Information from climate model forecasts, projections of future flows, paleoclimatic indicators, timing of snowmelt, airborne dust, and the effects on vegetation of troublesome pest species indicate the nature and severity of problems looming.
How climate change affects ground water is more complex than surface water because the residence time of ground water can range from days to tens of thousands of years. Discusses some broad climatic processes may affect groundwater resources.
Direct measurement of an important indicator of interannual variability is extended, using geological proxy measures, farther back in time to well before modern measurements were made. This tells us about the history of climate variability.
Accelerating loss of mass, weakening correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and increasing mass turnover likely are the result of changes to warmer and drier climate conditions that are affecting three well-studied glaciers.
Proxy methods allow us to estimate ancient ocean temperatures but only if the method is calibrated using modern samples for which we measure the temperature. This is a proxy method using a sediment trap to collect planktonic foraminifera.