Summer rains have remained steady over the past 20 years, but are less than historic highs. Temperature has increased, and while the farmland per person is decreasing, population growth has been offset with improved yields.
While summer rains have increased during the past 20 years, temperatures have increased as well, amplifying the effects of droughts. Crop yields are low but the population is growing, pointing to rising food insecurity.
Long-term reduction in rainfall and increasing temperature threaten Chad's future food production prospects; combined with rapid population growth and zones of substantial conflict, increasing numbers of people will be at risk.
Summer rains have remained steady for the past 20 years, but are below the long-term average. Current population and agricultural trends indicate increasing yields have offset population expansion, keeping per capita cereal production steady.
Modest declines in rainfall, accompanied by increases in air temperatures, declining farmland per person, along with trends in population and agriculture could lead to a 30% reduction in per capita cereal production by 2025.
Long-term reduction in rainfall and increasing temperature threaten Uganda's future food production prospects; combined with rapid population growth these factors could increase the number of people who are at risk during the next 20 years.
We mapped substantial migration of the river channel between the City of Winslow and the Navajo Nation community of Leupp; in a human lifetime the river has moved more than a mile across its valley floor.
The report describes a strategy for monitoring, modeling, and research activities to support management decisions to improve water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Basin, reduce hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and improve conditions for
Analysis of sea-surface temperature in the Indian Ocean shows that warming correlates with east African rainfall; the effect on atmospheric convection and precipitation over the Indian Ocean is greater than that associated with El Niño (ENSO).
Main page for accessing links for information and data on the San Francisco Bay estuary and its watershed with links to highlights, water, biology, wetlands, hazards, digital maps, geologic mapping, winds, bathymetry and overview of the Bay.
Acidified soils caused toxic aluminum in 66 percent of 565 assessed streams. Diatoms and aquatic macroinvertebrates were moderately to severely affected. These effects have not improved in areas surveyed in the early 1980s
A program of studies with instruments to provide accurate and timely data and information on seismic events, including their effects on buildings and structures, employing modern monitoring methods and technologies.
Homepage for Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) with offices in Anchorage and Fairbanks monitors and studies Alaska's hazardous volcanoes. Links to featured news, updates, publications and products, and a volcano atlas for Alaska.
The USGS Seismological Laboratory in Albuquerque installs and maintains a world network of seismograph stations, collects the seismic data, and evaluates seismic instruments. Site includes links to ASL publications, earthquake maps and seismic data.
Links to volcanism, volcanic history, volcanic rocks, and general geology by state, by region, national parks and national monuments and a brief introduction to volcanism around the U.S. entitled: Windows into the past.
Online annual reports (since 1999) documenting hydrologic data for Pennsylvania gathered from USGS surface water and ground water data-collection networks and information on ordering paper copies of previous years.
Congress asked us (in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) to figure out how to assess the effects of carbon storage, sequestration, and greenhouse gas fluxes in our ecosystems. Here's how we plan to do that.
Using ground-water geochemical analyses, and mathematical models, the factors affecting the quality of public water supply were identified as pumping schedule, screened interval, past land use within the recharge area, and natural geochemical conditions.
Using ground-water geochemical analyses and mathematical models, the factors affecting the quality of public water supply were identified as mixing of very recent recharge with older water, karst features, natural geochemical processes, and pumping.
Site for a USGS project under the U.S. Global Change Research Program for a national assessment of the impacts of climate variability and change on resources with links to impacts in Alaska, western U.S., public lands, and water resources.
Explains the natural and human-affected factors that determine the concentration of contaminants in groundwater, especially where the concentration is different at the surface than at depth, and where pumping varies with time.
The electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawattselectric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. Undiscovered resources are estimated to provide an additional 30,033 MWe.
Project of the Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science program that evaluates the transport and sedimentation of contaminates through the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River delta to the near-shore Gulf of Mexico. Includes aerial photographs.
This site is designed to provide information on federal interagency and cooperative developments related to coastal sand and gravel resources and management issues along the Atlantic continental margin.
Relations between the geographic distributions of woody plant species and climatic variables in North America. Shows how the spatial distribution of these plants may be expected to change in response to given climatic scenarios.
Atlas recording spawning and nursery areas of fish in the Great Lakes and associated rivers listed by area and then by species. A 14-volume atlas in PDF format. Published in 1982 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Document on the federally supported interagency National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) covering research on causes and effects of acid precipitation with the USGS as the lead agency for monitoring wet acid deposition.
Small wetlands in this large area have hosted migratory birds for a long time, but with changes in agricultural practice and regional climate those habitats may not remain hospitable to the wild populations.
A literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focus on North America and on refereed journals. Additional references include a selection of citations on bat ecology, international research on bats and wind energy, and unpublished reports.
A geologic and oceanographic study of the waters and Continental Shelf of Gulf of the Farallones adjacent to the San Francisco Bay region. The results of the study provide a scientific basis to evaluate and monitor human impact on the marine environment.
The bibliography provides citations pertinent to the effects of fire and its prescribed use on the ecosystems and species of Wisconsin and the upper Midwest. Three separate subject indexes are provided: general, species, and geographic location.
Explains what biochar is and how it is formed, its potential use in both fertilizer and carbon sequestration, and some of the research questions remaining to be addressed before we can utilize it fully in practical ways.
Explains biological soil crusts, organism-produced soil formations commonly found in semiarid and arid environments, with special reference to their biological composition, physical characteristics, and ecological significance.
Fact sheet on the need to protect biological soil crusts in the desert. These crusts are most of the soil surface in deserts not covered by green plants and are inhabited by cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) and other organisms useful to the ecosystem.
Project summary, photos of logging truck, and bibliographies on log interpretation techniques and instrumentation to record geophysical data in wells and test holes for studying ground water hydraulics and evaluate waste disposal sites.
Boston Harbor/Massachusetts Bay Studies research project conducted as part of Boston Harbor cleanup to predict the fate of contaminants and sediments introduced to Massachusetts' coastal waters from sources that include Boston sewage outfall.
This web site is an outgrowth of an agreement between the USGS and the New England Aquarium, designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research. It will also present educational material of interest to wide audiences.
Description of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and lichens (dual organisms of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium) that are part of forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest with information on habitat and conservation.
Manual for research program on the nesting habits of sea turtles of the Virgin Islands, with descriptions of species, nesting behavior, observation methods, record keeping, tagging, and tissue sample collection. (PDF file, 121 pp.)
An explanation of toxic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain in Long Valley caldera, and a description of magmatic helium discharge at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole with photos, maps, and links to other studies.
Portal to information provided by the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, WA with links to reports and activity in the Cascade Range and other volcanoes and multiple links to general information on volcanology, reports, research, and maps.
Educational volcano site providing answers to frequently asked volcano questions with links to other general information on volcanoes and to information on specific volcanoes including the Cascade Range volcanoes.
Summary of an investigation of the Cascadia subduction zone with detailed density-modeling experiments of the crust and mantle along two transects across Vancouver Island and the Canadian margin and the other on the margin of central Oregon.
Information on earthquakes in central California and the San Francisco region with links to four types of field studies, deep seismic investigations, geotechnical investigations, shallow seismic imaging, and airborne geophysical surveys.
Combining genetic data with current and predicted climate scenarios, we are modeling the predicted future distributions of wildlife populations in the Arctic and identifying key environmental variables that determine important animal habitat.
Overview of interdisciplinary research studies in Glacier National Park to understand how this mountain wilderness responds to present climatic variability and other external stressors, such as air pollution, and links to detailed reports.
Pavement sealant contains chemicals that are known carcinogens, which get into nearby homes, lakes, and the air. Sealants based on coal tar release more dangerous chemicals than those based on asphalt.
Home page for Coastal and Marine Geology with links to topics of interest (sea level change, erosion, corals, pollution, sonar mapping, and others), Sound Waves monthly newsletter, field centers, regions of interest, and subject search system.
Interactive map server to view and create maps using available coastal and marine geology data sets of offshore and coastal U.S. and the Gulf of Mexico. Links to available data and metadata that can be downloaded.
USGS responses to and studies of the hazards and impact of major hurricanes, tsunamis, and El Nino storms. Includes links to oblique aerial photography and LIDAR surveys recording coastal changes and other effects of storms and waves.
Website for the Columbia Environmental Research Center with links to staff, publications, databases, field stations, and projects including those on the Rio Grande, burrowing owls, sea turtles, and geospatial technology.
Overview of research of the Ecology Branch on the ecological consequences of habitat degradation due to altered environment, nonindigenous species, and atmospheric alterations. Includes links to staff and research projects.
Describes research to assess the effectiveness of the current system and distribution of marine reserves and protected areas in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico for conserving reef ecosystems and resources.
Overview of fractured rock research aimed at understanding the movement of water through fracture networks, and characterize field conditions influencing contaminant migration. Includes programs and publications.
Report with mini-movie and photos on the hypothesis that the atmospheric transport of dust arising from the desertification in northern Africa led to algal infestation of corals, coral diseases, and the near extinction of associated sea urchins.
GIS data set from the USGS National Landslides Hazards Program showing major landslide events in the United States and Puerto Rico with metadata. Map layer can be downloaded in shapefile format or SDTS format.
Locations for nine species of large constrictors, from published sources, along with monthly precipitation and average monthly temperature for those locations. Shapefiles for each snake species studied.
Sedimentary characteristics of 228 tsunami deposits, drawn from published accounts, for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.
Storms bring rains strong enough to cause rock-falls and landslides that are hazardous to people. Includes examples in the eastern US with information about the weather events that precipitated the debris flows.
Recent increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in this aquifer have been documented in some areas used for public supply, raising concerns as to the sources and causes of the higher concentrations and the long-term effects on groundwater quality.
To better understand the exchange of groundwater and surface water, we coupled groundwater monitoring at the stream bank with nearby gages in the stream. Describes the procedure and results from several areas.
Detailed measurements of elevation help to understand the extent and severity of subsidence. Study asks if subsidence indicates the aquifer system is compacting temporarily or permanently, and are the changes human-induced or tectonic.
Article from Wildlife Monographs no. 100 (1988) on the relationships of wetland habitat dynamics and life history to the breeding distributions of the various species of ducks with information on research methods and references.
Proposed removal of dams will change the characteristics of stream flow and will affect fish that swim upstream to spawn. A mathematical model of the river flow tells us where the likely problems will be located and how the flow will change.
Explains the important paleoclimatic information we have obtained from this subaqueous cavern. The time-series data show important contrasts with what would be predicted from orbital theory, provoking extensive scientific discussion.
With the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, USGS is drilling a deep geologic test well to learn about the regional Floridan aquifer, which provides groundwater to the Hilton Head area.
The Vegetation Drought Response Index is a drought monitoring and mapping tool integrating satellite observations of vegetation and climate with land cover, soil characteristics, and other environmental factors.
Map display that highlights states where the streamflow index at USGS streamgages, averaged statewide, were below normal for the past seven days with links to comparison of recent streamflow values with historic values.
Homepage for Earth Surface Processes Team with research studies in two general categories: climate change and geologic mapping. Links to research activities, available data sets, workshop, and programs.
Photographic archive collection from the USGS Photo Library. Photos dated 1868-1992 are of geology, earthquake damage, national parks, pioneer photographers, St. Helens eruption and mining and available at 100, 700 and 1400 dots/inch resolution.
Article in the May 28, 1998 issue of Volcano Watch describing of correlation of earth tides to volcanic eruptions and value in monitoring underground magma movement with deformation measurement instruments including tiltmeters and strainmeters.
Provides links to explanatory materials for the layperson, including information on concepts behind earthquake maps, the use of probability, what the maps mean, how they are made, and answers to frequently asked questions.
Information on earthquake activity, earthquake science, and earthquake hazard reduction with links to news reports, products and services, educational resources for teachers, glossary, and current U.S. earthquake activity map.
Place to provide information about ground shaking associated with significant earthquakes. A questionnaire to let us know what you felt following an earthquake in the United States or in other countries.
Answers to a wide variety of questions (FAQs) about earthquakes, such as dictionary of terms, earthquake activity and probabilities, common myths, faults, plate tectonics, and earthquake measurement techniques.
How climate change affects ground water is more complex than surface water because the residence time of ground water can range from days to tens of thousands of years. Discusses some broad climatic processes may affect groundwater resources.
By measuring the current and historical growth rates of coral skeletons, and using field experiments, we intend to find out whether rising atmospheric CO2 and rising sea levels will cause coral reefs to erode and cease to function.
Comparison of water in two adjacent watersheds before and after implementing a brush management strategy in one of the watersheds helps us see what water resource characteristics are sensitive to brush management and how.
Information from climate model forecasts, projections of future flows, paleoclimatic indicators, timing of snowmelt, airborne dust, and the effects on vegetation of troublesome pest species indicate the nature and severity of problems looming.
Changes in the way communities address potential problems with stormwater runoff may affect surface waters. This study combines geographic with hydrologic analyses to better understand the effects of the management strategies.
Reviews how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health, especially mercury, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.
Of 129 reported incidents, 94 are confirmed ash encounters, 79 of which entailed airframe or engine damage; 20 are low-severity events involving suspected ash or gas clouds; for 15 the data are insufficient to assess severity.
Site to locate most recent or archive reports for end-of-the-month hydrologic conditions with descriptions, data, charts, and maps giving an overview of water conditions during the month for the state of New York.
In September of 2009, flooding in parts of Georgia reached levels expected every 500 years. Specific measurements we made and other facts about these disasters described here should help people prepare for floods here and elsewhere.
Describes strategy of volcano warnings and the real-time detection of a sudden eruption or lahar and immediate notification of the activity to the public and local, state, and federal emergency-management officials.
Integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring, ground-elevation modeling, and water-surface modeling that provides scientists and managers with current on-line water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades.
Direct measurement of an important indicator of interannual variability is extended, using geological proxy measures, farther back in time to well before modern measurements were made. This tells us about the history of climate variability.
Methods to depict the connectedness of rock units across fault and fracture zones, allowing us to determine the distribution of geologic units, structural features, and other controlling factors, such as porosity and permeability.
Map of Pleistocene pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin (Nevada, eastern California, southern Oregon). Includes metadata, online PDF map view, and downloadable ArcInfo export files, ArcView shapefiles, and TIFF files.
After the powerful earthquake of April 18, 1906, staff of the U.S. Geological Survey stationed in Sacramento and Berkeley brought help to the residents of devastated San Francisco, documented the effects of the quake, and investigated its causes.
Accelerating loss of mass, weakening correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and increasing mass turnover likely are the result of changes to warmer and drier climate conditions that are affecting three well-studied glaciers.
Fine-grained material may negative effects on coastal ecosystems. Our studies suggest that the waves and currents of California are adequately energetic to transport fine-grained sediment quickly through near-shore coastal systems.
Study of wildland fire history and fire ecology such as plants in the Sierra Nevada forests, California shrublands, the Mojave, and Sonoran deserts to develop management techniques that will reduce hazards.
Report describes an electronic database of annotated citations relevant to fish passage through dams. Document may be searched using the search form or downloaded as an Endnote, Microsoft Word, or WordPerfect
Homepage for the Flagstaff Field center with links to space science, water and ice studies, earth sciences, biological resources, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, outreach & education, data and software, and images.
Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town. Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area. Our flood inundation maps were out of date, so we have updated them; this explains how.
Homepage of the Fort Collins Science Center in Colorado with links to programs in ecological research programs, staff directory, products library, news and events, and research features and spotlights.
Overview with links to studies on the effects of human activity on the San Francisco estuary with loss of historic fresh and saltwater tidal marshes reducing habitats, introducing contaminants in waste, and creating dredging problems.
Links to model documentation, search engine, and help for (FEQ) Full Equations (a computer model for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures), and the Full Equations Utilities package (FEQUTL).
Describes the value of molecular biology genetic tools in enhancing the delineation of the genetic diversity and the effects of environmental degradation on living species. Links to research, which differentiated two species of sage-grouse.
Overview of chemical analyses, tracer studies, gas geochemistry, stable isotopes analyses, organic chemistry, and thermometry capabilities at major USGS laboratories with links to technique, equipment, and contacts for each procedure.
Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program (GAM) conducts studies about land surface change, environmental and human health, fire and urban ecology, and natural hazards to help decision-makers in land-use planning and land management.
Website with links to USGS hydrologic, geohydrologic, soil, and geologic projects in Missouri using geographic information systems (GIS) technology with digital datasets of images, models, and maps produced by the projects to view.
Field methods, topics of investigation, shoreline changes, publications, and satellite imagery related to geologic and hydrologic processes affecting Lake Pontchartrain and adjacent lakes which form a large estuary in the Gulf Coast region.
Current river mechanics research on particle friction angles of fluvial gravels (data files compressed in BenHex, Winzip and Unix) and Grand Canyon Beach evolution (animation requiring Java 1.0) plus digital elevation files (*.hgx and *.zip files).
Description of the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) project, online maps of current wildland fire locations using Netscape Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer, and user guide on how to use mapping application.
Description and photos documenting offsets and 260 km rupture in the Denali glacier in central Alaska after the November 3, 2002 earthquake, the 9th largest earthquake in the United States in the last 200 years.
Review of the Global Change Hydrology Program components relating to hydroclimatology and studies of the biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases with links to research activities, datasets, fact sheets, and other publications and websites.
Brief review of studies with sidescan sonar on sediment in the Grand Canyon as part of research on the changes brought about by the Glen Canyon Dam and the results gathered from a 1996-controlled flood experiment with links to related information.
Site for Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, which provides information about biological resources in the Great Lakes Basin. Links to personnel, publications, data, library, facilities, research vessels, Great Lakes issues, and research.
Lead page to connect to ground water information on the Nation's ground water resources and ground water activities of the USGS. Includes links to ground-water data, news reports, publications, field techniques, models, programs, and issues.
National Water Information System (NWIS) real-time data on selected ground water sites, ground water level data, site inventory of wells, test holes, drains, springs and excavations and ground water-quality data for the United States.
Lower precipitation and recharge, with deeper groundwater levels, suggest this basin will be less susceptible to contamination than others nearby, but may be susceptible to saltwater intrusion brought on by well pumping.
The groundwater component of streamflow is important because it is indicative of the sustained flow of a stream during dry periods, is often of better quality, and has a smaller range of temperatures, than surface contributions to streamflow.
Proxy methods allow us to estimate ancient ocean temperatures but only if the method is calibrated using modern samples for which we measure the temperature. This is a proxy method using a sediment trap to collect planktonic foraminifera.
We put seismic monitoring instruments into 20 VA hospital buildings, connected with computers that analyze their data to determine rapidly the structural health of the buildings in the event of earthquakes.
Annual peak flows have increased at most rivers in Maine during the last century. What effect does this have on computed peak flows, such as the 100-year flows, that are used for designing bridges and other structures?
Fact sheet on the historic and current conditions of mangroves of Dry Tortugas National Park, a cluster of islands and coral reefs west of Key West, Florida. Mangroves and nesting frigate bird colonies are at risk to destruction by hurricanes.
Using a geographic dataset of structures, with more than 5500 structures that were destroyed or damaged by wildfire since 2001, we identified the main contributors to property loss in two extensive, fire-prone regions in southern California.
Tide stage, specific conductance, water temperature, and freshwater inflow at selected Hudson River (New York) gages updated every 4-hours to measure the effects of freshwater withdrawals and upstream movement of the salt front.