Direct measurement of an important indicator of interannual variability is extended, using geological proxy measures, farther back in time to well before modern measurements were made. This tells us about the history of climate variability.
Map of Pleistocene pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin (Nevada, eastern California, southern Oregon). Includes metadata, online PDF map view, and downloadable ArcInfo export files, ArcView shapefiles, and TIFF files.
Accelerating loss of mass, weakening correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and increasing mass turnover likely are the result of changes to warmer and drier climate conditions that are affecting three well-studied glaciers.
Review of the Global Change Hydrology Program components relating to hydroclimatology and studies of the biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases with links to research activities, datasets, fact sheets, and other publications and websites.
Proxy methods allow us to estimate ancient ocean temperatures but only if the method is calibrated using modern samples for which we measure the temperature. This is a proxy method using a sediment trap to collect planktonic foraminifera.