Explains biological soil crusts, organism-produced soil formations commonly found in semiarid and arid environments, with special reference to their biological composition, physical characteristics, and ecological significance.
Fact sheet on the need to protect biological soil crusts in the desert. These crusts are most of the soil surface in deserts not covered by green plants and are inhabited by cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) and other organisms useful to the ecosystem.
Locations for nine species of large constrictors, from published sources, along with monthly precipitation and average monthly temperature for those locations. Shapefiles for each snake species studied.
The USGS Core Science Metadata Clearinghouse contains metadata records describing datasets largely focused on wildlife biology, ecology, environmental science, temperature, land cover, and land stewardship.
Acidified soils caused toxic aluminum in 66 percent of 565 assessed streams. Diatoms and aquatic macroinvertebrates were moderately to severely affected. These effects have not improved in areas surveyed in the early 1980s
Amphibian population declines and deformities due to various causes including land use change, viruses, and fungi. Links to USGS press releases, answers to FAQs (HTML and PDF versions) and photos with downloadable files.
They're abundant in this area, but hard to count reliably. We outline a procedure for estimating the population sizes so that we can determine whether they're increasing or dwindling. We must both listen for their calls and visually confirm them.
Homepage for the Dept. of the Interior's Initiative coordinated by the USGS, for amphibian (frogs, toads, salamanders and newts) monitoring, research, and conservation. Links to National Atlas for Amphibian Distribution, photos, and interactive map serve
Links to information on species of frogs, toads, and salamanders located in the southeastern United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands, with information on appearance, habitats, calls, and status, plus photos, glossary, and provisional data.
Fact sheet (PDF format) on amphibians in Olympic National Park and overview of the habitat, the decline in populations, and rare amphibians in the Pacific Northwest including the giant salamander and tailed frog.
We removed non-native fish from a section of the river and the endangered native species humpback chub increased in abundance. But it is not yet clear that decreased competition explains the rebound in population.
Background information and genetic sequencing data for more than 1,000 individual field isolates of the fish virus Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) collected in western North America from 1966 to the present, updated annually.
Wildlife you see in a national park or other reserved area don't know about the park boundary. Bobcat, martens, mink, and moose need different types of living space and habitat. Development outside the park affects their ability to inhabit the park.
A template database for recording information on individual isolates of aquatic pathogens affecting a variety of aquatic species such as fish or shellfish. Tracks collection, history, geography, gene sequence, and diagnostic info. Uses FileMaker Pro.
Updated summaries of research in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, on caribou, muskoxen, predators (grizzly bears, wolves, golden eagles), polar bears, snow geese and their wildlife habitats with maps of land-cover and vegetation.
Atlas recording spawning and nursery areas of fish in the Great Lakes and associated rivers listed by area and then by species. A 14-volume atlas in PDF format. Published in 1982 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Small wetlands in this large area have hosted migratory birds for a long time, but with changes in agricultural practice and regional climate those habitats may not remain hospitable to the wild populations.
Brief review of bat research in the San Francisco Bay area and southern California providing land managers with information on the occurrence and status of bat species with links to bat inventories for California and related material.
A literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focus on North America and on refereed journals. Additional references include a selection of citations on bat ecology, international research on bats and wind energy, and unpublished reports.
A geologic and oceanographic study of the waters and Continental Shelf of Gulf of the Farallones adjacent to the San Francisco Bay region. The results of the study provide a scientific basis to evaluate and monitor human impact on the marine environment.
Homepage for the Biochemistry and Physiology Branch in Columbia, MO, which develops analytical techniques (cell bioassay/immunoassay) on toxicity related to fish and wildlife; and conducts research in microbiology and physiology.
Bird banding is used to study the movement, survival and behavior of birds. The Bird Banding Laboratory Site has links to the value, procedure and history of bird banding, how to report bird bands (English & Spanish), and resources for birders.
Geographical access to multiple bird checklists developed by others that indicate the seasonal occurrence of birds in a given area. A Record Documentation Form to document supporting details of rare bird observations is also available.
Explains how critical information about dispersal and gene flow in sage-grouse populations can be obtained from the DNA coded in the sage-grouse feathers collected at their communal breeding grounds, which are called "leks".
Description of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) and lichens (dual organisms of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium) that are part of forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest with information on habitat and conservation.
Manual for research program on the nesting habits of sea turtles of the Virgin Islands, with descriptions of species, nesting behavior, observation methods, record keeping, tagging, and tissue sample collection. (PDF file, 121 pp.)
Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) poses a problem in the deserts of the United States, growing in dense stands and introducing a wildfire risk in an ecosystem not adapted to fire. This report explains what we are doing to help mitigate its effects.
Three themes of ongoing research: forecasting polar bear and walrus population response to changing marine ecosystems; measuring wildlife population changes in the Arctic coastal plain, and wildlife communities in the boreal-Arctic transition zone.
Changes in Arctic sea ice and permafrost will likely affect populations of wildlife. Migratory birds such as loons rely on freshwater lakes in the Arctic for nesting and food supply; we are studying how their populations are affected by these changes.
Loss of sea ice has increased ocean wave action, changing coastal habitats. For some geese this has been a positive change, increasing the amount of coastal area that supports vegetation the geese feed on.
Polar bears are endangered by reduction in Arctic sea-ice concentration and by reduction in their supply of prey for food. Models shown here indicate anticipated effects on polar bear populations of several climate change scenarios.
Home page for Coastal and Marine Geology with links to topics of interest (sea level change, erosion, corals, pollution, sonar mapping, and others), Sound Waves monthly newsletter, field centers, regions of interest, and subject search system.
Changes in both the ocean and coastal ecosystems may have negative effects on sea otter populations in the coastal Northwest and Alaska. A study underway will examine these factors and the overall health of sea otter populations.
Website for the Columbia Environmental Research Center with links to staff, publications, databases, field stations, and projects including those on the Rio Grande, burrowing owls, sea turtles, and geospatial technology.
The information provided in the CEE-TV database profiles available geo-referenced information on contaminant exposure and effects in terrestrial vertebrates along the U. S. coasts. The database utilizes Microsoft's Access 2000 for Windows.
Describes the Conte Anadromous Fish Laboratory of the Leetown Science Center, which performs research directed towards restoration and protection of anadromous fish with lists of research projects and facilities.
Assessment of the importance of the Conservation Reserve Program in preventing the decline of grassland breeding birds by preserving grassland habitats in North Dakota. Published as Wilson Bulletin v. 107 no. 4, pp. 709-718 (1995).
Report with mini-movie and photos on the hypothesis that the atmospheric transport of dust arising from the desertification in northern Africa led to algal infestation of corals, coral diseases, and the near extinction of associated sea urchins.
Shows how coral reef specimens are collected, the type of information gained from them, and the methods by which they are measured and studied to understand recent (past few centuries) changes in climate.
Population size, foaling, deaths, age structure, sex ratio, age-specific survival rates, and more over a 14 year time span. This information will help land and wildlife managers find the best maintenance and conservation strategies.
Article from Wildlife Monographs no. 100 (1988) on the relationships of wetland habitat dynamics and life history to the breeding distributions of the various species of ducks with information on research methods and references.
Proposed removal of dams will change the characteristics of stream flow and will affect fish that swim upstream to spawn. A mathematical model of the river flow tells us where the likely problems will be located and how the flow will change.
Use of diatoms in biostratigraphy, coastal and estuarine studies, paleoceanology, paleoliminology, earthquake studies, environmental quality and forensic studies. Includes listing of USGS diatom projects and links to other diatom websites.
Using satellite telemetry and field studies to track pintail ducks during spring migration north from California's Central Valley plus pintails in New Mexico and Texas. Includes links to migration maps, journal, duck calls, and field methods.
Comprehensive bibliography on the ecology, conservation, and management of North American waterfowl and their wetland habitats. Facilitates searching or downloading as *.zip files and use with ProCite utility.
Publication (PDF format) in three parts on the biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Ibexian Series in the North American Ordovician, with sections on the southern Egan Range, Nevada and the biostratigraphy of the eastern Great Basin.
By measuring the current and historical growth rates of coral skeletons, and using field experiments, we intend to find out whether rising atmospheric CO2 and rising sea levels will cause coral reefs to erode and cease to function.
Sixty-five sampling sites, selected by a statistical design to represent lengths of perennial streams in North Dakota, were chosen to be sampled for water chemistry and mercury in fish tissue to establish unbiased baseline data.
Sixty-five sampling sites, selected by a statistical design to represent lengths of perennial streams in North Dakota, were chosen to be sampled for fish and aquatic insects (macroinvertebrates) to establish unbiased baseline data.
Describes four communicable diseases (salmonellosis, trichomoniasis, aspergillosis, and avian pox) that can be passed from bird to bird at bird feeders and gives eight relatively easy steps that people can take to prevent or minimize disease.
Constructed farm ponds represent significant breeding, rearing, and overwintering habitat for amphibians in the Driftless Area Ecoregion of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa. Links to fact sheet, brochure, annual reports, field manual, and final report.
Manual listing field procedures for bird specimen collecting, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral diseases, biotoxins, chemical toxins, common and scientific names of birds, and glossary. Manual can be downloaded or viewed in PDF format.
Report describes an electronic database of annotated citations relevant to fish passage through dams. Document may be searched using the search form or downloaded as an Endnote, Microsoft Word, or WordPerfect
Catalog of bird species common to forest and rangeland habitats in the U.S. with natural histories including taxonomic information, range, and habitat descriptions to assist land managers in resource management. Text available as a *.zip file.
Program to keep common species common by identifying those species and plant communities that are not adequately represented in existing conservation lands. Links to projects, applications, status maps, and a searchable database.
Review of the size of breeding populations of Giant Canada geese by states in the Mississippi, Atlantic, Central, and Pacific flyways and the management problems caused by rapid increases of local breeding populations.
Proxy methods allow us to estimate ancient ocean temperatures but only if the method is calibrated using modern samples for which we measure the temperature. This is a proxy method using a sediment trap to collect planktonic foraminifera.
Fact sheet on the historic and current conditions of mangroves of Dry Tortugas National Park, a cluster of islands and coral reefs west of Key West, Florida. Mangroves and nesting frigate bird colonies are at risk to destruction by hurricanes.
Overview of Klamath ecological research and links to USGS Klamath studies on ground water, nutrients, sediment oxygen demand, and fish response to water quality, sucker ecology, publications, bibliographies, and data.
Description of the use of a miniature video-camera system deployed at nests of passerine species in North Dakota to videotape predation of eggs or nestlings by animals such as mice, ground squirrels, deer, cowbirds and others.
Recent physical changes over time, including trends toward earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing river ice, and increasing spring water temperatures, may affect salmon populations; we want to know how important these effects are.
Article from Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources on the serious impacts to river systems due to damming and flow regulation, and rehabilitation, monitoring, and research on such rivers.
Description of research program for immediate and long-term management of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) inhabiting the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Includes links to reports in PDF format and cooperating organizations.
Describes the diversity of habitat types in which invasive lionfish have been reported within Florida's coastal waters, based on lionfish sightings recored in our Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database.
Even though lead usage has declined due to environmental awareness and regulation, several human sources of lead continue to affect birds. Hunting ammunition and fishing gear are ingested by the birds, with toxic effects.
Macroinvertebrate data collected by USGS or USFS from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed, with emphasis on methods of sample collection and data processing.
Occurrence, photos, and characteristics of some species of the colonial tunicate genus Didemnum, nuisance species that reproduce rapidly and foul marine habitats (including shellfish aquacultures and fishing grounds), ship's hulls, and maritime structure
Brief description of vertebrates and use of their fossil bones and footprints to aid in dating strata in biostratigraphy and to decipher past climates and recreate ancient ecosystems in paleoecology, paleoclimatology and paleobiogeography.
Special handling must be used because these one-celled organisms break down easily if dried, and the scientific analysis is enhanced by identifying smaller specimens. Shows how they are sampled, prepared, and studied using optical and electon microscopy.
Information on mollusks and uses of the identification of fossil mollusks in the fields of biostratigraphy, geochronology, paleocoeanography, paleoecology and ecosystems history. Links to experts and related USGS projects.
Description of project monitoring the status of Greater Glacier National Park Area's grizzly bear and black bear populations using genetic techniques on DNA from bear hair or scats without handling bears, with photos and discussion of methods.
Trace elements are inorganic chemicals occurring in small amounts in nature. This web site of the National Water Quality Assessment links to U.S. data, publications, news, and other sites on trace metals, metalloids and radionuclides in water.
Overview of three research programs including determining levels of mercury at selected sites in water, sediment and fish, mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and mercury cycling in the Everglades National Park, Florida.
Summary of protocols describing procedures for laboratory analysis of algae samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Includes full document to be downloaded in PDF format.
Brief descriptions of programs of research on aquatic nonindigenous plants and animals at the Florida Integrated Science Center with links to descriptions, videos, posters, and reports on various exotic plant and animals species.
The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) is a long-term monitoring program designed to track the status and trends of frog and toad populations with links to data access, protocol, and how to volunteer as an observer.
North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a cooperative program that monitors the status and trends of North American bird populations. Includes files of results, analyses, route collection maps and raw data.
Project to assess the grizzly bear population size, trend, and survival in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) in Montana to improve the long-term survival for this threatened species. With description, DNA identification means and photos.
Web interface for a database of documented occurrences of lichens in units of the U. S. National Park System. The records were obtained from the scientific literature, from National Park Service reports, and from selected herbaria.
Brief report on sidescan sonar data, sediment sampling, and submersible and video photography studies of destruction of deep-water coral pinnacles where fish spawn off east-central Florida in the Oculina Bank in order to restore and protect the habitat.
Links to USGS capabilities in paleontological analyses of fossils such as mollusks, diatoms, palynomorphs, ostracodes, calcareous nannofossils, etc. Includes descriptive information, technique, equipment, and contacts for each fossil group.
Links to ornithology programs at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, including large scale survey analysis of bird populations, research tools, datasets and analyses, bird identification, and seasonal bird lists.
Access to Patuxent Wildlife Research Center fact sheets (PDFs) providing summaries of center studies on coastal ecosystems, birds, amphibians, taxonomy and other subjects and on center activities including partners and volunteer program.
List of plant specimens and photo gallery of plants in the collection of the herbarium at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a reference collection of plants occurring in the area lying between Baltimore, Maryland and Washington D.C.
Biomonitoring projects studying the status and trends of the nation's environmental resources and programs studying amphibians and birds. Links to long-term programs, resources and references, and related links.
Site for the Platte River Program in Nebraska an area that is a critical staging area for migratory waterbirds of the Central Flyway. Includes links to color-infrared aerial photos, 1938 historic aerial photos, and Cottonwood Ranch research site.
The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. The USGS has modeled the future responses of polar bear and Pacific walrus populations to this environmental change.
Report on effects of the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide on plants and animals, especially birds, in the Great Plains including effects of carbon dioxide fertilization, ultraviolet radiation, climate change, and harmful effects on bird habitats.
Report on the Sirenia Project use of a radio tracking study to determine manatee movement patterns and habitat to develop ecological models to understand and predict the effects of hydrologic restoration on manatees in Southwest Florida.
The Raptor Information System (RIS) collection and bibliographic database have been transferred to The Peregrine Fund. The RIS records are being subsumed into the bibliography posted on the website of the Global Raptor Information Network (GRIN).
Report on the use of regression equations from measurements made by water quality monitors and analytical results of manually collected samples estimating nutrient, bacteria, and other constituent concentrations to study streams in Kansas.
One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys
Links to bird banding manual, banding associations, equipment and suppliers, bibliography, band size lookup, recapture database, bander services, aging and sexing birds, longevity records, Canadian atlas of bird banding and other resources.
Literature review of sago pondweed, a submersed angiosperm that attracts waterfowl, but is also a nuisance plant that clogs irrigation systems. Includes classification, distribution, habitat, physiology, management, and economics.
Life history and identification of Salvinia species, a floating, rootless tree fern and a noxious aquatic weed. Site includes posters, instructions on submitting sightings, how to subscribe to a listserv on the weed, and a bibliography.
Report on a community of microscopic organisms, Archaea, found deep in an Idaho hot spring living on hydrogen and carbon dioxide that could possibly exist on other planets. Includes links to related studies, investigators, and microbiology.
Webpage on research on sea otters (Euhydra lutris) in the nearshore environment of the eastern Pacific Ocean with information on status of otters on the coast of Alaska, Washington, and California and link to fact sheet in PDF format.
The U.S. Geological Survey established a sediment trap in the northern Gulf of Mexico to collect time-series data on the flux and assemblage composition of live planktic foraminifers. This report provides an update of the 2008 time-series data to include
Describes how social scientists and natural resource managers work together to develop cooperation and public help in solving complex natural resource issues. Links to the use of public surveys in a project for black-tailed prairie dog management.
Overview of the Southeastern Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative, annual report, field methods and protocols, statistical design and analysis, glossary, projects, and lists of frogs, toads and salamanders.
Report on the status of the biota and ecological factors of the inland lakes of the Great Lakes Cluster Parks: Indiana Dunes, Sleeping Bear Dunes,and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores and Isle Royale and Voyageurs National Parks. (PDF file, 321 p.)
Combined with supporting research in reproductive physiology, identification of spawning habitat, and early life history this result provides new understanding of environmental factors that might affect reproduction of this endangered species.
Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service with descriptions of exotic aquatic species introduced in the southeast United States with information on populations, geographic distribution, and origins.
Report on the population of northern pintails between 1979 and the 1990s in Sacramento Valley, California, including methods of study including radio telemetry, causes of mortality, morphometrics, survival rates, and management implications.
Interactive Mapping Service (IMS) is an Internet based Geographic Information System designed to provide users with online mapping capability of habitats, land use and land cover, and seagrass for areas of Tampa Bay.
Describes highly pathogenic avian influenza and explains why this wildlife disease is of concern to health scientists and the public. Diagram shows potential pathways by which the disease could be transmitted to other animals, including humans.
Paper by Duane Chapman for the 6th International SPMD Workshop and Symposium on a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) measures contaminants in water by mimicking the parts of fish that cause concentration of specific chemicals in fish tissues.
Report on the captive breeding program at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to help save endangered whooping cranes. Site links to natural history information on whooping cranes, why they are endangered, cool facts on cranes, and a photo gallery.
Report (PDF format) on an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of contaminated ground water from a metals refinery adjacent to the Missouri River in Omaha, Nebraska testing water and sediments for contaminants and toxicity.
This endangered species prefers native trees in large, continuous areas of riparian habitat. Armed with this information, resource managers may identify and preserve areas favorable to this population.
Homepage for Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center, LaCrosse, Wisconsin, with links to data library, geographical search, science programs, partnerships, long-term resource monitoring program, reports and publications, and education.
We work with state and Federal agencies to study these diseases of birds because they can affect both wild populations of birds and cultivated poultry, and their diseases can spread to other animals, including humans.
The USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program is a cooperative effort with the National Park Service (NPS) to classify, describe, and map vegetation communities in over 270 U.S. national park units with links to overview, standards, products, and applications.
Over 30 years of substantial warming, the timing of life cycle events in maize here has changed, threatening the crop yield by exposing the plant at sensitive phases in its life cycle to increased heat and drought, and lowering the weight of its grains.
Report on use of strip-transect aerial surveys to obtain minimum manatee counts and distribution information in area of Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, with maps, diagrams, and information on method and results.
Report of a pilot study to classify vegetation communities in parts of the Smoky Mountains National Park by sampling vegetation in selected areas with information on field methods and data analysis and lists of communities identified.
Review of current research on stock assessment of the Pacific walrus in the Chukchi and Bering Seas and interactions between walruses and their environment with links to walrus taxonomy, distribution, behavior, and relation to man