Three mathematical models using information about the geographic distribution and character of land surface characteristics along with proposed modifications or plausible events to determine the likely costs and benefits of actions and events.
Landscape changes in ground disturbance, land use and land cover, condition of forests, temperature, albedo, and others may have effects on the ecosystem that need to be understood as natural resources are discovered and exploited.
Landscapes of interwoven wetlands and uplands offer a rich set of ecosystem goods and services. Changes in climate and land use can affect the value of those services. We study these areas to understand how they may be changing.