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Earth sciences
Broad term for all science related to the study of the earth.
Subtopics:
Atmospheric sciences (44 items)
Geochemistry (176 items)
Geography (159 items)
Geology (470 items)
Geophysics (117 items)
Glaciology (8 items)
Hydrology (410 items)
Limnology (19 items)
Ocean sciences (51 items)
Paleontology (21 items)
Soil sciences (5 items)
Related topics:


Results 1 - 691 of 1319 listed by similarity [list alphabetically]
Earth science photographic archive [More info]
Photographic archive collection from the USGS Photo Library. Photos dated 1868-1992 are of geology, earthquake damage, national parks, pioneer photographers, St. Helens eruption and mining and available at 100, 700 and 1400 dots/inch resolution.
A Magnitude 7.1 Earthquake in the Tacoma Fault Zone-A Plausible Scenario for the Southern Puget Sound Region, Washington [More info]
Scientific description of the likely effects of a significant earthquake on this densely populated area.
PDF Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits--A deposit model [More info]
Describes where and how mineral deposits of this type are found, including chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as unsolved scientific questions surrounding their origin.
Central California /San Francisco Bay Earthquake Hazards Project [More info]
Information on earthquakes in central California and the San Francisco region with links to four types of field studies, deep seismic investigations, geotechnical investigations, shallow seismic imaging, and airborne geophysical surveys.
Development of a global slope dataset for estimation of landslide occurrence resulting from earthquakes [More info]
Technical description of methods used to generate global slope data from SRTM topography data
PDF Earth as art three [More info]
Images from the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites chosen for their aesthetic appeal, with color manipulated to enhance color variation or details.
Earth Resources Observation & Science (EROS) [More info]
Access to products archived at the EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD, including aerial photography, remote sensing data, satellite imagery, maps, and elevation data with product search retrieval and ordering information.
Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Popular Web Sites [More info]
List of links leading to remote-sensing, satellite imaging, and general mapping produced by this USGS science center.
Earth Surface Processes [More info]
Homepage for Earth Surface Processes Team with research studies in two general categories: climate change and geologic mapping. Links to research activities, available data sets, workshop, and programs.
Earth tides and volcano monitoring [More info]
Article in the May 28, 1998 issue of Volcano Watch describing of correlation of earth tides to volcanic eruptions and value in monitoring underground magma movement with deformation measurement instruments including tiltmeters and strainmeters.
EarthExplorer [More info]
Query and order satellite images, aerial photographs, and cartographic products through the U.S. Geological Survey. Log in as a guest or as a registered user with more privileges. Uses Java Script or Applet Versions for PC, MacIntosh, and Unix programs.
Earthquake "Top 10" Lists & Maps [More info]
Lists of largest earthquakes in the world and in the United States, earthquake facts and statistics, deaths from earthquakes, earthquakes by magnitude, and significant earthquakes.
Earthquake and fault data for Google Earth [More info]
Downloadable data for earthquakes and faults for use with the Google Earth software
Earthquake Geology and Paleoseismology [More info]
Geological effects of earthquakes on the crust and landscape, with studies of prehistoric earthquake activity using geological evidence.
Earthquake glossary [More info]
Dictionary of terms associated with earthquakes with simple definitions and photographs especially suited for students.
PDF Earthquake hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone remains a concern [More info]
GPS measurements made since 1996 seem to show this earthquake-prone area slowing down. Is it time to relax? Scientists who studied these data in detail say no, and this fact sheet explains why.
Earthquake hazard maps [More info]
National seismic hazards maps, global seismic hazards map, predictive intensity maps, shaking hazards maps and probabilities for California, and a variety of fact sheets on earthquakes.
Earthquake Hazards 101 [More info]
Provides links to explanatory materials for the layperson, including information on concepts behind earthquake maps, the use of probability, what the maps mean, how they are made, and answers to frequently asked questions.
Earthquake Hazards Program [More info]
Information on earthquake activity, earthquake science, and earthquake hazard reduction with links to news reports, products and services, educational resources for teachers, glossary, and current U.S. earthquake activity map.
Earthquake Hazards Program - Central and Eastern U.S. [More info]
Information on earthquakes in central and eastern United States with links to earthquake monitoring, published products, recent earthquake information, discussion group, and current projects.
Earthquake Hazards Program external research support [More info]
Abstracts, program announcements and descriptions of projects funded by the external research program.
Earthquake hazards software for download [More info]
Numerous downloadable software packages for carrying out analyses, modeling, and ancillary calculations in earthquake research and monitoring.
Earthquake information by topic [More info]
Information on earthquakes by topic including faults, tsunami, seismic waves, and plate tectonics.
Earthquake notification services [More info]
Sign up for USGS real-time earthquake notification services.
Earthquake preparedness information [More info]
Links to web sites, publications, and fact sheets on earthquake preparedness.
Earthquake Products & Publications [More info]
Long list of online fact sheets, publications, and maps relevant to earthquake studies.
Earthquake science explained--a series of ten short articles for students, teachers, and families [More info]
Collects a series of short articles on earthquake science and related topics for students, teachers, and parents originally published as weekly features in The San Francisco Chronicle.
Earthquake search [More info]
Search interface allowing searches of earthquake databases by various parameters including date, depth, intensity, area, and magnitude and download data in a variety of formats.
Earthquake: Did you feel it? Report it here. [More info]
Place to provide information about ground shaking associated with significant earthquakes. A questionnaire to let us know what you felt following an earthquake in the United States or in other countries.
Earthquakes [More info]
Online booklet on earthquake history, earthquake occurrences, measuring earthquakes, causes, relationship of volcanoes and earthquakes and earthquake prediction.
Earthquakes for kids [More info]
Links to various earthquake projects, facts, science fair ideas, earthquake science, becoming an earthquake scientist, image glossary, earthquake facts, and puzzles and games for children.
PDF Earthquakes in Hawaii -- an underappreciated but serious hazard [More info]
Shows where earthquakes occur here, the type of damage that has occurred, and the information that USGS provides to help people anticipate and understand this hazard.
Earthquakes in the central United States, 1699-2010 [More info]
Poster includes GIS data for earthquake locations in this seismically active area.
PDF Earthquakes pose a serious hazard in Afghanistan [More info]
Structural features in eastern Afghanistan accompany seismicity data showing this area is subject to considerable risk of earthquakes.
Earthquakes: Frequently Asked Questions [More info]
Answers to a wide variety of questions (FAQs) about earthquakes, such as dictionary of terms, earthquake activity and probabilities, common myths, faults, plate tectonics, and earthquake measurement techniques.
Earthshots, satellite images of environmental change [More info]
Satellite images of geographic areas of interest, cities, deserts, glaciers, geologic features, disaster areas, water bodies, and wildlife linked with articles, maps, and other images such as AVHRR, photographs, and special project images.
Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team [More info]
The Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team provides geologic mapping regional geologic studies to determine stratigraphy and geologic structure, topical studies to understand geologic and surficial processes, and syntheses of earth science data.
PDF Field reconnaissance report of landslides triggered by the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake [More info]
Preliminary aerial helicopter reconnaissance of areas affected by landslides and ground inspections at some accessible landslide sites.
PDF Forecasting California's earthquakes - What can we expect in the next 30 years? [More info]
Shows how we know severe earthquakes will occur and where.
General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) [More info]
Earthquake and aftershock data collected by the USGS General Earthquake Observation System project in Menlo Park, California.
Geochronology (Western Earth Surface Processes Team) [More info]
Description of the methods of geochronology, the science of dating, used by USGS scientists in geological research.
Glacier effects of the M7.9 Denali fault earthquake of November 3, 2002 [More info]
Description and photos documenting offsets and 260 km rupture in the Denali glacier in central Alaska after the November 3, 2002 earthquake, the 9th largest earthquake in the United States in the last 200 years.
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) earthquakes: HVO seismic network [More info]
Description of the seismic monitoring of the active Hawaiian volcanoes with information on the network, instrumentation, and recording stations with links to related information.
PDF Helping safeguard Veterans Affairs' hospital buildings by advanced earthquake monitoring [More info]
We put seismic monitoring instruments into 20 VA hospital buildings, connected with computers that analyze their data to determine rapidly the structural health of the buildings in the event of earthquakes.
Historical earthquakes: lists and statistics [More info]
Lists and maps of historic earthquakes by geographic area, magnitude, destructiveness, and other characteristics.
Interior of the Earth [More info]
General Interest Publication on the structure of the planet Earth including the crust, the mantle, and the core with drawings to scale on the cover and a table listing the thickness of the parts.
International Program at the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center - environmental monitoring and information systems [More info]
Overview of the environmental monitoring component of the international program at the EROS Data Center using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology, with links to data, partners, publications, and workshops.
Latest earthquakes in the USA - Past 7 days [More info]
Real-time earthquake maps of the conterminous U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico displaying magnitude and location of earthquake activity in the past hour, past day, and past week.
Maps of recent earthquake activity in California-Nevada [More info]
Near-real-time maps of location, ground motion, and shaking intensity of earthquakes in California and Nevada for the past hour, past day, and past week and links to other earthquake information.
Mauna Loa, Earth's largest volcano [More info]
Current activity, hazards, and history of eruptions of Mauna Loa.
PDF Monitoring the Earth's dynamic magnetic field [More info]
Describes the reasons why USGS monitors Earth's magnetic field and the history of that monitoring effort.
National Earthquake Information Center [More info]
Information on world earthquake activity with links to facts and lists on large earthquakes, earthquake e-mail notification, hazards and preparedness, educational links, news and highlights and other seismic information.
Natural Hazards - Earthquakes [More info]
News and related information focusing on the importance of earthquake hazards in the United States.
PDF PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake's impact [More info]
An automated system for rapidly estimating the shaking distribution, number of people and settlements exposed to severe shaking, and range of possible fatalities and economic losses. A color-coded alert suggests levels of appropriate response.
PDF Precambrian Time - The Story of the Early Earth [More info]
Explains what we know about the early history of the earth and how we study the deposits formed during that time to understand the formation of the earth and life.
Radon in earth, air, and water [More info]
Links to USGS publications, bibliographies, and maps on radon in the U.S., plus links to non-USGS sites with information on radon.
PDF Rare earth elements--End use and recyclability [More info]
Rare earth element use is changing with technology. This report explains how we use them and the prospects for recycling these important commodities.
Recent earthquakes in Hawaii [More info]
Interactive maps of earthquakes of last 2 hours, last 2 days, and last 2 weeks in Hawaii.
Severity of an earthquake [More info]
Description of intensity and magnitude as indicators of the size of an earthquake and the levels of severity measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale and the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
PDF St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project [More info]
Overview of USGS research focused on earthquake hazards of this specific area.
The Earth's crust [More info]
Information on the Earth's crust with a contour map of the thickness plus links to a global crustal database, a global crustal model - CRUST 5.1, and regional crustal models.
PDF The future of rare earth elements--will these high-tech industry elements continue in short supply? [More info]
Presentation describing uses of rare earth elements, why they are important, where they occur and are produced, and aspects of the economics of production and consumption with emphasis on sites that might be developed for production.
The great 1906 earthquake, 100 years later [More info]
Annotated list of resources about the great earthquake of 1906, which caused significant devastation in and around San Francisco, California, compiled for the 100th anniversary of the disaster.
PDF The Hayward fault - Is it due for a repeat of the powerful 1868 earthquake? [More info]
Preparing for earthquakes along this important fault requires studying the history of its movement and its geology, as well as understanding how society has built the area around it.
The Parkfield Experiment - capturing what happens in an earthquake [More info]
Fact sheet describing plans for a San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) by drilling into the fault to install instruments for long-term monitoring near the location of the magnitude 6 Parkfield earthquakes.
PDF The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective [More info]
Explains the geologic setting in which these deposits are found, with information about production and the processes used to extract these valuable mineral resources.
PDF The story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes [More info]
History of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), established in 1912, including an overview of Hawaiian volcanic processes and USGS monitoring techniques.
This dynamic Earth: the story of plate tectonics [More info]
Online booklet giving an introduction to the concept of plate tectonics and complements the information on the map This Dynamic Planet published in 1994 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Smithsonian Institution.
PDF This dynamic planet: World map of volcanoes, earthquakes, impact craters, and plate tectonics [More info]
Online world map with booklet (PDF format) giving an account of plate tectonics, volcanology, earthquake activity, and impact craters.
Topics in coastal and marine sciences: Coastal erosion [More info]
Topics in Coastal and Marine Sciences provides background science materials, definitions, and links to give a common context for users from a variety of backgrounds. Coastal erosion was chosen as the first topic.
PDF Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project [More info]
Evansville, Indiana, is near the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones and has experienced minor damage from earthquakes in the past 200 years. This fact sheet describes three types of USGS earthquake hazard maps for Evansville and surrounding areas.
United States National Strong-Motion Project (earthquakes) [More info]
National Strong-Motion Program home page with links to program news, recent events, and datasets of digitized accelerograms downloadable as PC (*.zip) and Unix (*.tar.z) files, data processing, stations, research, publications, and personnel.
Water science for schools: Earth's water [More info]
Educational site for elementary school students that tells the story of where, how much, and in what forms water exists on Earth.
Water science for schools: Earth's water - runoff [More info]
Site for elementary school students on runoff with links to information on rivers and watersheds, plus random link and glossary.
Water science for schools: Earth's water - surface water [More info]
Educational site for elementary school students with information on surface water (rivers, streams, lakes, floods).
Water science for schools: the Earth's water - ground water [More info]
Educational site for elementary schools students on ground water sources, ground water flow, and aquifers.
Water science for schools: where is Earth's water located? [More info]
Educational site for elementary school students on the distribution of water, water supply and water use.
PDF Watershed scale response to climate change--Black Earth Creek Basin, Wisconsin [More info]
Mathematical models predict overall streamflow, runoff, subsurface flow, groundwater flow, and soil moisture in this area in response to four different greenhouse gas emission scenarios.
What on Earth is plate tectonics? [More info]
Discussion and diagrams on plate tectonics and the structure of the Earth for beginners with link to a detailed version: This Dynamic Earth for more information.
PDF 100-Year flood - It's all about chance [More info]
Explains the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the 100-year flood to those who are unfamiliar with this concept.
1999 resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. [More info]
Coal resources, stratigraphy, geochemistry, coal quality and geology of Tertiary coal beds and zones in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains regions. Text in PDF format and available on CD-ROM.
PDF 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) [More info]
We estimate mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil and about 53 trillion cubic feet of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within this area, a reduction of our 2002 estimate due to new geologic information.
30 cool facts about Mount St. Helens [More info]
Poster commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, a volcano in southwestern Washington state. Facts provided in plain text as well.
PDF A Climate Trend Analysis of Burkina Faso [More info]
Summer rains have remained steady over the past 20 years, but are less than historic highs. Temperature has increased, and while the farmland per person is decreasing, population growth has been offset with improved yields.
PDF A climate trend analysis of Chad [More info]
Long-term reduction in rainfall and increasing temperature threaten Chad's future food production prospects; combined with rapid population growth and zones of substantial conflict, increasing numbers of people will be at risk.
PDF A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia [More info]
Recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in this area.
PDF A climate trend analysis of Mali [More info]
Summer rains have remained steady for the past 20 years, but are below the long-term average. Current population and agricultural trends indicate increasing yields have offset population expansion, keeping per capita cereal production steady.
PDF A Climate Trend Analysis of Niger [More info]
While summer rains have increased during the past 20 years, temperatures have increased as well, amplifying the effects of droughts. Crop yields are low but the population is growing, pointing to rising food insecurity.
PDF A climate trend analysis of Senegal [More info]
Modest declines in rainfall, accompanied by increases in air temperatures, declining farmland per person, along with trends in population and agriculture could lead to a 30% reduction in per capita cereal production by 2025.
PDF A climate trend analysis of Sudan [More info]
The data shown here depict drying trends in one of the world's most food insecure regions. Decreasing rainfall since 1980 accompanied increases in air temperature greater than global warming.
PDF A climate trend analysis of Uganda [More info]
Long-term reduction in rainfall and increasing temperature threaten Uganda's future food production prospects; combined with rapid population growth these factors could increase the number of people who are at risk during the next 20 years.
PDF A dryland river transformed--the Little Colorado, 1936-2010 [More info]
We mapped substantial migration of the river channel between the City of Winslow and the Navajo Nation community of Leupp; in a human lifetime the river has moved more than a mile across its valley floor.
A Method for Qualitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy [More info]
A method to create qualitative images of thick oil in oil spills on water using near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data. It relies on the organic absorption features of chemical bonds in aliphatic hydrocarbons. The data cannot give oil volume estimates.
PDF A methodology for conducting national-scale alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessments, with a focus on artisanal mining [More info]
Geologic evidence, combined with geographical data and analyized through a geographic information system allows us to compare production statistics with likely resource estimates.
PDF A New Method for Mapping Population Distribution [More info]
With the addition of elevation and land use and land cover data, we can show population density on a map much more effectively than if we simply color census areas. The resulting maps should allow better planning, especially in highly developed areas.
PDF A new tool to assess groundwater resources in the Mississippi embayment [More info]
Mathematical model of the groundwater system in this area includes 13 types of data and spans multiple aquifers over more than a century. This enables us to assess the quantity of groundwater, where and how it is being used, and how pumping affects it.
A promising tool for subsurface permafrost mapping-An application of airborne geophysics from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska [More info]
Airborne electromagnetic surveying is used to estimate the character of the permafrost by measuring and monitoring the electrical resistivity, which is affected by lithology, temperature, water, and ice.
A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data [More info]
Technical details explaining how remotely sensed visible and infrared data can help recognize the extent of oil spills.
PDF A science strategy to support management decisions related to hypoxia in the northern Gulf Of Mexico and excess nutrients in the Mississippi River Basin [More info]
The report describes a strategy for monitoring, modeling, and research activities to support management decisions to improve water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Basin, reduce hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and improve conditions for
PDF A volcano rekindled; the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 [More info]
PDF A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia [More info]
Analysis of sea-surface temperature in the Indian Ocean shows that warming correlates with east African rainfall; the effect on atmospheric convection and precipitation over the Indian Ocean is greater than that associated with El Niño (ENSO).
A Whole-System Approach to Understanding Agricultural Chemicals in the Environment [More info]
Explains the effects of the interaction of hydrologic and biological processes on agricultural chemicals in various environments.
Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) [More info]
Homepage of the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) initiative programs supporting actions to remedy contaminations associated with hard rock mining. Includes data from the Upper Animas River and Boulder River, bibliography of reports, and pictures.
Access USGS - San Francisco Bay and Delta [More info]
Main page for accessing links for information and data on the San Francisco Bay estuary and its watershed with links to highlights, water, biology, wetlands, hazards, digital maps, geologic mapping, winds, bathymetry and overview of the Bay.
PDF Acid rain effects on Adirondack streams - results from the 2003-05 western Adirondack stream survey (the WASS Project) [More info]
Acidified soils caused toxic aluminum in 66 percent of 565 assessed streams. Diatoms and aquatic macroinvertebrates were moderately to severely affected. These effects have not improved in areas surveyed in the early 1980s
PDF Acid Rain in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia [More info]
Explains acidity and acid rain and how it affects aquatic organisms. Describes the effect of acid rain on this national park, identifying areas that are at greater or lesser risk from acid rain.
Acute toxicity database [More info]
The following database summarizes the results from aquatic acute toxicity tests conducted by the USGS CERC located in Columbia, Missouri.
Additional oil and natural gas research [More info]
Brief descriptions, contacts, and links to other information and products for research programs of the USGS Central Energy Team on gas hydrates, petroleum expulsion, unconventional natural gas, petroleum systems, and reserve growth.
Advanced National Seismic System (seismic network) [More info]
A program of studies with instruments to provide accurate and timely data and information on seismic events, including their effects on buildings and structures, employing modern monitoring methods and technologies.
Advanced National Seismic System: Products and services [More info]
Maps, data, and services provided to help people understand earthquakes that have occurred.
PDF Advanced Remote Sensing Research [More info]
New and experimental methods of analyzing geospatial imagery, including detailed spectral analysis of land surface materials, historical image analysis, and long wave infrared image analysis.
PDF Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Overview [More info]
General characteristics and spatial resolution of imagery products available from this type of sensor.
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) [More info]
Coverage, characteristics, and availability of AVHRR data from a broad-band scanner sensing in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor characteristics [More info]
Description of datasets of AVHRR data available from the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, SD in three formats: High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT), Local Area Coverage (LAC), and Global Area Coverage (GAC).
Agricultural chemicals [More info]
Overview of the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program role in investigating the occurrence and fate of agricultural chemicals with links to investigations, headlines, on-line fact sheets, new publications, bibliographies and photo gallery.
PDF Airborne Volcanic Ash - A Global Threat to Aviation [More info]
Explains the problem, describes procedures used to cope with it, ways of monitoring and detecting hazardous conditions, and warning systems currently available to help mitigate the dangers.
Aircraft scanners [More info]
Technical information on the Aircraft Scanners data set at the USGS EROS Data Center containing digital imagery acquired from several multispectral scanners collected over conterminous United States, Alaska, and NASA aircraft.
PDF Alabama Water Use, 2005 [More info]
Detailed information about how water is used in Alabama by type of use and geographic area.
Alaska Geospatial Data Clearinghouse [More info]
Clearinghouse for the description and availability of multiple geospatial datasets relating to Alaska from many federal, state and local cooperating agencies under the coordination of the Alaska Geographic Data Committee.
Alaska mineral resources [More info]
Reports, data, and current research on mineral resources in Alaska
Alaska petroleum resources [More info]
Information on Alaskan energy resources in oil, petroleum, and natural gas with links to publications and other research.
Alaska Resource Data Files [More info]
Downloadable descriptions of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences for individual U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in Alaska.
Alaska Volcano Observatory [More info]
Homepage for Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) with offices in Anchorage and Fairbanks monitors and studies Alaska's hazardous volcanoes. Links to featured news, updates, publications and products, and a volcano atlas for Alaska.
Albuquerque Seismological Lab [More info]
The USGS Seismological Laboratory in Albuquerque installs and maintains a world network of seismograph stations, collects the seismic data, and evaluates seismic instruments. Site includes links to ASL publications, earthquake maps and seismic data.
Amargosa Desert research site [More info]
Online reports, site description and photographs of the Amargosa Desert research site monitoring low level radioactive waste.
America's volcanic past - volcanic highlights and features [More info]
Links to volcanism, volcanic history, volcanic rocks, and general geology by state, by region, national parks and national monuments and a brief introduction to volcanism around the U.S. entitled: Windows into the past.
PDF An estimate of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the world, 2012 [More info]
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, we estimated means of 565 billion barrels of conventional oil and 5,606 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in 171 priority geologic provinces of the world, exclusive of the U.S.
An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska [More info]
We need refined regional understanding of climate change, effective oil-spill risk assessment, preparedness, and response, an analysis of cumulative effects (natural and human), better geospatial data for the area, in an integrated approach.
An image map of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata [More info]
Graphical representation of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata Version 2 - 1998 (FGDC-STD-001 June 1998) to permit easier location of relevant information while writing metadata.
An interpretation of the 1977 Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) survey, Fort Huachuca vicinity, Cochise County, Arizona [More info]
Complex report on the interpretation of aeromagnetic data to study hydrogeology of the San Pedro basin, Cochise County, Arizona determining geologic structure, basin fill and depth to water. Online version of a CD-ROM publication.
An overview of coastal land loss with emphasis on the southeastern United States [More info]
Comprehensive background information on coastal land loss, discussing the influence of waves and storms, the intrinsic characteristics of the shoreline materials, and the role of human activities.
An Overview of Historical Channel Adjustment and Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana [More info]
How has the channel shape and path changed in response to reservoirs and other human disturbances affecting the streamflow?
PDF An Overview of the GIS Weasel [More info]
Software system designed to aid users in preparing spatial information as input to lumped and distributed parameter environmental simulation models.
ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs [More info]
Scientific software used with faunal or floral census data to find the modern locations most similar to any given fossil assemblage. Source code is included.
PDF Analyzing land use change in urban environments [More info]
Describes the USGS Urban Dynamics Research Program that studies landscape changes resulting from the growth of metropolitan regions over time.
Annual hydrologic data report of Pennsylvania [More info]
Online annual reports (since 1999) documenting hydrologic data for Pennsylvania gathered from USGS surface water and ground water data-collection networks and information on ordering paper copies of previous years.
ANSS - Advanced National Seismic System [More info]
Nationa network of seismic monitoring stations coordinated with a variety of regional organizations and academic institutions.
PDF Application of the SPARROW watershed model to describe nutrient sources and transport in the Missouri River Basin [More info]
Maps and diagrams showing how the mathematical model predicts the distribution of various pollutants within a large watershed.
Aquifer basics [More info]
Links to general information on water supply by aquifers based on rock types and to principal national aquifers by name.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1002 Area, petroleum assessment, 1998, including economic analysis [More info]
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) 1002 area's petroleum resource assessment. Text available in PDF and HTML formats.
Asbestos: geology, mineralogy, mining, and uses [More info]
Report on asbestos, six types of mineral fibers belonging to two mineral groups, serpentines and amphiboles,with fiber morphology, crystal structure, analytical methods, properties, mining, milling, uses, and safety factors.(PDF file,28 pp.,4.5 MB)
Ask-A-Geologist [More info]
Site to submit a question to Ask-A-Geologist where scientists research the answers to the questions, then reply directly by email.
Assessing Groundwater Availability in the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming [More info]
Explains concepts and methods used to determine the likely future supply of usable water in this major aquifer.
PDF Assessing groundwater availability in the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system [More info]
Nature, history, and distinctive characteristics of this aquifer system help us to understand the likely distribution of available groundwater.
Assessing the impact of urban sprawl on soil resources in the United States using nighttime "city lights" satellite images and digital soils maps [More info]
Paper from Land Use History of North America giving results of a study to estimate the extent of developed land in the United States and the impact of development on soil resources.
Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Nation's resources [More info]
Site for a USGS project under the U.S. Global Change Research Program for a national assessment of the impacts of climate variability and change on resources with links to impacts in Alaska, western U.S., public lands, and water resources.
Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination--Edwards aquifer near San Antonio, Texas [More info]
Well vulnerability results from the young age of groundwater. Karst features permit contaminants to move into the aquifer easily, leading to a well mixed aquifer; geochemical processes do not degrade contaminants quickly.
PDF Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California [More info]
Using ground-water geochemical analyses, and mathematical models, the factors affecting the quality of public water supply were identified as pumping schedule, screened interval, past land use within the recharge area, and natural geochemical conditions.
PDF Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Floridan Aquifer System Near Tampa, Florida [More info]
Using ground-water geochemical analyses and mathematical models, the factors affecting the quality of public water supply were identified as mixing of very recent recharge with older water, karst features, natural geochemical processes, and pumping.
Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Glacial Aquifer System in Woodbury, Connecticut [More info]
Sources and effects of contamination surrounding a single well in western Connecticut
PDF Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination: Rio Grande aquifer system in Albuquerque, New Mexico [More info]
Explains the natural and human-affected factors that determine the concentration of contaminants in groundwater, especially where the concentration is different at the surface than at depth, and where pumping varies with time.
PDF Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana [More info]
We estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology. Of that total, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons, 25 billion economically recoverable.
PDF Assessment of Gas Hydrate Resources on the North Slope, Alaska, 2008 [More info]
We estimate that there are about 85 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources within gas hydrates in northern Alaska.
PDF Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah [More info]
Using the Fischer assay measure of oil yield, we estimated a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in three assessed units. There is currently no economic method to recover oil from this geologic unit.
PDF Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado [More info]
We estimated a total of 1.525 trillion barrels of oil are in place in seventeen oil shale zones in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado [More info]
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, we estimated a total of 1.32 trillion barrels of oil in place in eighteen oil shale zones in this Eocene geologic unit.
PDF Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States [More info]
The electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawattselectric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. Undiscovered resources are estimated to provide an additional 30,033 MWe.
PDF Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012 [More info]
Estimates of additional energy resources present within known oil and gas fields using statistical analysis that includes geology and engineering practices in addition to growth trends in production data.
PDF Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources of the world (outside the United States) from reserve growth, 2012 [More info]
We used mathematical models to estimate the likely increases in the estimates of the amount of oil and gas technically recoverable from existing known large fields outside the US.
Assessment of potential coastal impacts: Hurricane Rita [More info]
Areas susceptible to inundation during landfall of Hurricane Rita are assessed by comparing lidar-derived dune elevations to simulated storm surge values. Results shown on pictorial maps.
PDF Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012 [More info]
We estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.
PDF Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in this area using a performance-based geologic assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of potential shale gas resources of the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2011 [More info]
Using a performance-based geologic assessment methodology, we estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 6.1 trillion cubic feet of potential shale gas in these areas.
PDF Assessment of potential shale oil and tight sandstone gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2013 [More info]
Using a well performance-based geologic assessment methodology, we estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 62 million barrels of oil in shale oil reservoirs, and more than 3,700 billion cubic feet of gas in tight sandstone in this area.
PDF Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011 [More info]
We estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in this area.
PDF Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014 [More info]
We estimated potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico [More info]
The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.
PDF Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California [More info]
The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province [More info]
We estimated 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Bonaparte Basin, Browse Basin, Northwest Shelf, and Gippsland Basin Provinces, Australia, 2011 [More info]
We estimated means of 4.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 227 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in three major offshore petroleum basins using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of North Africa, 2012 [More info]
We estimated means of 19 billion barrels of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional oil and 370 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas resources in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional resources in this area at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of South America and the Caribbean, 2012 [More info]
We estimated means of 126 billion barrels of oil and 679 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 31 geologic provinces of South America and the Caribbean using a geology based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012 [More info]
We estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Hydrocarbon Resources of the Western Oregon and Washington Province [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 2.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas and 15 million barrels of oil (MMBO) in the using a geology-based assessment methodology.
Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in this area.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006 [More info]
We estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011 [More info]
We estimated the volume of oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in three closely related geologic units in this area using a geology based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Cretaceous-Tertiary Coal Beds of the Gulf Coast Region, 2007 [More info]
We estimated a mean of 4.06 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas in these coal beds of the onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.
Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of the Gulf Coast, 2010 [More info]
We estimated means of 147.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 2.4 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, and 2.96 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Tertiary Strata of the Gulf Coast, 2007 [More info]
We estimated mean undiscovered resources of 113.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, a mean of 690 million barrels of oil, and a mean of 3.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in onshore lands and state waters in this area.
Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011 [More info]
We estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in these areas using a geology-based assessment methodology.
Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Four West Africa Geologic Provinces [More info]
Estimates of undiscovered petroleum resources in coastal west Africa, including offshore areas.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Libya and Tunisia, 2010 [More info]
We estimated means of 3.97 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 38.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 1.47 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in these areas.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011 [More info]
We estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Southeast Asia, 2010 [More info]
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, we estimated means of 21.6 billion barrels of oil and 299 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 22 provinces of southeast Asia.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan-Tajik Basin Provinces, Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, 2011 [More info]
We estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources at 962 million barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 582 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Anadarko Basin Province of Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and Colorado, 2010 [More info]
We estimated mean technically-recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 495 million barrels of oil, 27.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 410 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, South Asia, 2011 [More info]
Combining these areas, we estimated 3,534 million barrels of crude oil, 79,352 billion cubic feet of natural gass, and 1,679 million barrels of natural gas liquids using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008 [More info]
We estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in this area.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa [More info]
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, we estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province [More info]
We estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 123 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 131 million barrels of natural gas liquids in these two areas.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011 [More info]
We estimated 3,850 billion cubic feet of natural gas, 135 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Greenland Rift Basins Province [More info]
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, we estimated the mean undiscovered conventional petroleum resources to be 31,400 million barrels of oil equivalent, present in oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Illinois Basin, 2007 [More info]
We estimated a mean of 214 million barrels of oil, 4.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 24 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean [More info]
We estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in this province using a geology based assessment methodology.
Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean [More info]
We estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Caspian Basin, Middle Caspian Basin, North Ustyurt Basin, and South Caspian Basin Provinces, Caspian Sea Area, 2010 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 19.6 billion barrels of crude oil, 243 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 9.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011 [More info]
We estimated 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids as undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Ordovician Utica Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2012 [More info]
We estimated means of 940 million barrels of oil, 38.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 208 million barrels of natural gas liquids in these units using a geology based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007 [More info]
We estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the southern Siberian craton (Baykit High, Nepa--Botuoba High, Angara--Lena Terrace, and Cis--Patom Foredeep Provinces), Russia, 2011 [More info]
We estimated t 3.0 billion barrels of crude oil, 63.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.2 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008 [More info]
We estimated means of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle in this area.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West African Costal Province, West Africa [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 3.2 billion barrels of oil, 23.63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 721 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008 [More info]
We estimated a mean of 7.3 billion barrels of oil and a mean of 52 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008 [More info]
We estimated means of 3.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 651 trillion cubic feet of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in this area.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008 [More info]
We estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids using a geology-based assesment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013 [More info]
We estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008 [More info]
We estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85 trillion cubic feet of associated dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009 [More info]
We estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Barents Sea Shelf [More info]
We estimated mean undiscovered, conventional, technically recoverable petroleum resources in the Barents Sea Shelf to be more than 76 billion barrels of oil equivalent using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the North and East Margins of the Siberian Craton, Russian Federation [More info]
We estimated the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources at 28 billion barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 106 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013 [More info]
We estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in this area using a geology based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012 [More info]
We estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Armenia, 2014 [More info]
We estimated mean volumes of 1 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and 6 billion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional natural gas in this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
Atchafalaya & Mississippi River Deltas study: a tale of two deltas [More info]
Project of the Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science program that evaluates the transport and sedimentation of contaminates through the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River delta to the near-shore Gulf of Mexico. Includes aerial photographs.
Atlantic margin offshore sediments: cooperative database and GIS development website [More info]
This site is designed to provide information on federal interagency and cooperative developments related to coastal sand and gravel resources and management issues along the Atlantic continental margin.
PDF Availability of Groundwater Data for California, Water Year 2008 [More info]
Summary showing number of wells in each county for which water level measurements are available, with description of methodology and well numbering system.
Availability of groundwater data for California, water year 2010 [More info]
Map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level or water-quality data for Water Year 2010, with descriptions of the data and instructions for obtaining them.
Bedform sedimentology [More info]
Bedform sedimentology home page with links to information on sedimentary structures including, explanatory text, computer-generated images and movies, photographs, and bedform simulation software.
Bedrock and soil geochemistry from Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota [More info]
Maps and text (Word or PDF format) and database (Excel or HTML format) for bedrock, forest floor, and mineral soil sampling in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota to establish the background and baseline geochemistry and terrestrial mercury sources.
Bedrock geologic map of Vermont [More info]
At a scale of 1:100,000, this map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines.
Bedrock geology of the Yosemite Valley area Yosemite National Park, California [More info]
Site explains the general bedrock geology of the Yosemite Valley area.
Benchmark glaciers [More info]
Summary of the USGS benchmark glacier program to intensively monitor climate, glacier motion, glacier mass balance, glacier geometry, and stream runoff at three glacier basins, Gulkana and Wolverine in Alaska and South Cascade in Washington.
Bering and Chukchi Sea databases bathymetry coverages [More info]
Downloadable files of digital bathymetry of U.S. waters, the Bering and Chukchi Seas, Bering Strait, and Gulf of Anadyr in polygon ARC/INFO. Coverage generated from both digital and paper bathymetry sources developed to support marine research.
PDF Beryllium--important for national defense [More info]
How this element is used, where we get it, and prospects for worldwide supply and demand.
PDF Beyond the Golden Gate--oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones [More info]
A geologic and oceanographic study of the waters and Continental Shelf of Gulf of the Farallones adjacent to the San Francisco Bay region. The results of the study provide a scientific basis to evaluate and monitor human impact on the marine environment.
Bibliography of reports by U.S. Geological Survey authors about the water resources of Wyoming [More info]
Bibliography arranged by major areas and by reports series. Current as of 2007. Also available in PDF format.
PDF Biochar for soil fertility and natural carbon sequestration [More info]
Explains what biochar is and how it is formed, its potential use in both fertilizer and carbon sequestration, and some of the research questions remaining to be addressed before we can utilize it fully in practical ways.
Biogeochemical and geohydrologic processes in a landfill-impacted alluvial aquifer, Norman, Oklahoma [More info]
Discussion and links to research for the multi-disciplinary investigation on the Norman Landfill located on alluvium associated with the Canadian River in central Oklahoma.
Biological soil crusts [More info]
Explains biological soil crusts, organism-produced soil formations commonly found in semiarid and arid environments, with special reference to their biological composition, physical characteristics, and ecological significance.
PDF Biological soil crusts: webs of life in the desert [More info]
Fact sheet on the need to protect biological soil crusts in the desert. These crusts are most of the soil surface in deserts not covered by green plants and are inhabited by cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) and other organisms useful to the ecosystem.
PDF Boiling water at Hot Creek - The dangerous and dynamic thermal springs in California's Long Valley Caldera [More info]
Explains how these hot surface waters form, why their temperature changes often, and provides safety guidance for visiting this area.
Borehole geophysics as applied to geohydrology [More info]
Project summary, photos of logging truck, and bibliographies on log interpretation techniques and instrumentation to record geophysical data in wells and test holes for studying ground water hydraulics and evaluate waste disposal sites.
Boston Harbor Studies: the fate of sediments and contaminants in Massachusetts Bay [More info]
Boston Harbor/Massachusetts Bay Studies research project conducted as part of Boston Harbor cleanup to predict the fate of contaminants and sediments introduced to Massachusetts' coastal waters from sources that include Boston sewage outfall.
BRASS: Bedrock Regional Aquifer Systematics Study [More info]
Description of the project to publish new bedrock geologic maps in the United States to advance the understanding of the region's bedrock aquifers. Includes list of projects.
PDF Breccia-pipe uranium mining in northern Arizona; estimate of resources and assessment of historical effects [More info]
Estimates of uranium resources affected by land withdrawal, effects of previous breccia-pipe mining, water-chemistry data for streams and springs, and potential biological pathways of exposure to uranium and associated contaminants.
PDF Calculating weighted estimates of peak streamflow statistics [More info]
A method of improving our estimates of statistics used to describe flood frequency, taking into account information obtained from the stream whose flood frequency is being investigated.
California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project--shallow aquifer assessment [More info]
Explains why we are assessing water quality in shallow aquifers, what we are measuring, and how the results will be reported both to well owners and to the public.
California Water-Quality Assessment [More info]
Results of activities in California conducted under the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA): maps, publications and data.
California's BAY-DELTA: USGS Science Supports Decision Making [More info]
What causes changes in the hydrology, the ecology and the water quality of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and the San Francisco Bay estuary? These studies help state and local agencies manage resources well.
PDF California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley [More info]
Modeling effort that integrates a wide variety of geographic, hydrologic, agricultural, climatic, and biological information to help local land managers address resource use issues.
PDF Candidate cave entrances on Mars [More info]
Newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities.
Canoeing North Dakota rivers [More info]
Links to streamflow, stage, pictures, maps, river descriptions, and general information for canoeing on North Dakota's rivers. Files are in PDF format.
Carbon dioxide and helium discharge from Mammoth Mountain, Long Valley caldera, California [More info]
An explanation of toxic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain in Long Valley caldera, and a description of magmatic helium discharge at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole with photos, maps, and links to other studies.
PDF Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change [More info]
Explains the process of carbon sequestration through oceanic, terrestrial, and geologic (underground) mechanisms, with some background information on why this is important.
Carolina slate belt gold deposits in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia [More info]
Report of research on the Carolina slate belt and gold deposits in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia with geologic mapping, mineralogic, geochemical, and fluid evolution studies, radiogenic dating, and stable isotope studies.
Cascades Volcano Observatory [More info]
Portal to information provided by the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, WA with links to reports and activity in the Cascade Range and other volcanoes and multiple links to general information on volcanology, reports, research, and maps.
Cascades Volcano Observatory - Learn about volcanoes [More info]
Educational volcano site providing answers to frequently asked volcano questions with links to other general information on volcanoes and to information on specific volcanoes including the Cascade Range volcanoes.
Cascades Volcano Observatory - Mount St. Helens real-time hydrologic monitoring [More info]
Real-time and historic data from gaging stations for water and mudflow detection in the Mount St. Helens, WA vicinity with data tables and plots, interactive location map and station descriptions.
Cascadia subduction zone: two contrasting models of lithospheric structure [More info]
Summary of an investigation of the Cascadia subduction zone with detailed density-modeling experiments of the crust and mantle along two transects across Vancouver Island and the Canadian margin and the other on the margin of central Oregon.
PDF Central Colorado Assessment Project - application of integrated geologic, geochemical, biologic, and mineral resource studies [More info]
Diverse geoscientific and biological data collected in anticipation of ecological, land-management, and mineral resource-related problems.
Central Energy Team [More info]
Research group providing assessments of energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas). Site links to world and national assessments, publications and products.
Central Energy Team publications [More info]
Catalog of USGS publications on energy resources of the U.S. including online publications, paper publications, and geospatial products (interactive maps and GIS data)
Central Region [More info]
Entry to USGS Central Region programs with links to Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, Water Resources, Office of Central Region Services, emergency information, and records of a Rockies field trip, and clickable map to state programs.
Central Region Mineral Resources Team [More info]
Site for programs of the Central Region Mineral Resources Team with links to products, personnel, projects and programs of land stewardship, regional geochemistry, analytical chemistry, geology and resources assessment and remote sensing.
PDF Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007 [More info]
Summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007.
PDF Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009 [More info]
Summarizes graphically the areas where water levels have dropped, and by how much, in this extensive underground water reservoir that covers several states in the mid-continent.
PDF Characterization of Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2004-08 [More info]
Preliminary results of hydrologic and biological sampling confirm anecdotal reports that this stream shows unusually high algal growth due to elevated nutrients, probably from groundwater.
PDF Characterizing contaminant concentrations with depth by using the USGS well profiler in Oklahoma, 2003-9 [More info]
Use of specialized sampling equipment to study public water supply wells, with examples showing Arsenic in two aquifers.
PDF Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009 [More info]
Chloride concentrations in this river have historically been high due to natural saltwater springs and seeps from geologic formations. We monitor the water to help assess the progress of human efforts designed to mitigate this problematic salinity.
PDF Chromium makes stainless steel stainless [More info]
Explains how we use chromium, the types of mineral deposits in which we find it, and the economic factors affecting supply and demand of this commodity.
PDF Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle [More info]
90 billion barrels of oil, 1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids may remain to be found in the Arctic, of which approximately 84 percent is expected to occur in offshore areas.
Classification of natural ponds and lakes in the glaciated prairie region [More info]
Presents a wetland classification system that reflects seasonal, regional, and local variations in the environment.
Climate change in mountain ecosystems [More info]
Overview of interdisciplinary research studies in Glacier National Park to understand how this mountain wilderness responds to present climatic variability and other external stressors, such as air pollution, and links to detailed reports.
Climate of North Dakota: blizzards [More info]
Reviews the causes and frequency of blizzards in North Dakota.
Climate of North Dakota: severe storms [More info]
Reviews frequency and distribution of tornadoes, windstorms, and hailstorms in North Dakota.
Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska [More info]
Published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from wells in Alaska. Includes well locations, depth and thickness of coal in well, formation type and name, and business administrative information such as permit numbers.
Coal on federal lands [More info]
Information on coal on federally owned public lands with links to database and maps for federal coal ownership of the United States, Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, and Colorado Plateau.
Coal Resource Classification System of the U.S. Bureau of Mines and U.S. Geological Survey [More info]
A report published jointly by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and U.S. Geological Survey giving definitions of coal resource classification terms.
Coal Resource Classification System of the U.S. Geological Survey [More info]
The classification system by which coal is classified into resource/reserve base/reserve categories on the basis of the geologic assurance of the existence of those categories and on the economic feasibility of their recovery.
Coal-bed gas resources of the Rocky Mountain region [More info]
Summary of the technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources of the Rocky Mountain region.
Coal-bed methane: potential and concerns [More info]
Fact sheet in PDF format on occurrence and recoverability of coalbed methane in the U.S. and related environmental concerns.
Coalbed methane studies [More info]
Methane (natural gas), while frequently developed with petroleum, also occurs in association with coal and accounts for about 7.5 percent of U.S. natural gas production. Links to digital publications on coalbed methane.
Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) InfoBank [More info]
Access to InfoBank, an online data catalog, to browse or retrieve coastal and marine geology program information, images, and data on gravity, bathymetry, seismic activity, magnetics, samples, facilities, cruises and equipment.
Coastal and Marine Geology Program [More info]
Home page for Coastal and Marine Geology with links to topics of interest (sea level change, erosion, corals, pollution, sonar mapping, and others), Sound Waves monthly newsletter, field centers, regions of interest, and subject search system.
Coastal and Marine Geology Program interactive map server [More info]
Interactive map server to view and create maps using available coastal and marine geology data sets of offshore and coastal U.S. and the Gulf of Mexico. Links to available data and metadata that can be downloaded.
Coastal change hazards digital library [More info]
Online catalog of reports and data on coastal change hazards, indexed by author, agency, project, location, feature type, and topic
Coastal storms and tsunamis [More info]
USGS responses to and studies of the hazards and impact of major hurricanes, tsunamis, and El Nino storms. Includes links to oblique aerial photography and LIDAR surveys recording coastal changes and other effects of storms and waves.
Columbia Environmental Research Center [More info]
Website for the Columbia Environmental Research Center with links to staff, publications, databases, field stations, and projects including those on the Rio Grande, burrowing owls, sea turtles, and geospatial technology.
Community model for coastal sediment transport [More info]
Description of the National Community Sediment-Transport Model (NCSTM), an open source numerical model for sediment transport in coastal regions.
Compilation of various geologic time scales [More info]
Preliminary report comparing various geologic time scales. Text is HTML or plain text format, and colored compilation chart in Excel format.
PDF Condition of streams in Independence, Missouri: What is being done to protect stream health and how citizens can help [More info]
Stream water quality is affected by amount of impermeable surface in the basin; construction; reservoirs; sanitary sewer systems; land use and population density; road salt; animal waste; lawn and agricultural fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.
Connecticut water resources publications [More info]
Links to Connecticut water publications available as HTML and PDF formats.
Contamination in Fractured Rock Aquifers [More info]
Overview of fractured rock research aimed at understanding the movement of water through fracture networks, and characterize field conditions influencing contaminant migration. Includes programs and publications.
Content metadata standards for marine science: a case study [More info]
Describes the content metadata standard used by the Marine Realms Information Bank, a distributed geolibrary that catalogues and provides access to information about marine, coastal, and lake environments.
Continental shelf GIS for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary [More info]
Interactive maps of the continental shelf of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary with GIS layers for sediment data, bathymetry, geology, bathymetry, sonar imagery, and tectonics.
Cooperative Water Program [More info]
Program that monitors, assesses, and communicates the results of the quantity and quality of water in rivers and aquifers.
Cooperative Water Program -- a partnership in the Nation's Water-Resources Program [More info]
Fact sheet (also available in PDF format) on the ongoing partnership in water resources between the USGS and non-Federal agencies primarily state, tribal, county and municipal agencies with water-resources responsibilities.
PDF Copper - A Metal for the Ages [More info]
Sources, uses, and patterns of consumption of copper worldwide
PDF Corals as climate recorders [More info]
Shows how coral reef specimens are collected, the type of information gained from them, and the methods by which they are measured and studied to understand recent (past few centuries) changes in climate.
Core Research Center [More info]
Overview of the Core Research Center (CRC) in Denver for preserving valuable rock cores for permanent storage and making the cores available for examination and testing. Includes links to services, well reports, and resources.
Core science systems [More info]
Major compilations of earth and life science data providing broad frameworks for decision making and research.
Costly landslide events in the United States: map layer description file [More info]
GIS data set from the USGS National Landslides Hazards Program showing major landslide events in the United States and Puerto Rico with metadata. Map layer can be downloaded in shapefile format or SDTS format.
County boundaries 2001: map layer description file [More info]
One of many map layers of the National Atlas giving county boundaries with metadata. The county boundaries map layer can be downloaded in shapefile or SDTS formats.
Crater Lake Data Clearinghouse [More info]
The Crater Lake Data Clearinghouse website is a gateway to information and data on Crater Lake with links to data downloads of bathymetry, maps and imagery, a fly-by movie, photos, and information on geology, maps, history, and biota.
Cross-bedding, bedforms,and paleocurrents [More info]
The on-line version of Cross-Bedding, Bedforms, and Paleocurrents, with computer images, photographic images, and text.
Cruise report by Coastal Surveyor Cruise C-1-99-SC: multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California, continental shelf [More info]
Description of the work and results of a cruise by the Pacific Sea Floor Mapping project to map the Long Beach, California continental shelf based on data from high-resolution multibeam technology.
Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team [More info]
Crustal imaging and characterization home with links to projects on earth science technologies including geophysical, geochemical, and isotope studies, online publications and data, and newsletter Minerals News.
Data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission [More info]
Topographic observations from the SRTM, both original and reprocessed to correct missing and spurious data points.
Database of recent tsunami deposits [More info]
Sedimentary characteristics of 228 tsunami deposits, drawn from published accounts, for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.
Databases and simplified geology for mineralized areas, claims, mines, and prospects in Wyoming. [More info]
This data release contains mineral resource and geology data for metallic and nonmetallic mineral sites in Wyoming. Data is provided in both spreadsheet format (Microsoft Excel) and in GIS ArcView and MapInfo. Text available in PDF format.
PDF Datum shifts and digital map coordinate displays [More info]
Online GIS training course for users in GIS environments in resolving the differences in distances and coordinate readouts due to shifts in the 1927 and 1983 North American Datums when using Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grids.
PDF Debris-Flow Hazards within the Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States [More info]
Storms bring rains strong enough to cause rock-falls and landslides that are hazardous to people. Includes examples in the eastern US with information about the weather events that precipitated the debris flows.
PDF Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply [More info]
Recent increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in this aquifer have been documented in some areas used for public supply, raising concerns as to the sources and causes of the higher concentrations and the long-term effects on groundwater quality.
PDF Decision-support systems for natural-hazards and land-management issues [More info]
Three mathematical models using information about the geographic distribution and character of land surface characteristics along with proposed modifications or plausible events to determine the likely costs and benefits of actions and events.
PDF Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs [More info]
Over 990,000 photos taken from 1959 through 1980 are available for use in studying land surface change. Especially useful because these were taken before Landsat was launched.
PDF Demonstrating usefulness of real-time monitoring at streambank wells coupled with active streamgages - Pilot studies in Wyoming, Montana, and Mississippi [More info]
To better understand the exchange of groundwater and surface water, we coupled groundwater monitoring at the stream bank with nearby gages in the stream. Describes the procedure and results from several areas.
Deserts, geology and resources [More info]
Online edition of booklet describing desert geology and mineral resources.
PDF Detailed seafloor habitat mapping to enhance marine-resource management [More info]
We conduct systematic imaging of reef habitats in order to provide regulatory agencies with information they need to decide whether those reefs should be designated as protected areas.
Detection and measurement of land subsidence using Global Positioning System surveying and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-2005 [More info]
Detailed measurements of elevation help to understand the extent and severity of subsidence. Study asks if subsidence indicates the aquifer system is compacting temporarily or permanently, and are the changes human-induced or tectonic.
PDF Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings [More info]
Geologic CO2 sequestration with enhanced oil recovery in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs can increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource volume and prevent CO2 release to the atmosphere.
PDF Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River [More info]
Proposed removal of dams will change the characteristics of stream flow and will affect fish that swim upstream to spawn. A mathematical model of the river flow tells us where the likely problems will be located and how the flow will change.
PDF Development of industrial minerals in Colorado [More info]
Explains how industrial minerals are produced and overseen through governmental regulation, and describes the industrial mineral resources of central Colorado.
PDF Devils Hole, Nevada--A Primer [More info]
Explains the important paleoclimatic information we have obtained from this subaqueous cavern. The time-series data show important contrasts with what would be predicted from orbital theory, provoking extensive scientific discussion.
Devils Lake, North Dakota [More info]
Includes hydrographic information from 2000 to last seven days, water-quality data, elevation, area, and capacity data and publications on Devils Lake, North Dakota in the Red River of the North basin.
Devils Postpile National Park geologic story [More info]
Site has links to Devils Postpile's geologic history, rocks and minerals, geologic time, geologic maps.
Diatoms: applications [More info]
Use of diatoms in biostratigraphy, coastal and estuarine studies, paleoceanology, paleoliminology, earthquake studies, environmental quality and forensic studies. Includes listing of USGS diatom projects and links to other diatom websites.
Digital library: USGS Monterey Bay science [More info]
Online catalog of scientific reports and data around and about Monterey Bay, California, indexed by author, agency, project, location, feature type, and topic
Digital Line Graphs (DLGs) [More info]
Description of Digital Line Graphs (DLG) with explanations of layers and feature types, scales, available products, media, prices, and links to search and order webpages.
Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQs) [More info]
Description of what Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles are and how to obtain them plus information on the DOQ program, points of contact, DOQ status graphic, examples of DOQs, and free data viewer software.
Digital shorelines for Boston Harbor [More info]
Modified version of paper by F.T. Manheim and A.G. McIntire, Civil Engineering Practice, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 35-48 (1998). A new shoreline file has been created for Boston Harbor by digitizing and combining the most recent charts.
Dinosaurs, fact and fiction [More info]
Online booklet with answers to frequently asked questions about dinosaurs.
PDF Discontinuous nature of kriging digital terrain models [More info]
Research exploring the mathematical properties of kriging, a widely-used surface interpolation method. The continuity properties of kriging digital terrain models over a wide range of terrain types helps hydrologists assess the usefulness of kriging for D
Distribution of high-temperature (>150 °C) geothermal resources in California [More info]
Description and map of geothermal resources in California.
PDF Divisions of Geologic Time - Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units [More info]
A summary of the divisions of geologic time intended to provide a consistent time scale to be used in communicating ages of geologic units in the United States.
Divisions of geologic time-major chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units [More info]
Revised geologic time scale indicating the ages of the lower bounds of chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units as they are currently known. Modifications to those ages made since the previous time scale was released (2007) are clearly marked.
PDF Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina [More info]
With the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, USGS is drilling a deep geologic test well to learn about the regional Floridan aquifer, which provides groundwater to the Hilton Head area.
PDF Drought and deluge: Effects of recent climate variability on groundwater levels in eastern Arkansas [More info]
Water levels in wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer and the Sparta aquifer in eastern Arkansas respond to variability associated with annual precipitation.
PDF Drought Monitoring with VegDRI [More info]
The Vegetation Drought Response Index is a drought monitoring and mapping tool integrating satellite observations of vegetation and climate with land cover, soil characteristics, and other environmental factors.
Drought watch - USGS state information on drought [More info]
Map display that highlights states where the streamflow index at USGS streamgages, averaged statewide, were below normal for the past seven days with links to comparison of recent streamflow values with historic values.
Drought watch Pacific Northwest states: Washington, Oregon, Idaho [More info]
Drought water homepage with links to maps showing streamflow conditions, drought definitions, resources, publications, and answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).
Duration and current conditions graphs for selected Pennsylvania sites [More info]
Plots of streamflow averages and ground water depths for selected hydrologic sites in Pennsylvania.
Early Paleozoic biochronology of the Great Basin, western United States [More info]
Publication (PDF format) in three parts on the biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Ibexian Series in the North American Ordovician, with sections on the southern Egan Range, Nevada and the biostratigraphy of the eastern Great Basin.
PDF Early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project [More info]
A coordinated set of studies shows development of coastal features, aspects of marine water quality, and impacts of hurricanes along this section of important coastline.
Eastern Energy Resources Team (EERT) [More info]
Links to overview, major programs, products and publications on coal, oil & gas, environment & human health, and resource economics, and special applications
Eastern Geographic Science Center [More info]
Programs, projects, laboratories, and publications related to geographic information science in the eastern United States
Eastern Mineral Resources [More info]
Home page for Eastern Mineral Resources Team conducting research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources. Links to products, descriptions of research projects, and staff.
Eastern Mineral Resources meteorite research [More info]
Description of chemical research on meteorites to understand the formation processes of chondrite meteorites and chondrules. Site has link to issues of Meteoritical Bulletin and signup for e-mail notification of new meteorites.
Ecological National Synthesis Project [More info]
National-scale perspective and assessments on aquatic ecology, and the chemical and physical factors that affect aquatic conditions and health.
Economics of undiscovered oil in the federal lands of the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska [More info]
Online report summarizing the economic analysis of the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 petroleum assessment of the Federal lands in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) study area.
Education resources for paleontology [More info]
Contacts and other sources of information for teachers, students, and others interested in paleontology with links to related USGS websites and on-line publications.
Educational materials (Geography Program) [More info]
Description of education materials on mapping and other earth science topics with links to publications in HTML and PDF for downloading and information on obtaining paper and CD-ROM products.
PDF Educational materials from the U.S. Geological Survey product list [More info]
Access to major webpages of USGS educational publications in various formats and on USGS research in the earth and life sciences.
Edwards Aquifer online resources [More info]
Recharge and discharge summaries and other data, aeromagnetic survey map, and publications on Edwards Aquifer, Texas.
PDF Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10 [More info]
Comparison of water in two adjacent watersheds before and after implementing a brush management strategy in one of the watersheds helps us see what water resource characteristics are sensitive to brush management and how.
PDF Effects of climate change and land use on water resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin [More info]
Information from climate model forecasts, projections of future flows, paleoclimatic indicators, timing of snowmelt, airborne dust, and the effects on vegetation of troublesome pest species indicate the nature and severity of problems looming.
Effects of land use on water quality in Michigan [More info]
Links to projects that provide information on the relation of land use to water quality, sources of pollutants, or trends in water quality.
PDF Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea-Level Rise on Coral Reefs [More info]
By measuring the current and historical growth rates of coral skeletons, and using field experiments, we intend to find out whether rising atmospheric CO2 and rising sea levels will cause coral reefs to erode and cease to function.
PDF Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality [More info]
Changes in the way communities address potential problems with stormwater runoff may affect surface waters. This study combines geographic with hydrologic analyses to better understand the effects of the management strategies.
PDF Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment [More info]
Reviews how coal fires occur, how they can be detected by airborne and remote surveys, and, most importantly, the impact coal-fire emissions may have on the environment and human health, especially mercury, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.
End-of-month hydrologic condition reports for New York State [More info]
Site to locate most recent or archive reports for end-of-the-month hydrologic conditions with descriptions, data, charts, and maps giving an overview of water conditions during the month for the state of New York.
PDF Energy and Minerals Science at the U.S. Geological Survey [More info]
Explains the purposes and goals of USGS research and monitoring activities that focus on energy and mineral resources and the potential problems that may result from exploitation of those resources.
Energy and minerals, and environmental health [More info]
Research and assessments on mineral and energy resources, the economic and environmental effects of resource extraction and use; and on human activities that introduce chemical and pathogenic contaminants into the environment.
Energy Resources Program [More info]
Research program conducting basic and applied research on geologic energy resources and on the environmental, economic, and human health impacts of their production and use.
Energy Resources Program - Western Region [More info]
Home page for the Western Region Energy Resources Program with links to Alaska petroleum studies project, coal, oil and gas, other energy sources, environment and human health, and publications.
PDF Enhancement of USGS scientific investigations in Texas by using geophysical techniques, 2005-10 [More info]
Annotated bibliography describing the use of electromagnetic surveying to understand the characteristics of aquifers and how they work.
PDF Environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado [More info]
History and summary maps showing metal concentrations downstream of the mining area.
PDF Environmental investigations using diatom microfossils [More info]
Explains use of diatom assemblages in understanding the history of coastal wetlands.
Environmental processes that affect mineral deposits in the Eastern United States [More info]
Studies in Eastern United States on massive sulfide deposits in Maine, Vermont, Great Smoky Mountains, and Virginia to assess potential environmental impacts.
Environmental studies of the World Trade Center area after the September 11, 2001 attack [More info]
Report describing the results of an interdisciplinary environmental study of the World Trade Center (WTC) area after the attack on September 11, 2001. The investigations included imaging spectroscopy mapping and laboratory analysis.
PDF Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009 [More info]
In September of 2009, flooding in parts of Georgia reached levels expected every 500 years. Specific measurements we made and other facts about these disasters described here should help people prepare for floods here and elsewhere.
Erosion in the Rio Puerco: geography and processes [More info]
Paper on the accelerated erosion of the Rio Puerco, a tributary of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, which has deepened and widened its channel, or arroyo, since the settlement of the region.
Eruption warning and real-time notifications [More info]
Describes strategy of volcano warnings and the real-time detection of a sudden eruption or lahar and immediate notification of the activity to the public and local, state, and federal emergency-management officials.
Eruptions from the Inyo chain about 600 years ago: sequence of events and effects in the Long Valley Area [More info]
Describes the volcanic activity that occurred along the southern part of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain in California about 600 years ago.
PDF Eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes - past, present, and future [More info]
Originally published in 1987, this general-interest booklet has been revised in anticipation of the Centennial of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in January 2012.
Eruptions of Lassen Peak, California, 1914 to 1917 [More info]
Summary of the most recent eruption of Lassen Peak, Cascades (1914-1917)
Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: past, present, future [More info]
Online booklet on the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, past history, and future hazards.
Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Oklahoma [More info]
Freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal data from ground water and surface water for domestic, commercial and agricultural use.
Estimating suspended sediment in rivers using acoustic Doppler meters [More info]
Key Points<br/> - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009) estimates that excessive sediment is the leading cause of water-quality impairment in water bodies in the United States. The cost of damages attributable to sediment is high, estimated at
PDF Evaluating the variability of sediment and nutrient loading from riverine systems into Texas estuaries and bays [More info]
Some results from a study of the variability of sediment and nutrient loads in the lower reaches of the Trinity River during a variety of hydrologic conditions.
PDF Evaluation of fecal contamination by human and ruminant sources in upper Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2007-2008, by using multiple lines of evidence: [More info]
Microbial source tracking analysis of water sampled supports the argument that birds are the primary source of fecal contamination during the warm season.
PDF Evaluation of Structural Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina, 2005-2006 [More info]
Summarizes the ability of four devices to remove suspended sediment, metals, nutrients, and organics compounds in stormwater runoff.
Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) for support of biological and ecological assessments [More info]
Integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring, ground-elevation modeling, and water-surface modeling that provides scientists and managers with current on-line water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades.
PDF Evidence of multidecadal climate variability in the Gulf of Mexico [More info]
Direct measurement of an important indicator of interannual variability is extended, using geological proxy measures, farther back in time to well before modern measurements were made. This tells us about the history of climate variability.
PDF Evolution of 3-D geologic framework modeling and its application to groundwater flow studies [More info]
Methods to depict the connectedness of rock units across fault and fracture zones, allowing us to determine the distribution of geologic units, structural features, and other controlling factors, such as porosity and permeability.
Executive summary, workshop: seismic and tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands [More info]
Summary of workshop with links to reports that are recommendations for future projects.
Extent of Pleistocene lakes in the western Great Basin [More info]
Map of Pleistocene pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin (Nevada, eastern California, southern Oregon). Includes metadata, online PDF map view, and downloadable ArcInfo export files, ArcView shapefiles, and TIFF files.
PDF Extreme drought to extreme floods: summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2009 [More info]
Discusses the nature and extent of extreme hydrologic events, with supporting observations of the water conditions and their effects on human activities.
PDF Famous building stones of our Nation's capital [More info]
Describes the types and sources of materials used to build some of the most famous landmarks in Washington D.C.
FAQs - National Seismic Hazard Maps [More info]
Provides detailed technical information on earthquake hazards in the form of frequently asked questions. Designed for the technical audience, including building and safety planners.
Fault and fold database of the United States [More info]
Online database of faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of significant earthquakes during the last 1.6 million years.
Field Conference on Impacts of Coalbed Methane Development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. [More info]
Field trip to Powder River Basin coalbed methane (CBM) development areas showing impacts related to drilling, facilities, pipeline networks, access roads, withdrawal, and disposal of co-produced water from CBM wells.
PDF Field techniques for estimating water fluxes between surface water and ground water [More info]
A guide to measuring the flow of water across the ground water surface water interface, with an overview of available methods and details of specific methods to use.
Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA [More info]
Accelerating loss of mass, weakening correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and increasing mass turnover likely are the result of changes to warmer and drier climate conditions that are affecting three well-studied glaciers.
Flagstaff Field Center [More info]
Homepage for the Flagstaff Field center with links to space science, water and ice studies, earth sciences, biological resources, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, outreach & education, data and software, and images.
PDF Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine [More info]
Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town. Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area. Our flood inundation maps were out of date, so we have updated them; this explains how.
Flood of April and May 2008 in Northern Maine [More info]
Characteristics and effects of a flood in this area.
PDF Floods of May 2006 and April 2007 in Southern Maine [More info]
Characteristics and consequences of some extreme storm events
Fluvial geomorphology studies in Kansas [More info]
Report of completed studies that have investigated the response of river and stream channels in Kansas to a variety of human-caused and natural disturbances.
PDF Forecast Mekong [More info]
USGS works with the Department of State to share data and support local research efforts and elevate knowledge about this river and delta in maintaining food security and livelihoods in the region.
Forecast Mekong [More info]
Data and reports about the overall environment in the Mekong river watershed. Includes downloadable remote-sensing data and interactive maps.
PDF Forecasting the effects of land-use and climate change on wildlife communities and habitats in the lower Mississippi Valley [More info]
Describes the analytical process by which spatial scientific information contributes to forecasts and models in support of regional and local decision-making.
Fossil groups: Vertebrates [More info]
Information on vertebrate fossils and their use in paleontologic research in biostratigraphy, paleoclimatology, paleobiology, paleoecology, and earth history.
Fossil locations and data for the Taylor Mountains, and parts of the Bethel, Goodnews, and Dillingham quadrangles, southwestern Alaska [More info]
Location, taxa present, and geological context for 290 fossil samples collected in this area.
Fossils, rocks, and time [More info]
Booklet describes how paleontologists use the identification of fossils to recognize rocks of the same or different ages.
Fragile environments: San Francisco Bay wetlands [More info]
Overview with links to studies on the effects of human activity on the San Francisco estuary with loss of historic fresh and saltwater tidal marshes reducing habitats, introducing contaminants in waste, and creating dredging problems.
PDF Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine [More info]
Discussion of the scientific measurements needed to understand the effects of climate change on the seasonal water cycle, with emphasis on Maine.
Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Monitored Natural Attenuation [More info]
Research findings and examples of application to real problems--When can natural processes to reduce, or even destroy, contaminants at toxic waste sites be relied on?
PDF From ridge to reef--linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on the coral reef ecosystems of Hawai&#8216;i and the Pacific Ocean [More info]
Explains how land processes on hills near the shoreline affect the health of coral reefs.
Fundamentals of stable isotope geochemistry [More info]
Brief review of some of the fundamentals of stable isotope geochemistry including definitions, basic principles, standards, and guidelines on reporting data.
PDF Gallium--A smart metal [More info]
Usefulness and characteristics of this mineral commodity.
Gap Analysis Program [More info]
Program to keep common species common by identifying those species and plant communities that are not adequately represented in existing conservation lands. Links to projects, applications, status maps, and a searchable database.
Gas hydrate studies: a part of the Geophysics Group [More info]
Brief overview of gas hydrates and current research. Site also contains links to related USGS research and publications and web sites of other groups participating in gas hydrate research.
Generalized geologic map of the Yosemite National Park area [More info]
Surficial geologic map of the Yosemite National Park area with links to the legend and text.
Generalized surficial geologic map of the Pueblo 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle, Colorado. [More info]
Surficial geologic map of the Pueblo quadrangle in Colorado with text and references in PDF format, metadata, and GIS files to download.
Geochemical and mineral maps from soils of the conterminous United States [More info]
Geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are provided in DS-801
Geochemical reference materials and certificates [More info]
Site to obtain currently available geochemical reference materials, certificates for reference materials no longer available, reference materials in production, and order and processing information. Some documents in PDF format.
Geochemical sediment analysis procedures [More info]
Manual of chemical sediment analysis using Coulometer and CHN Analyzers to measure carbon content, spectrometric analysis for biogenic silica, and radiochemistry to measure isotopes. Includes techniques,sample preparation, and safety procedures.
Geochemistry and tracer studies [More info]
Overview of chemical analyses, tracer studies, gas geochemistry, stable isotopes analyses, organic chemistry, and thermometry capabilities at major USGS laboratories with links to technique, equipment, and contacts for each procedure.
PDF Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer [More info]
Describes the geographic extent, quality, origin, and dynamic character of this aquifer located in south central Oklahoma.
Geochronology [More info]
Description of the methods of geochronology used to estimate the dating of rocks and sediments with links to technique, equipment and contacts for a variety of methods.
Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program [More info]
Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program (GAM) conducts studies about land surface change, environmental and human health, fire and urban ecology, and natural hazards to help decision-makers in land-use planning and land management.
Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program current studies [More info]
Links to current Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM)studies.
Geographic information systems [More info]
Comprehensive information providing an introduction to GIS technology, data gathering, modeling, information retrieval, and applications with colored maps, graphs, diagrams, and photos.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Missouri [More info]
Website with links to USGS hydrologic, geohydrologic, soil, and geologic projects in Missouri using geographic information systems (GIS) technology with digital datasets of images, models, and maps produced by the projects to view.
Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) [More info]
The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) contains information about almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features in the United States.
Geographic science of Alaska [More info]
Descriptions, results, and data on research projects using geographic analysis and monitoring and remote sensing to study ecosystems and land processes in the Arctic region.
Geologic framework and process of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin [More info]
Field methods, topics of investigation, shoreline changes, publications, and satellite imagery related to geologic and hydrologic processes affecting Lake Pontchartrain and adjacent lakes which form a large estuary in the Gulf Coast region.
Geologic glossary for National Parks [More info]
Geologic glossary containing simplified definitions for technical terms used within the USGS/National Park Service website on national parks.
PDF Geologic hazards at volcanoes [More info]
Poster diagram showing the various hazards that accompany volcanic activity as they relate to the structure of the volcano.
Geologic hazards team [More info]
An organizational unit within USGS that studies earthquakes, landslides, and geomagnetism. Contact information and descriptions of current research projects.
Geologic hazards: landslide images [More info]
Photographs of examples of landslides viewable online as 100-200kb or 800 x 600kb images.
Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts [More info]
Describes the history, geologic changes (including the glacial formation and sea level changes), and geologic mapping of Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Geologic history of Long Valley Caldera and the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain, California [More info]
Summarizes the geologic and volcanic activity of the Long Valley Caldera and Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain in east central California.
Geologic map of the Eagle quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado [More info]
The Eagle quadrangle covers an area that straddles the Eagle River and Interstate 70 (I-70) and it includes the town of Eagle, Colo., which is located in the southwestern part of the quadrangle, just south of I-70 and the Eagle River, about 37 km west of
Geologic mapping in National Parks: National Park Service Support Project [More info]
Summaries of geologic projects in cooperation with the National Park Service including Grand Canyon National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Joshua Tree National Park, Yosemite National Park, and others.
Geologic studies of mercury [More info]
Collection of six short papers related to the mercury geochemical society, the study of mercury in coal, concentrations in sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near mercury and gold mines, and volanic emissions of mercury.
Geologic time online edition [More info]
Booklet giving general explanations of geologic time, major divisions of geologic time, relative and radiometric time scales, index fossils, and the age of the earth.
Geologic time scale chart [More info]
Chart of the geologic time scale with references.
Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) Services [More info]
Services available at the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) site in Denver with information on irradiation, neutron activation analysis, fission track radiography, and geochronology and tours of the facility.
Geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys [More info]
Article on geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys with sections on Holocene and Pleistocene geology, water resources, and introduction with a brief history and overview of early studies.
Geology of Death Valley National Park [More info]
Site has links to Death Valley's geologic history, rocks and minerals, geologic time, geologic maps.
Geology of Lake Meade National Recreation Area [More info]
Site has links to Lake Mead National Recreation Area: geologic field trips, geologic history, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, geologic maps, and glossary.
Geology of Mojave National Preserve [More info]
Site has links to Mohave National Preserve: geologic field trips, geologic history, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, geologic maps, and glossary.
PDF Geology of National Parks [More info]
Two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect.
Geology of Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument [More info]
Site has links to Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument geologic field trips, geologic history, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, geologic maps, and glossary.
Geology of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and Potomac River Corridor, District of Columbia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia [More info]
Rocks representing a variety of tectonic and depositional environments outcrop along the canal and towpath and reveal the geologic history of the central Appalachian region from the Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic Period.
PDF Geology of the Devonian Marcellus Shale--Valley and Ridge province, Virginia and West Virginia--a field trip guidebook for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Eastern Section Meeting, September 28-29, 2011 [More info]
Detailed background information with descriptions of sites and photos explaining the geology of this organic-rich shale unit that has recently become a significant source of natural gas resources.
Geology of the onshore part of San Mateo County, California: a digital database [More info]
This digital map database represents the general distribution of the geology (bedrock and surficial deposits) in San Mateo County. Accompanying text file (*.txt or *.ps) provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy.
Geology research and information [More info]
Alternative web access to geological, geochemical, and geophysical research programs that are divided among the new USGS mission areas.
Geology, geochemistry and geophysics of sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits in China [More info]
Second report of a joint project with the Tianjin Geological Academy to study sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits in China.
Geomagnetic charts [More info]
Links to charts of the Earth's magnetic field in different projections showing declination, inclination, and total, horizontal and vertical intensities plus references and note on limitations.
Geomagnetic FAQs [More info]
Frequently-asked questions, with answers, about the Earth's magnetic field.
Geomagnetic models [More info]
Description of magnetic models with link to on-line calculation, freeware calculator (DOS and Windows), descriptions of model types, and references.
Geomagnetic observatories [More info]
Map showing geomagnetic observatories, with detailed information about each one
Geomorphology and sediment transport -- river mechanics [More info]
Current river mechanics research on particle friction angles of fluvial gravels (data files compressed in BenHex, Winzip and Unix) and Grand Canyon Beach evolution (animation requiring Java 1.0) plus digital elevation files (*.hgx and *.zip files).
Geophysical products [More info]
Links to products of magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric, and multi-discipline reports and surveys of regions in the U.S. and Antarctica plus geophysical software tools. Some products are in PDF format.
Geopubs: on-line geologic publications of the western United States [More info]
Access to USGS on-line geologic publications of the western United States categorized by state, region USGS series, geologic maps, and software with links to state geologic survey publications.
Geoscience Data Catalog [More info]
A catalog of earth science data produced by the U.S. Geological Survey with documentation and links to the data files. Catalog is searchable by geographic location and publication series number. Includes links to information on metadata and its use.
PDF Geospatial Information Response Team [More info]
Interdisciplinary coordinating group within USGS to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency.
Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008 [More info]
Where the fires were, as GIS data in shapefile format, geographic coordinates, NAD83.
Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire support [More info]
Description of the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) project, online maps of current wildland fire locations using Netscape Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer, and user guide on how to use mapping application.
Geothermal and hydrothermal activity [More info]
Glossary of geothermal and hydrothermal activity terms.
Geothermal industry temperature profiles from the Great Basin [More info]
Subsurface temperature, well temperature, and well data of geothermal resources in the Great Basin.
Geysers, fumaroles, and hot springs [More info]
Description of volcanic geysers, fumaroles, and hot springs.
Glaciers and glaciations - ice sheets, glacial lakes, tuyas - jökulhlaups and glacial hazards [More info]
Links to background information on glaciers, glacier hazards, ice sheets and glaciations, glacial lakes, specific glaciers, terminology, bibliographies, and related useful links.
Global Change Hydrology Program (hydroclimatology) [More info]
Review of the Global Change Hydrology Program components relating to hydroclimatology and studies of the biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases with links to research activities, datasets, fact sheets, and other publications and websites.
Global Fiducials Library [More info]
Remote-sensing imagery, typically aerial or satellite photography, of specific areas chosen as reference sites for study of land surface change.
Global Geographic Information Systems (GIS) [More info]
Access to downloadable GIS databases including the Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM), remotely sensed products, data on world energy and mineral deposits, biodiversity, and geologic hazards for use with ArcView or free software.
Global inventory of natural gas hydrate occurrence [More info]
This updated global inventory reports on natural gas hydrate recovered or inferred from geophysical, geochemical, or geological evidence. Includes links to world location maps, inventories, references and posters. Also in PDF format files.
Global sea-surface temperature and sea-ice concentration: data display software [More info]
Downloadable data with software showing composite average ocean characteristics (sea-surface temperature and sea-ice concentration). Includes documentation, source code, data, and executable programs for Linux and Microsoft Windows.
Global Seismographic Network [More info]
Worldwide network of seismic monitoring stations coordinated by a variety of national and international organizations.
GLORIA Mapping Program [More info]
GLORIA is a digital sidescan sonar capable of producing digital image maps of the sea floor from reflected sound waves. Site includes description of digital processing, mosaicking, and links to samples of image maps.
Glossary of glacier terminology: a glossary providing the vocabulary necessary to understand the modern glacier environment. [More info]
An illustrated glossary of terms relating to modern glaciers and glacial landforms based mainly on Alaskan examples.
Glossary of selected glacier and related terminology [More info]
Dictionary of terms associated with glaciology with brief definitions.
Glossary of terms in paleontology [More info]
Dictionary of terms associated with paleontology with brief definitions.
Glossary of water-use terminology [More info]
Dictionary of terms associated with water use from the publication: Estimated Use of water in the United States in 1990.
Grain size analyzer technique [More info]
Description of the technique used in particle-size analysis
Great Lakes assessment of water availability and use [More info]
Information about basin storage, historical changes, and consumptive water use for manages and planners to use to develop policies for efficient and sustainable water use.
Great Lakes Beach Health Initiative [More info]
Research and development efforts to improve our ability to provide scientific information needed by local beach managers faced with questions about environmental quality and possible beach closure or resource usage.
Great Lakes issues [More info]
Water resources problems of the Great Lakes including water use, bacterial contamination on beaches, status of water resources, and ground water flow.
Great Lakes Science Center [More info]
Site for Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, which provides information about biological resources in the Great Lakes Basin. Links to personnel, publications, data, library, facilities, research vessels, Great Lakes issues, and research.
Great Lakes Science Center research vessels [More info]
Description of ships used for Great Lakes research by scientists at the Great Lakes Science Center.
Ground water atlas of the United States [More info]
The U.S. ground water atlas consists of information on ground water resources of 13 regions covering the 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Text and maps can be viewed online and downloaded as ASCII, GIF, and *.eps files.
Ground water climate response network [More info]
Map showing a network of selected ground water wells in the U.S. The water levels in these wells are used to monitor the effects of droughts and other climate variability.
Ground water information pages [More info]
Lead page to connect to ground water information on the Nation's ground water resources and ground water activities of the USGS. Includes links to ground-water data, news reports, publications, field techniques, models, programs, and issues.
PDF Ground-water availability in the United States [More info]
Report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability, and outlines a program of study to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. With regional examples.
Ground-water data for the Nation [More info]
National Water Information System (NWIS) real-time data on selected ground water sites, ground water level data, site inventory of wells, test holes, drains, springs and excavations and ground water-quality data for the United States.
Ground-water flow and other computer simulations for Utah [More info]
Identifies computer models in USGS publications developed to study ground water for many areas of Utah.
Ground-water monitoring for pesticides in Wyoming [More info]
Sampling program to determine if pesticides are present in ground water, in accordance with Wyoming's Generic State Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water (SMP).
Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States [More info]
A systematic presentation of climatic and hydrogeologic framework of the area, regional analysis of ground-water recharge, and an overview of 8 site-specific case studies.
Ground-water resources of Louisiana [More info]
Links to Louisiana statewide aquifer and well information by locating parish on a map or selecting parish, aquifer, region, or type of ground-water data (real-time water levels or geophysical data) from lists.
Ground-water resources program [More info]
This program encompasses regional studies of ground water systems, multidisciplinary studies of critical ground water issues, access to ground-water data, and research and methods development.
PDF Groundwater availability study for Guam; goals, approach, products, and schedule of activities [More info]
Process and plan to be used to provide reliable evaluations of the potential effects of groundwater production and help guide sustainable management of the resource.
Groundwater geophysical technology transfer [More info]
Site to provide USGS scientists with web-based resoures to transfer new geophysical knowledge and experience; includes methods, tools, publications and training.
Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California [More info]
Five trace elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, fluoride, molybdenum, and strontium. Vanadium was present at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California [More info]
Trace elements were present at high concentrations in 32% of the primary aquifers here, and at moderate concentrations in 17%. Of particular interest are aluminum, arsenic, vanadium, boron, fluoride, chromium, lead, and molybdenum.
Groundwater Quality in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Valley, California [More info]
Summary of a detailed study in this agricultural area.
Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California [More info]
Recent study indicates that inorganic trace elements and radioactive constituents are more likely to be subjects of concern in this less-developed area than anthropogenic organic compounds.
Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California [More info]
The occurrence of solvents in the groundwater is not correlated with current overlying land use and human activities. Rather, the solvents are from legacy industrial uses, and it has taken decades for the groundwater to move to where it is now pumped.
Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California [More info]
Five trace elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, fluoride, molybdenum, and strontium. Chromium was detected at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California [More info]
Five trace elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium. Chromium and fluoride were detected at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater Quality in the Kern County Subbasin, California [More info]
Arsenic was the trace element most frequently present at high concentrations here. High concentrations of arsenic result from the interaction of groundwater with naturally occurring minerals.
Groundwater quality in the Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley, California [More info]
Uranium, arsenic, and nitrate were the inorganic constituents that were most frequently detected at high concentrations, mostly in shallower wells. High and moderate concentrations of arsenic were detected in deeper wells.
Groundwater quality in the Middle Sacramento Valley, California [More info]
Results of a survey of contaminants in untreated groundwater in this area. Arsenic and boron were the two trace elements detected most frequently at concentrations greater than the benchmarks.
Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California [More info]
Six elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, fluoride, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium. Lead was present at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California [More info]
This study of untreated groundwater indicates the number of samples in which inorganic or organic constituents occur in high or moderate in concentration. The study does not indicate significant problems in groundwater quality here.
Groundwater quality in the north San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California [More info]
Summary of chemical constituents of ground water that are of concern to human activity in this area. Arsenic is the constituent that occurs most frequently in high concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California [More info]
Results of a survey of contaminants in untreated groundwater in this area, separating inorganic from organic constituents.
Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California [More info]
Trace elements boron, arsenic, and molybdenum were found at high concentrations in 15% of primary aquifers in this area.
Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California [More info]
Vanadium and boron were detected at high and moderate concentrations in this area. High concentrations for these constituents were detected almost exclusively in samples collected in the Temecula Valley study area.
Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California [More info]
Organic solvents are the chief concern in this area, which has given rise to a systematic program of monitoring and water treatment. This study shows relatively recent results.
Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California [More info]
The constituent present at high concentrations in the greatest proportion of the primary aquifer system was TDS, which is an indicator of salinity. Perchlorate was also present at moderate concentration in 42% of samples.
Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California [More info]
This study of untreated groundwater indicates the number of samples in which inorganic or organic constituents occur in high or moderate in concentration. The study does not indicate significant problems in groundwater quality here.
Groundwater Quality in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, California [More info]
Arsenic and nitrate are the constituents found most commonly at high concentrations in the primary aquifers. Arsenic comes from natural sources and is affected by pH and dissolved oxygen.
Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California [More info]
Results of a survey of contaminants in untreated groundwater in this area. Arsenic and boron were the trace elements occurring most frequently at high concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California [More info]
Recent study indicating inorganic constituents as the primary items of concern in this area. Chemical and mineralogical compositions of the aquifer rocks probably explain variation among localities here.
Groundwater quality in the Tahoe and Martis Basins, California [More info]
Recent study encountered occasional high values of radioactive trace elements, but the water quality in this area as monitored compares favorably to more urban areas studied by the same group.
Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California [More info]
Recent study indicating nitrate and perchlorate are the primary inorganic constituents of interest here, coming from human activities such as agriculture.
PDF Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming [More info]
Explains how we assess groundwater quality here, what characteristics are important, and how they hurt or, in some cases, help use use the water.
PDF Groundwater resources of Mosteiros basin, island of Fogo, Cape Verde, west Africa [More info]
Shallow groundwater has good quality, but salinity measured in wells suggests the thin lens of freshwater under the coastal plain will be vulnerable to saltwater intrusion as a consequence of pumping.
PDF Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Faja Basin, Island of Sao Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa [More info]
Lower precipitation and recharge, with deeper groundwater levels, suggest this basin will be less susceptible to contamination than others nearby, but may be susceptible to saltwater intrusion brought on by well pumping.
Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Paul Basin, Island of Santo Antao, Cape Verde, West Africa [More info]
Gulf Coast Framework Studies Home Page [More info]
Provides geologic, geophysical, and geochemical framework studies that will aid in a reassessment of energy commodities (coal, gas, and oil) in the Gulf Coast Region.
Gulf of Maine internet map [More info]
Gulf of Maine regional overview interactive map depicting research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey showing surficial sample sites, bathymetry, continental margin and coastal areas.
Gulf of Mexico Climate-History Calibration Study [More info]
Proxy methods allow us to estimate ancient ocean temperatures but only if the method is calibrated using modern samples for which we measure the temperature. This is a proxy method using a sediment trap to collect planktonic foraminifera.
Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science [More info]
Website of the Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science program to understand the framework and processes of the Gulf of Mexico using Tampa Bay as a pilot study. Links to publications, digital library, water chemistry maps, epiphytes, and field trips.
Gulf of the Farallones disposal issues: disposal and waste disposal [More info]
Study of the effects on the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary resulting from the disposal of San Francisco dredged material and barrels of low-level radioactive waste with links to publications and atlas with digital images.
PDF Hawaii StreamStats; a web application for defining drainage-basin characteristics and estimating peak-streamflow statistics [More info]
Interactive maps providing selected analyses on areas you choose
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory [More info]
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's latest news with links to information on Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and other volcanoes, earthquakes, volcanic hazards, photo archive, and general information about the center.
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory spotlight images archive [More info]
Images of Hawaiian volcanoes and the islands they've built in the past few million years, images of recent eruptions, and Hawaiian landscapes.
Hazards, disasters, and the National Map [More info]
Fact sheet describing the value of The National Map designed as a network of digital databases that will provide a consistent national geographic data framework in responding to natural hazards and human-induced disasters.
Health effects of mineral dusts [More info]
Overview of project to develop and apply a variety of earth science methods to interpret the geologic links between mineral dusts such as silica and asbestos and human health problems with links to contacts, tasks, and products.
High Plains aquifer resources and information [More info]
Links to reports, bibliographies, and other information on the High Plains aquifer.
PDF Historic flooding in northern Georgia, September 16-22, 2009 [More info]
Explains the meteorological and hydrologic conditions that led to widespread flooding in this area.
PDF Historic Flooding in South Georgia, March 27-April 3, 2009 [More info]
Explains the meteorological and hydrologic conditions that led to widespread flooding in this area.
PDF Historical changes in annual peak flows in Maine and implications for flood-frequency analyses [More info]
Annual peak flows have increased at most rivers in Maine during the last century. What effect does this have on computed peak flows, such as the 100-year flows, that are used for designing bridges and other structures?
Historical interrelationships between population settlement and farmland in the conterminous United States, 1790 to 1992 [More info]
Chapter from Land Use History of the North America on the results of a study to understand the interactions of population growth, urbanization, and agricultural activity over time.
Historical mapping [More info]
Information on researching and locating historical maps with reference to basic references and collections of the National Archives, Library of Congress, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Includes instructions for ordering copies of historic USGS maps.
Historical streamflows of Double Mountain Fork of Brazos River and water-surface elevations of Lake Alan Henry, Garza County, Texas, water years 1962-2010 [More info]
Shows graphs illustrating available data from two surface-water monitoring stations near this reservoir supplying water for the city of Lubbock.
PDF Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida [More info]
Geophysical surveying, combined with analysis of sediment cores and radiometric dating were used to describe the likely history of formation of this area.
Household Chemicals and Drugs Found in Biosolids from Wastewater Treatment Plants [More info]
Research findings and examples of application to real problems--biosolids have high concentrations of household contaminants compared to treated liquid wastewater effluent.
Housing arrangement and location determine the likelihood of housing loss due to wildfire [More info]
Using a geographic dataset of structures, with more than 5500 structures that were destroyed or damaged by wildfire since 2001, we identified the main contributors to property loss in two extensive, fire-prone regions in southern California.
How do geologists date rocks? Radiometric dating! [More info]
Explanation of how geologists date rocks (to determine the ages of the Earth, fossils, mineral deposits, and other geologic events) and processes using radiometric dating techniques based on radioactive isotopes of carbon and potassium/argon.
PDF How does a U.S. Geological Survey streamgage work? [More info]
Explains how streamflow is measured, how it relates to water level, how stream discharge is measured, and how to find data on streamflow.
Hudson River salt front data [More info]
Tide stage, specific conductance, water temperature, and freshwater inflow at selected Hudson River (New York) gages updated every 4-hours to measure the effects of freshwater withdrawals and upstream movement of the salt front.
Hurricane and extreme storm impact studies [More info]
Homepage for programs of the Center for Coastal Geology on hurricanes and extreme storms with links to technology, related aerial photography, hurricanes, El Nino, northeasters, and specific storms.
Hurricane and extreme storm impact studies: coastal and nearshore mapping with oblique aerial video and still photography [More info]
Information on video and still photography used to supplement laser altimetry measurements of the coast. The photography is used for recognizing geomorphic and cultural features impacted by storms. Links to photo collections of hurricanes and El Nino.
Hurricane and extreme storm impact studies: coastal and nearshore mapping with scanning airborne laser (LIDAR) [More info]
Airborne scanning laser surveys (LIDAR) are used to obtaining data to investigate the magnitude and causes of coastal changes that occur during severe storms. Links to examples of coastal mapping during specific hurricanes.
Hurricane and extreme storm impact studies: hurricanes, El-Niño, & northeasters [More info]
Description of three types of severe coastal storm impacts: hurricane impacts on the southeast U.S., extra-tropical storm impacts on the U.S. west coast during El-Nino winters, and 'northeaster' impacts on the U.S. east coast.
PDF Hurricane impact and recovery shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA: 1855 to 2005 [More info]
Results from historical (1855-2005) shoreline change analysis demonstrate that tropical cyclone frequency dominates the long-term evolution of this barrier-island arc.
Hydrates cruise in the Gulf of Mexico [More info]
Investigation of the upper- and middle continental slope of the Mississippi Canyon, including the Gulf of Mexico, for the distribution of gas-hydrate deposits with links to a DEM image map, bathymetry data, and research technology.
Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN): streamflow data set, 1874 - 1988 [More info]
The Hydro-Climatic Data Network, or HCDN, consists of streamflow records for 1,659 sites throughout United States and its Territories. Records span the period 1874 through 1988, and represent a total of 73,231 water years of information.
Hydroacoustic current meters for the measurement of discharge in shallow streams and rivers [More info]
Description and illustrations of hydroacoustic current meters for measuring the discharge in streams and rivers with links to wading discharge measurements, project progress and plans and references.
Hydroacoustic methods [More info]
Technical information on acoustic methods of measuring water currents and applications of hydroacoustic techniques to problems in surface water hydrology.
Hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat, Washoe County, west-central Nevada [More info]
Description of the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in west-central Nevada north of Reno-Sparks area. Gravimetric and seismic-refraction methods were used in the study. Report available in PDF format or HTML format.
Hydrologic conditions for Illinois: Drought perceptions, effects, and assessment [More info]
Map of stream conditions and links to precipitation data, drought statistics, and information on floods and droughts in Illinois.
Hydrologic conditions for North Dakota [More info]
Links by map location or station number to real-time stage and streamflow, real-time water quality, ground-water data, long-term hydrographs, and annual water-data reports to view and download for past and current water conditions in North Dakota.
PDF Hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2010 [More info]
Georgia has recently seen a lot of extreme weather events triggering widespread flooding. This summary of streamflow and discharge from selected locations shows graphically the conditions during 2010.
Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility [More info]
Provides hydrologic instruments, equipment, and supplies for USGS, other Federal agencies, and cooperators. Also tests, evaluates, repairs, calibrates, and develops hydrologic equipment and instruments.
Hydrologic research and development program [More info]
Program supporting investigations that are generally long-term and multi-disciplinary, and that integrate hydrological, geological, chemical, climatic, and biological information related to water resources issues.
Hydrologic studies in Long Valley caldera [More info]
Hydrologic monitoring data for Long Valley caldera, California, on springs, streams, wells, fumaroles, and precipitation to study the natural hydrologic variations and the response of the hydrologic system to volcanic and tectonic processes.
Hydrologic studies in Oregon [More info]
Links to water data studies for river and lake basins in Oregon including ground water and water quality studies.
Hydrologic studies in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon [More info]
Overview of Klamath ecological research and links to USGS Klamath studies on ground water, nutrients, sediment oxygen demand, and fish response to water quality, sucker ecology, publications, bibliographies, and data.
Hydrologic unit maps [More info]
Overview of hydrologic unit maps adapted from USGS Water-Supply Paper 2294 giving description of hydrologic units, link to list of hydrologic units, paper maps and digital spatial data sets.
Hydrology of Johnson Creek Basin, a Mixed-Use Drainage Basin in the Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan Area [More info]
Study of a small stream that has had a history of persistent flooding and water-quality problems.
Hydrology primer [More info]
General information on the science of hydrology with information on ground water, surface water, water use, the work of hydrologists, and hydrology as a career.
PDF Identification of tsunami deposits in the geologic record; developing criteria using recent tsunami deposits [More info]
Characteristics of recent tsunami deposits, with the knowledge we have about the events that caused them, give us ways to recognize ancient deposits of this type and infer characteristics of those ancient tsunamis as well.
PDF Impacts and predictions of coastal change during hurricanes [More info]
Shows how observations and modeling can help anticipate practical problems in coastal areas when hurricanes arrive. Focuses primarily on areas where people have built houses and roads that may be destroyed during storms.
Improving access to metadata using keywords from controlled vocabularies [More info]
Description of the use of Place Keyword Assistant, a software tool, for tagging metadata with geographic names from standardized lists or controlled vocabularies. Includes instructions on use and downloading software files.
PDF In-place oil shale resources examined by grade in the major basins of the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming [More info]
We estimated a total of 4.285 trillion barrels of oil in-place in the oil shale of this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado [More info]
We estimated 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton, respectively.
In-Place Oil Shale Resources Underlying Federal Lands in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado [More info]
We estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 1.07 trillion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 70 percent of the total oil shale in place, in this area.
Instantaneous Data Archive - IDA [More info]
The USGS collects continuous stage, discharge, and other instantaneous time-series data on the nations rivers. This Archive provides streamflow data and historical data, often several years worth.
PDF Integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies of Big Bend National Park, Texas [More info]
Coordinated studies of the effect of historical mining for mercury, origin and composition of metals in groundwaters and surface waters, history of volcanic and intrusive activity, and the complex geological history of this area.
PDF Integrated monitoring of ecological conditions in wetland-upland landscapes [More info]
Landscapes of interwoven wetlands and uplands offer a rich set of ecosystem goods and services. Changes in climate and land use can affect the value of those services. We study these areas to understand how they may be changing.
PDF Integrated Science: Florida Manatees and Everglades Hydrology [More info]
Description of research and monitoring work proposed for 2008 to combine hydrologic models with manatee distribution and movement models near and within Everglades National Park.
Interagency Hydrology Committee for Alaska [More info]
Information on the Interagency Hydrology Committee for Alaska, an organization of technical specialists at the federal, state, and local levels who are coordinating the collection and implementation of water resources related data in Alaska.
International Polar Year 2007-2008 [More info]
Scientific studies on the polar regions will receive greater attention during 2007-2008 as a result of USGS participation in the International Polar Year, coordinated in the US by the National Research Council, NSF, and NASA.
Introduction to geologic mapping [More info]
A brief summary of the principles and practices of geologic mapping.
PDF Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook [More info]
Tutorial on geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers, divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The Open Ontology Repository.
PDF Introduction to potential fields: Gravity [More info]
Explanation of the Earth's gravitational field, emphasizing how USGS scientists measure gravity and portray these measurements on maps. Explains terminology of gravity anomaly maps and their relationship to the rock types and other geologic features.
PDF Introduction to potential fields: Magnetics [More info]
Explanation of the Earth's magnetic field and how USGS measures it. Defines magnetic anomaly, induced and remanent magnetism in rocks, and describes magnetic anomaly maps.
PDF Inventory and protection of salt marshes from risks of sea-level rise at Acadia National Park, Maine [More info]
Will salt marshes survive if sea level rises quickly? The answer depends on whether the areas surrounding them can allow salt marsh fauna and flora to migrate there. Local topography, both natural and manmade, is the main factor limiting this migration.
PDF Investigating atmospheric mercury with the U.S. Geological Survey mobile mercury laboratory [More info]
Explains sources of mercury in the air, ways in which mercury is concentrated in animals, and describes how we measure deposition of atmospheric mercury, with summaries of observations.
Investigating the Chesapeake Bay impact crater [More info]
Links to information on the formation and structure of Chesapeake Bay including online reports, recent field work, field work archives, cooperating agencies, bibliography, and links to articles about other terrestrial impact craters.
Isostasy [More info]
Explanation of the concept of isostasy as part of the Geophysical studies of the San Francisco Bay area.
PDF Isotope and Chemical Methods in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy, 2003-2008 [More info]
Types of geochemical and isotopic analyses used in conducting a variety of research studies in USGS, primarily focused on mineral deposit formation.
Johnson Creek basin hydrologic monitoring [More info]
Hydrologic data and analyses of surface-water, water quality, and ground water in the Johnson Creek basin in Oregon.
PDF Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) [More info]
Interagency coordination group to understand quality and usefulness of remote sensing data
Joshua Tree National Park geology: on shaky ground [More info]
Description of earthquake that was felt in Joshua Tree region (1999) and links to earthquake summary, shaded relief map, aerial photos of the rupture zone, shaking intensity maps, damage reports, and seismograph network map.
Kansas drought watch [More info]
Drought map of Kansas link to real-time data for stream gaging stations and links to historic droughts of Kansas, ground water, drought definitions, and references.
Kansas flood watch [More info]
Flood map of Kansas link to real-time data for stream gaging stations and links to flood press releases, historic floods of Kansas, flood frequency data, photos, information on hydrology of floods, and flood hazard maps.
Karst Interest Group Proceedings (February 2001) [More info]
Scientific presentations and papers about geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic studies of karst areas in the U.S.
Kentucky District - program highlights [More info]
Brief descriptions of research programs in water resources in Kentucky with a few links to program websites. Programs include data collection projects, acid mine drainage, hydrodynamics, geology, waste site cleanup and hydrogeology.
Kilauea - eruption update and image archive [More info]
Current Kilauea eruption activity, updated daily with recent photos, maps, and deformation information and links to video for broadband users, photo glossary, and image archive.
Kilauea - perhaps the world's most active volcano [More info]
Current activity, hazards, and history of eruptions of Kilauea Volcano.
PDF Kilauea--an Explosive Volcano in Hawaii [More info]
Explains how explosive eruptions occur here, shows the history of its eruptions, and describes the effects and hazards that accompany them.
Laboratory manual for x-ray powder diffraction [More info]
Report presents an abridged guide for laboratory technicians and students using X-ray powder diffraction methodology to study crystalline structure and to determine the mineralogy of finer grained sediments, especially clays.
PDF Lake monitoring field manual [More info]
Handbook on monitoring methods for lake management, including program design, sampling methods and protocol, biota and chemical sampling methods, laboratory methods, preservation of data and samples, glossary, and bibliography. (PDF file, 92 pp.)
Lake Pontchartrain basin: bottom sediments and related environmental resources [More info]
This publication focuses on the geological framework and sedimentary processes of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin and provides links to interactive tools, regional research, and sediment data in GIS formats for display and analysis.
Lake Roosevelt-Upper Columbia River environmental studies [More info]
Description of research studies of the Lake Roosavelt-Upper Columbia area on contaminants and effects on environmental health with links to publications and products, partners, related links, project summaries, and contacts.
Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse [More info]
This website is a gateway to information and data on Lake Tahoe with links to Lake Tahoe Initiative, geography, history, lake facts, GIS Data, DEM, DOQ, DLG imagery, bathymetry, satellite imagery, land cover, census, soils, pictures, and general maps.
Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) [More info]
Homepage of the Land Processes DAAC, which processes, archives, and distributes land-related data collected by Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors. Links to data products including ETM+ Landsat data, ASTER data, and MODIS land products.
Land Remote Sensing Program [More info]
Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) provides a primary source of remotely sensed data and applications of land remote sensing, nationally and internationally.
Land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, south-central Arizona, 1987-2005 [More info]
Results of ground-surface monitoring and borehole water table measurements document subsidence of the land surface correlative with changes in the ground water.
Land Subsidence in the United States [More info]
Describes and provides examples of impacts of human-induced land subsidence resulting from the extraction of subsurface water, including aquifer-system compaction, drainage of organic soils, dissolution and collapse of susceptible rocks.
Land Subsidence in the United States [More info]
Describes and provides several detiled examples of impacts of human-induced land subsidence resulting from the extraction of subsurface water, including aquifer-system compaction, drainage of organic soils, dissolution and collapse of susceptible rocks.
PDF Land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data [More info]
Framework of a national land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data.
Land use history of North America (LUHNA) [More info]
Report prepared with NASA on the importance of a historical context for understanding ongoing changes in land cover and land use in North America and the effect on the environment. Site contains primarily contents of a book edited by T.D. Sisk.
PDF Land-use and land-cover scenarios and spatial modeling at the regional scale [More info]
Complex geographic information can be analyzed with mathematical models to show us the spatial patterns of human building, vegetation growth, and other landscape characteristics that may result from environmental changes we may expect in the future.
PDF Land-use planning for nearshore ecosystem services--the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model [More info]
Describes the types of concerns and observations used to help area resource managers analyze actual or potential changes in this highly developed ecosystem.
PDF Landsat Data Continuity Mission [More info]
A partnership between NASA and USGS to assure continuous satellite imaging of the earth's surface that was begun 40 years ago.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission [More info]
Main site for Landsat missions, which provide information about land surface features of the earth. Includes imagery, links to general and technical information, ordering of data, and partners.
PDF Landsat-A Global Land-Imaging Mission [More info]
Characteristics and history of this satellite-based earth imaging system, including plans and prospects for future instruments.
PDF Landsat: A Global Land Imaging Program [More info]
Overview of the history of this satellite imaging system, with details about the way in which it collects information about the earth's surface.
Landscape changes in the southwestern United States: techniques, long-term data sets, and trends [More info]
This study illustrates some approaches for reconstructing landscape change.
PDF Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Allegheny and Susquehanna Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004--2010 [More info]
Quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction by digitizing indications of disturbance on NAIP aerial photographs and using these with the NLCD to show land use-land cover change.
PDF Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Bradford and Washington Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010 [More info]
Quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction by digitizing indications of disturbance on NAIP aerial photographs and using these with the NLCD to show land use-land cover change.
Landslide events [More info]
Current, regularly updated reports of landslides nationwide
PDF Landslide Hazards in the Seattle, Washington, Area [More info]
Explains how and why landslides occur in this area, and what can be done to forecast and mitigate them.
Landslide Hazards Program [More info]
Research program designed to improve understanding of the causes of ground failure so that the hazards associated with landslides can be mitigated or avoided.
Landslide types and processes [More info]
An introductory primer giving basic scientific facts about landslides--the types of landslides, how they are initiated, and how they can begin to be managed as a hazard.
Landslides learning & education [More info]
A wide variety of explanatory and educational resources about landslides and their relationship with earthquakes and storms, and preparedness. Includes glossary and photos.
Landslides research [More info]
Description of research projects in progress to make accurate landslide hazard maps and forecasts of landslide occurrences.
Large floods in the United States: where they happen and why [More info]
Discussion of large floods and occurrence in relationship to regional climatology, topography, and basin size.
PDF Lead-Soft and easy to cast [More info]
Explains how we use lead, where it comes from, and how we might ensure that we have adequate supplies of this mineral commodity in the future.
Lewis and Clark and the U.S. Geological Survey in North Dakota [More info]
Homepage linking the historic journey of Lewis and Clark and the research of the USGS in the same region with links to mapping history, remarkable points on the Missouri River, educational activities, photo gallery, and publications.
PDF Lidar postcards [More info]
Four postcards available for downloading and printing, illustrating the use of lidar (light detection and ranging) to construct high-resolution topographic and habitat maps.
PDF Limestone - A crucial and versatile industrial mineral commodity [More info]
Uses and availability of limestone and related commodities such as lime and portland cement. Hazards of limestone terranes due to erosion and sinkhole formation.
Liquefaction maps and data for the San Francisco Bay area [More info]
Explains liquefaction, where it occurs, how it affects people, and what can be done about it. Includes maps and data.
Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) [More info]
Description of technique and equipment for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) used to identify organic compounds in chemical analysis.
List of spatial data sets for water [More info]
Links and brief summaries of available geospatial datasets for producing map layers on a variety of topics related to water including data on locations of aquifers, stations, land use and others.
PDF Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy [More info]
Explains how this element is used, where we get it, and prospects for future supply and demand.
Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 [More info]
Data as of 2009, includes facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility.
Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009 [More info]
Data as of 2009, includes facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility.
Long Island Sound [More info]
Long Island Sound interactive map with GIS datasets and sonar imagery.
Long Island Sound sidescan sonar mosaics [More info]
Sidescan sonar image, surficial geologic interpretation, and bathymetry of the Long Island Sound sea floor.
Louisiana continental slope [More info]
Louisiana continental slope interactive map with GIS datasets and sonar imagery.
Louisiana HydroWatch [More info]
Homepage for the statewide real-time hydrologic monitoring network featuring the latest hydrologic information in Louisiana.
Louisiana online water resources publications [More info]
Links to electronic publications on Louisiana water resources, some in PDF format, and link to bibliographies of electronic and paper publications.
Lower Columbia River dissolved gas monitoring network [More info]
Links to real-time data for total dissolved gas, temperature, and barometric pressure in lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and to project reports.
Luminescence dating - introduction and overview of the technique [More info]
Brief overview of luminescence dating is presented, including a description of the method, its uses, and proper sample collection techniques. Links to other U.S. laboratories for luminescence dating are also provided.
Maine Cooperative Snow Survey [More info]
The Maine Cooperative Snow Survey collects, interprets, and distributes information on the depth and water content of Maine's snowpack in the late winter and early spring, when the danger of flooding in Maine's rivers and streams is greatest.
Maine drought information: drought watch [More info]
Daily streamflow data and drought conditions for Maine.
Maine river ice monitoring system [More info]
The USGS in Augusta, Maine monitors river and ice conditions in areas of ice accumulation on the Kennebec River near Augusta providing real-time river stage data and real-time pictures of ice conditions at this location.
Major aquifers in New Jersey [More info]
Geologic description of the principal coastal and non-coastal aquifers in New Jersey and relationship to water quality and water supply.
Major drainage basins in Massachusetts and Rhode Island [More info]
Location and geology of drainage basins in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
Major fossil groups [More info]
Discusses how fossils can be grouped and studied by size, habitat type, and phylogenetic groups. Shows how fossil classification groups are used to solve geologic problems at the USGS.
Major occupations and qualifications [More info]
Information for students on major professions within the USGS with general descriptions of work and qualifications needed for biologists, cartographers, computer professionals, geologists and geophysicists, ecologists, and hydrologists.
Major quake likely to strike San Francisco Bay Region between 2003 and 2032 [More info]
Study of the probability of a major earthquake in San Francisco Bay region with colored map and links to relevant publications. Text also available in PDF format and graphic available in Illustrator or Photoshop format.
Map accuracy standards [More info]
Information on national map accuracy standards and how the USGS maintains accuracy.
Map and database of Quaternary faults and folds in Colombia and its offshore regions [More info]
PDF file of map of Quaternary faults and folds in Columbia prepared as part of the World Map of Major Active Faults with locations, ages, and activity rates of major earthquake-related features accompanied by database of description and activity.
Map showing geology, oil and gas fields and geologic provinces of Africa, ver. 2.0 [More info]
Digitally compiled interactive maps with links to metadata, descriptions of map units, and data files.
PDF Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States [More info]
Study to identify grasslands that may be suitable for cellulosic feedstock production. Producing ethanol from non-cropland areas such as grassland will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies.
Mapping Partnership Office of Texas [More info]
Guide to the cooperative mapping programs in the state of Texas administered by the USGS Texas Mapping Partnership Office. Provides description of ongoing projects with links to USGS and cooperator datasets for the state of Texas.
PDF Mapping perennial vegetation cover in the Mojave Desert [More info]
Field data and satellite images allow us to make a calibrated model of percent vegetation cover, which we can use to inform scientific investigations and land management efforts.
PDF Mapping, monitoring, and modeling Western Gateway Community landscape dynamics [More info]
Geospatial analysis of factors affecting communities that are adjacent to Federal lands, especially those lands subject to varying public interest and visitation.
Maps of the distribution and occurrence of ground water quality constituents and early 1970's land use in New Jersey [More info]
Links to maps of New Jersey showing nitrate levels, pesticides, Total Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and radium in wells and land use of the 1970s.
Marine aggregate resources and processes [More info]
Regional studies mapping the seafloor sedimentary character and assessing marine sand and gravel resources around the United States, to inform beach nourishment and coastal restoration, benthic habitat and sediment transport studies
Marine Realms Information Bank: topic search, geographic search [More info]
Searching by geography and topics to locate scientific information about oceans, lakes, marine environments and coastal environments.
Marine research publications [More info]
Bibliography of publications relating to the research of the United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA dating from 1962 to the present with links to publications that are online. Listed by series and with a free text search option.
Marine reserves and biological habitats: Monterey Bay, California [More info]
Brief description of the research program to inventory the natural resources of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary with links to cruises, and publications and products, including an internet map server, imagery, and geologic descriptions.
Mars Global Digital Dune Database; MC-1 [More info]
Distribution and morphological character of moderate to large size dune fields on Mars from 65 degrees North to the north pole.
Mass Wasting Following the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire near Durango, Colorado, a Field Trip Guidebook [More info]
Guidebook with photos, maps, and diagrams explaining how forest fires have affected the likelihood of mass wasting, with discussions of steps taken to minimize future impacts.
Mass wasting presentation [More info]
Presentation explaining the various types of mass wasting, how they work, and how they differ from one another, with diagrams and photos.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island District home page [More info]
Home page for the Massachusetts and Rhode Island District office for water resources with links to drainage basins, water, stream statistics, projects, publications, news reports, and location.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island District projects [More info]
List of all Massachusetts and Rhode Island District water projects with links to those with homepages.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island District water data [More info]
Links to streamflow, surface and ground water, water quality, flood, drought, and precipitation data in real-time and for historic time periods for Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
PDF Mauna Loa -- history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano [More info]
Describes volcano-related hazards on the Island of Hawaii, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis.
Mauna Loa current activity [More info]
Current activity of Mauna Loa Volcano with news, GPS data, electronic tiltmeter data, and current seismicity plus links to long term monitoring.
Measuring human-induced land subsidence from space [More info]
Examples of the use of Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar to measure and map changes on the Earth's surface as an aid to understanding how ground-water pumping, hydrocarbon production, or other human activities cause land subsidence.
Measuring land subsidence from space [More info]
Describes the use of satellite-borne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to precisely measure, monitor, and assess small changes in land surface elevation resulting from human-induced or naturally occuring land subsidence.
Megafossils: vertebrates - technique of paleontological analyses [More info]
Brief description of vertebrates and use of their fossil bones and footprints to aid in dating strata in biostratigraphy and to decipher past climates and recreate ancient ecosystems in paleoecology, paleoclimatology and paleobiogeography.
Menlo Park Rock Magnetics Laboratory [More info]
Description of the work on paleomagnetism at the USGS Rock Magnetics Laboratory in Menlo Park, California with an overview of geomagnetic polar reversals, paleosecular variation, intensity, magnetic susceptibility, and rock magnetism analysis.
PDF Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion [More info]
Explains the complex relationships between coal, mercury, and halogens in light of ongoing efforts to reduce the emission of mercury into the environment.
Mercury Concentrations in Streams Found to Go Through Daily Cycles [More info]
Research findings and examples of application to real problems--highly variable conditions cause the production of toxic methyl mercury in the environment which accumulates in fish.
Mercury Studies Team [More info]
Home page on hydrology studies on mercury, the most common contaminant of aquatic ecosystems, with links to general information, research team projects and data.
PDF Methods for estimating concentrations and loads of selected constituents in tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas [More info]
Water from this reservoir will be used more extensively by the city, so we are developing methods of assessing the water quality in real time by measuring characteristics of stream flow that correlate with important water quality data.
PDF Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in rural basins in the southeastern United States: South Carolina [More info]
Flood estimates are needed for the efficient design of bridges, highway embankments, levees, to protect lives and property in flood-prone areas, and to determine flood-insurance rates.
PDF Methods for processing and imaging marsh foraminifera [More info]
Special handling must be used because these one-celled organisms break down easily if dried, and the scientific analysis is enhanced by identifying smaller specimens. Shows how they are sampled, prepared, and studied using optical and electon microscopy.
Methods of installing United States National Seismographic Network (USNSN) stations: a construction manual [More info]
Instructions on how to build a protective outdoor seismic vault used as stations for broadband seismic sensors that respond to seismic energy, temperature, and atmospheric pressure for the United States National Seismic Network in PDF format.
Methow River Basin [More info]
Description of studies conducted to evaluate the surface water, ground water, water interactions, and water quality of Methow River Basin in Washington. With links to related science topics, datasets, maps, project summaries, and news.
Michigan District - USGS Federal-State Cooperator Program [More info]
Links to websites of state, county and regional, township, municipal and tribal cooperators assisting with the funding and studies of the Michigan District research projects and data collection related to Michigan's water resources.
Michigan hydrologic summary [More info]
Links to websites providing data and information related to Michigan hydrology including droughts, floods, current water conditions, Great Lakes water levels, climatology, and weather.
PDF Microbial ecology of deep-water mid-Atlantic canyons [More info]
Plan for an upcoming study, at the microbiological scale, of the benthic communities (including corals) that reside in and around mid-Atlantic canyons, which are located at the edge of the continental shelf.
PDF Microbial production of natural gas from coal and organic-rich shale [More info]
Explains how natural gas can be formed by microorganisms from geological materials, and how we plan to assess the potential value of this process for improving energy resources.
Mid-Continent Mapping Center [More info]
Overview of the Mid-Continent Mapping Center, Rolla, Missouri: a production, research, and data management facility for maps and digital cartographic data products, with links to directions, programs, mapping products, and visitors center.
Middleton (Wisconsin) Data Center [More info]
Technical information about several water resource database projects with local, regional, and national scope including the National Environmental Methods Index, the National Water Quality Assessment Data Warehouse, and the USGS Publications Warehouse.
Mineral commodity statistics and information [More info]
Database of mineral and material commodities with descriptions, contacts, and historical and current statistics of worldwide supply, demand, production and trade in Mineral Commodity Studies, Minerals Yearbooks, and special publications.
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