bed-Sediment-Quality Data Collected in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy, 2013

2/13/2015 This report describes the study design, provides the methods of collection and analysis, and discusses quality assurance of data for a reconnaissance study of estuarine bed-sediment quality conducted June–October 2013 in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 to assess the extent of contamination and the potential long-term human and ecological impacts of the storm. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. See the report here: http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds905

image of USGS swath network sites
Understanding and Preparing for Coastal Storm Impacts — Observing Overland Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics

2/1/2015 Past storms, such as Hurricane Sandy, have shown that energy from storm surge and waves is a primary driver of coastal-community destruction and dramatic change in the coastal environment. The new SWATH network provides the spatial and timely information needed for emergency operations and improvements in storm-tide and wave modeling prediction. This leads to better planning, more effective early warning of storm-driven flooding, and strengthening of coastal resilience. See the report here..

cover image of Open File Report 2015 1081
Title: Storm Tide Monitoring During the Blizzard of January 26-28, 2015, in Eastern Massachusetts

1/28/2015 USGS deployed six storm surge sensors and four barometric pressure sensors along the Atlantic coast in eastern Massachusetts, from Plymouth to Newburyport, before the blizzard of January 26–28, 2015, to record the timing and magnitude of storm tide at select locations where forecasters had predicted the potential for coastal flooding. See the report here http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151081

Thumbnail image of aerial photograph of the new breach on the eastern end of Fire Island, New York, taken 5 days after Hurricane Sandy, October 2012
Bathymetry of the Wilderness Breach at Fire Island, New York, June 2013

1/26/2015 This publication includes a bathymetric dataset of the breach and the adjacent nearshore on the ocean side of the island. The objective of the data collection and analysis is to map the bathymetry of the primary breach channel, ebb shoal, and nearshore bar system. See the report here http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds914

Delmarva bathymetry
High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-002-FA

1/20/2015 High-resolution geophysical data collected along the Delmarva Peninsula 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-002-FA. See the Field Activity Data Display here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7MW2F60

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hydrographic Survey Data Used in a U.S. Geological Survey Regional Geologic Framework Study Along the Delmarva Peninsula

1/20/2015 USGS has compiled NOAA-NOS-collected bathymetric and back scatter data collected over 23 surveys from 2007-2012 and cover 4100 km2: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hydrographic Survey Data Used in a U.S. Geological Survey Regional Geologic Framework Study Along the Delmarva Peninsula, USGS Open-File Report 2014–1262. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1262/

Fire Island Data Report Cover Image
Coastal Change Processes Project Data Report for Observations Near Fire Island, New York, January to April 2012

1/9/2015 An oceanographic field study during January through April 2012 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics near Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected and supporting meteorological observations are presented as time series plots for data visualization. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1159/

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National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Northeast Atlantic Coast

12/11/2014 A decade of research by the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project focused on storm-driven coastal change hazards has provided the data and modeling capabilities to produce the first regional assessment of the vulnerability of coastlines to extreme erosion during hurricane landfall. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1243/
Interactive maps, web mapping services, and supporting data are available here:
http://olga.er.usgs.gov/hurricane_erosion_hazards/
and as part of the USGS Coastal Change Hazards Portal:
http://marine.usgs.gov/coastalchangehazardsportal/

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Environmental Effects on Brook Trout

12/3/2014 Scientific journal article where authors developed a robust model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) for brook trout. Developing these relationships is a key step towards forecasting environmental effects on brook trout populations to enable better management decisions. See the journal article here: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12308

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EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, Pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

11/4/2014 This product provides highly detailed and accurate datasets for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, acquired pre-Hurricane Sandy on October 18, 22, 23, and 26, 2012. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0885/

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EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012–2013

11/2/2014 This product provides highly detailed and accurate datasets for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, acquired post-Hurricane Sandy on November 1, 5, 16, 20, and 30, 2012; December 5, 6, and 21, 2012; and January 10, 2013. See the report here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0887/

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Inner-shelf circulation and sediment dynamics on a series of shoreface-connected ridges offshore of Fire Island, NY

10/24/2014 This paper describes the oceanographic processes and sediment dynamics over a series of large scale sand bedforms called shoreface connected ridges (SFCRs) that exist offshore of Fire Island, NY. See the article here: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10236-014-0781-y

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Hurricane Sandy: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

6/03/2014 Analysis of pre- and post-storm lidar elevations was used to quantify magnitudes of change in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach width. Erosion was observed along the coast from North Carolina to New York; however, as would be expected over such a large region, extensive spatial variability in storm response was observed.

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Hurricane Sandy: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

6/03/2014 Analysis of pre- and post-storm lidar elevations was used to quantify magnitudes of change in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach width. Erosion was observed along the coast from North Carolina to New York; however, as would be expected over such a large region, extensive spatial variability in storm response was observed.

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Water-level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy.

5/02/2014 Study shows that flooding in coastal areas bordering Great South Bay, N.Y. and Barnegat Bay, N.J. caused by winter storms that occurred following Hurricane Sandy was not influenced by changes Sandy made to barrier islands or other bay features.

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Scaling coastal dune elevation changes across storm-impact regimes

4/24/2014 Data from four extreme storms impacting four geomorphically diverse barrier islands are used to quantify dune elevation change. This change is compared to storm characteristics to identify variability in dune response, improve understanding of morphological interactions, and provide estimates of scaling parameters applicable for future prediction.

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Interior's Strategic Sciences Group report on scenarios of Hurricane Sandy's impacts

12/01/2013 Hurricane Sandy made US landfall near Atlantic City, NJ on 29 October 2012, causing 72 direct deaths, displacing thousands of individuals from damaged or destroyed dwellings, and leaving over 8.5 million homes without power across the northeast and mid-Atlantic.

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Hurricane Sandy Science Plan—New York

10/24/2013 Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. More than one-half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing.

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Hurricane Sandy Science Plan—Coastal Impact Assessments

10/24/2013 Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards.

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Hurricane Sandy Science Plan—Impacts of Environmental Quality and Persisting Contaminant Exposures

10/24/2013 Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards.

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Hurricane Sandy Science Plan—Impacts of Storm Surge, Including Disturbed Estuarine and Bay Hydrology

10/24/2013 Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards.

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Hurricane Sandy Science Plan—Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems, Habitats, and Fish and Wildlife

10/24/2013 Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards.

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Hurricane Sandy Science Plan—Coastal Topographic and Bathymetric Data to Support Hurricane Impact Assessment and Response

10/24/2013 Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards.

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Coastal Change from Hurricane Sandy and the 2012–13 Winter Storm Season: Fire Island, New York

8/27/2013 The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mounted a substantial effort in response to Hurricane Sandy including an assessment of the morphological impacts to the beach and dune system at Fire Island, New York. Field surveys of the beach and dunes collected just prior to and after landfall were used to quantify change in several focus areas.

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The Science Plan: Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy—A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery

7/01/2013 This science plan was developed immediately following Hurricane Sandy to coordinate continuing USGS activities with other agencies and to guide continued data collection and analysis to ensure support for recovery and restoration efforts.

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National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast

7/01/2013 Beaches serve as a natural buffer between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and natural resources. However, these dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During extreme storms, changes to beaches can be large, and the results are sometimes catastrophic. Lives may be lost, communities destroyed, and millions of dollars spent on rebuilding.

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National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Coast

7/01/2013 Beaches serve as a natural barrier between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and natural resources. However, these dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During extreme storms, changes to beaches can be large, and the results are sometimes catastrophic. Lives may be lost, communities destroyed, and millions of dollars spent on rebuilding.

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National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico

5/01/2012 Sandy beaches provide a natural barrier between the ocean and inland communities, ecosystems, and resources. However, these dynamic environments move and change in response to winds, waves, and currents. During a hurricane, these changes can be large and sometimes catastrophic.

Coastal Topography–Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012
Coastal Topography–Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

5/16/2013 This Data Series contains LIDAR-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, dune elevations, and mean-high-water shoreline position datasets for most sandy beaches for Fire Island, New York, and from Cape Henlopen, Delaware to Cape Lookout, North Carolina. The data were acquired post-Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall as an extra tropical cyclone on October 29, 2012

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Changing the Paradigm of Response to Coastal Storms

5/21/2013 Federal, state, and local agencies mounted a massive preparation and response to post–tropical storm Sandy, which made landfall along the northern New Jersey coast on 29 October 2012. The data collected and knowledge gained in response to Sandy are unprecedented and provide critical information to agencies, local emergency responders, and coastal managers and planners.

 NOAA's GOES-13 satellite captured this visible image of the massive Hurricane Sandy on October 28 at 1302 UTC (9:02 a.m. EDT), about a day and a half before it made landfall on the New Jersey coast. The line of clouds from the Gulf of Mexico north are associated with the cold front that Sandy is merging with. Sandy’s western cloud edge is already over the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States.
USGS Scientists Predict, Measure Sandy’s Impacts on the Coastal Landscape

12/1/2014 Hurricane Sandy, one of the biggest storms ever to hit the United States, struck the Eastern Seaboard on October 29, 2012. It caused dozens of deaths and billions of dollars worth of damage and displaced massive volumes of protective beach and dune sediments. Before, during, and after Sandy’s landfall, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists in St. Petersburg, Florida, predicted, then measured, the change that took place along the shore.