Well vulnerability results from the young age of groundwater. Karst features permit contaminants to move into the aquifer easily, leading to a well mixed aquifer; geochemical processes do not degrade contaminants quickly.
Using ground-water geochemical analyses, and mathematical models, the factors affecting the quality of public water supply were identified as pumping schedule, screened interval, past land use within the recharge area, and natural geochemical conditions.
Using ground-water geochemical analyses and mathematical models, the factors affecting the quality of public water supply were identified as mixing of very recent recharge with older water, karst features, natural geochemical processes, and pumping.
Explains the natural and human-affected factors that determine the concentration of contaminants in groundwater, especially where the concentration is different at the surface than at depth, and where pumping varies with time.
We estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology. Of that total, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons, 25 billion economically recoverable.
Using the Fischer assay measure of oil yield, we estimated a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in three assessed units. There is currently no economic method to recover oil from this geologic unit.