Direct measurement of an important indicator of interannual variability is extended, using geological proxy measures, farther back in time to well before modern measurements were made. This tells us about the history of climate variability.
GLORIA is a digital sidescan sonar capable of producing digital image maps of the sea floor from reflected sound waves. Site includes description of digital processing, mosaicking, and links to samples of image maps.
Downloadable data with software showing composite average ocean characteristics (sea-surface temperature and sea-ice concentration). Includes documentation, source code, data, and executable programs for Linux and Microsoft Windows.
Proxy methods allow us to estimate ancient ocean temperatures but only if the method is calibrated using modern samples for which we measure the temperature. This is a proxy method using a sediment trap to collect planktonic foraminifera.