Manganese: it turns iron into steel (and does so much more) [ More info] Explains how we use this metal, where we get it, and describes the current trends in supply and demand.
Mercury Concentrations in Streams Found to Go Through Daily Cycles [ More info] Research findings and examples of application to real problems--highly variable conditions cause the production of toxic methyl mercury in the environment which accumulates in fish.
Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion [ More info] Explains the complex relationships between coal, mercury, and halogens in light of ongoing efforts to reduce the emission of mercury into the environment.
Nickel - Makes stainless steel strong [ More info] Uses, sources, and history of Nickel as a mineral commodity.
Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins [ More info] Explains why these elements are commonly discussed together, how they are used, where we get them, and prospects for future supply and demand.
Nutrients in the Nation's streams and groundwater: National findings and implications [ More info] Despite public sector efforts to reduce nonpoint-source nutrients in streams and rivers, concentrations have remained the same or increased, continuing to pose risks to aquatic life and human health.
Occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09 [ More info] Study showing which chemicals found in sediments were most common, with methods used and likely consequences of their high concentrations.
Periodic table page [ More info] An "image map" periodic table and short notes about many isotopes and their applications to illustrate the uses of assorted isotopes in hydrology, geology, and biology.
Phosphorus and groundwater: Establishing links between agricultural use and transport to streams [ More info] Explains why phosphorus is important, how it moves through the terrestrial water system, how we measure it, and what this means for people who need to manage or monitor human activities that produce it.
Platinum-group elements: so many excellent properties [ More info] These elements, abbreviated as PGE, include platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium. They have similar physical and chemical properties and occur together in nature.
Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007 [ More info] Estimates of known and undiscovered copper resources total nearly 60 million metric tons of copper. Iron resources in known deposits total 2200 million metric tons of ore. Twenty mineralized areas meriting further study were identified.
Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions [ More info] Knowledge of the geochemical processes controlling radium occurrence in groundwater may help water-resource managers anticipate and minimize human exposure to this cancer-causing element.
Radon in earth, air, and water [ More info] Links to USGS publications, bibliographies, and maps on radon in the U.S., plus links to non-USGS sites with information on radon.
Rare earth elements--End use and recyclability [ More info] Rare earth element use is changing with technology. This report explains how we use them and the prospects for recycling these important commodities.
Reservoir sediment studies in Kansas [ More info] Report of completed reservoir sediment studies in Kansas using a combination of bathymetric surveying, sediment coring, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis to understand the quantity and quality of deposited sediment.
Rhenium: a rare metal critical in modern transportation [ More info] Explains how we use this rare metal, where it comes from, and describes the supply and demand situation for this commodity.
Selenium and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the benthic clam Corbula amurensis from Northern San Francisco Bay, California: May 1995-February 2010 [ More info] Monthly selenium concentration in this keystone species shows strong spatial and seasonal variation in a five-year series of analyses.
Tellurium: providing a bright future for solar energy [ More info] Explains how we use this extremely rare element, where we obtain it, and describes the global supply and demand situation for the commodity.
The concept of geologic carbon sequestration [ More info] Explains securing carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations to prevent its release to the atmosphere and contribution to global warming as a greenhouse gas.
The future of rare earth elements--will these high-tech industry elements continue in short supply? [ More info] Presentation describing uses of rare earth elements, why they are important, where they occur and are produced, and aspects of the economics of production and consumption with emphasis on sites that might be developed for production.
The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective [ More info] Explains the geologic setting in which these deposits are found, with information about production and the processes used to extract these valuable mineral resources.
The rare-earth elements: vital to modern technologies and lifestyles [ More info] Explains where and how deposits of these elements form, trends in supply and demand, how we use them, and how they may affect the environment.
Thermal Properties of Methane Gas Hydrates [ More info] This unusual form of hydrocarbons can alter the thermal properties of host sediments; the analysis presented here helps us understand how those sediments might behave under natural or human-induced changes in the environment.
Tintina gold province study, Alaska and Yukon Territory, 2002-2007 [ More info] New discoveries and modernized extraction methods prompted renewed interest in gold deposits in this part of central Alaska, prompting a variety of studies described here.
Titanium: light, strong, and white [ More info] Titanium is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier.
Trace elements in coal ash [ More info] Describes and explains the material remaining when coal is burned, especially the trace elements present in it which may be concentrated by the burning process.
Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania [ More info] Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted here during 113 years of operation (1771-1883). We sampled a variety of materials nearby to determine the amount of metals such as arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc.
What Mobilizes Arsenic in Ground Water? [ More info] Research findings and examples of application to real problems--chemical reactions between nitrate, iron, and oxygen can affect the mobility of trace amounts of arsenic.
Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion [ More info] Explains how we use zinc, where it comes from, and discusses worldwide supply and demand.
Alphabetical Index of Topics
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