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U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives
Fiscal Year 2001

Contents | Tribes/Tribal Governments | Organizations/Events | States | Intro | Highlights | Education | Resource/Environment | Technical Assistance | General Coordination/Policy | Future Opportunities | Map (156 Kb PDF) | USGS Contacts

Resource Activities

Real-Time, Water-Quality and Quantity Data-Collection Network for the Maliseet Indians. The USGS Maine Water Resources District is working closely with the Houlton Band of the Maliseet Indians to develop a real-time data-collection and data-dissemination network on the Meduxnekeag River in northeastern Maine. The Meduxnekeag River is an integral cultural resource for the Maliseet Indians as well as an important source of irrigation water for farmers in the predominantly agricultural watershed. In particular, the Tribe is concerned about the quality of the water and riparian plants that are harvested on the riverbanks. Point and non-point inputs of nutrients to the river appear to be contributing to algal blooms that have degraded the quality of the river, adversely affecting the habitat for aquatic and riparian organisms. The Maine District is working on behalf of the Malliseet Indians to identify funding for the proposed work. Contact: Robert Lent, 207-622-8201,

Support for Passamaquoddy Water Management Plan. The USGS Maine Water Resources District is working with the Passamaquoddy Indians to collect real-time streamflow information critical to the development of a water management plan for Tribal land in southeastern Maine. The watershed includes important blueberry barrens and Atlantic Salmon habitat. Careful stewardship of the land requires accurate streamflow information. The USGS operated two streamflow gages in Fiscal Year 2000-01 and is committed to long-term operation of one gage. Contact: Robert Lent, 207-622-8201,

Environmental Database for the Penobscot Nation. As part of the contaminant study of the Penobscot River, the USGS Maine Water Resources District has developed an environmental database for use by the Penobscot Nation's Department of Natural Resources (PIN DNR). The PIN DNR conducts a variety of ongoing biological and water-chemistry studies on Tribal lands and the Penobscot River. The database will provide a systematic method of data storage, enabling the PIN DNR to consolidate their existing data and manage new data as they are collected. The database is capable of storing data on a variety of sample media and constituents. The database's open-ended design allows for future modification and additions as new constituents, agencies, and study areas are included in future studies. Contact: Robert Lent, 207-622-8201,

Tuscarora Nation. The Director of the Tuscarora Nation's Environmental Program met with representatives of the USGS New York Water Resources District in June 2001. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Region 2 had suggested the meeting to help the Tuscarora Nation resolve concerns about their water sources. The Nation is interested in creating a database or geographic information system to assist them in making water use and management decisions. USGS provided reports on the Lockport Dolomite and suggested several contacts. Contact: Bill Kappel, 607-266-0217 ext. 3013,

Ecosystem Reconstruction and Effects of Past Ecosystem Perturbations in Lac Courte Oreilles. The purpose of this study was to reconstruct the Musky Bay ecosystem history and an additional site within Lac Courte Oreilles. The project was completed in Fiscal Year 2001 within the lands of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. The project emphasized the possible effects of cranberry farming and shoreline development using the sediment record. Studies focused on the nutrient history (input and burial rates) that reflects management practices and possible watershed degradation. The modeled nutrient history was interpreted in concert with reconstructed algal (mainly diatom) communities preserved in the sediments. Another objective of the project was to search for possible cranberry farming signatures including sulfur, uranium, and potassium associated with fertilizers, and copper associated with pesticides. Biogenic silica profiles provided complimentary data for algal community reconstructions. The sediment record likely preserves observable trends in nutrient biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem character over the last few hundred years, a timeframe that includes a background period and the period of cranberry farming. A report of project results is being prepared. Contact: Faith Fitzpatrick, 608-821-3818,

Menominee Water-Quality Monitoring. A network of water-quality monitoring stations is being established through a cooperative project between the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin and the USGS Wisconsin Water Resources District. The network, to extend throughout the Menominee lands, will provide data for characterizing existing water-quality conditions, developing water-quality and watershed-management plans, and helping conserve and protect ambient conditions and ecosystems of the Menominee lands. Specifically, this project will determine the physical properties and concentrations of chemical constituents in water-column samples of all major streams on the Reservation. It will also quantify and characterize benthic invertebrate communities at the selected sample sites as an additional indicator of water-quality and environmental conditions. The study includes water-quality and biological sampling for invertebrate community evaluation of 10 streams within the Reservation tributary to the Wolf River, and at two sites on the Wolf River. USGS Contact: Herb Garn, 608-821-3828, Menominee Contact: Doug Cox, 715-799-4937,

Ground-water and Water Quality of Lakes and Springs on Lands of the Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. The USGS Minnesota Water District Office is delineating the direction of ground-water flow and assessing the water quality of selected lakes and springs on lands of the Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. The Grand Portage Band will use the information to help them evaluate potential harmful effects of development on Tribal water resources. The ground-water flow direction will be used to determine recharge and discharge areas. Land uses may particularly affect recharge areas. Contact: Don Hansen, 763-783-3250,

Water Resources Investigation for the Prairie Island Indian Community. The Prairie Island Indian Community asked the USGS Minnesota Water District Office to define the wellhead protection areas of their municipal wells. The USGS study uses two dimensional ground-water flow models, aquifer tests and continuous stage recorders on the Mississippi River. The Community is located adjacent to the River. These investigations are expected to be completed in Fiscal Year 2002. Contact: Don Hansen, 763-783-3250,

Potential Waste Site for the Spirit Lake Nation. The Spirit Lake Nation and the Indian Health Service have asked USGS hydrologists to provide hydrogeologic information that documents the geologic sediments in an 80-acre area being evaluated as a possible waste transfer and disposal site. USGS will also construct monitoring wells and document the background water-quality at a site-specific area. The study results will provide information for the Spirit Lake Nation and the Indian Health Service to use in planning and managing waste handling facilities and in protecting and monitoring the environment. Contact: Douglas G. Emerson, 701-250-7402,

Lake Traverse Reservation Pesticide Management Plan Support. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is compiling and analyzing data to provide background material for a Pesticide Management Plan for the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe. Numeric and geospatial datasets include: pesticide concentrations in ground- and surface- water, soils information, topographic data, geohydrologic features, land cover and use, and pesticide use in the area. The Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe will use the assembled information to develop a Pesticide Management Plan for their lands. Contact: Ryan Thompson, 605-352-4241 ext. 225,

Water Resources of the Lake Traverse Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe, South Dakota Geological Survey, and Roberts County, completed an investigation that describes and quantifies the water resources of the area within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation (Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe) in South and North Dakota, and adjacent parts of Roberts County, South Dakota. Six years of test drilling and numerous water quality samples were completed to aid in describing the quality, quantity, and availability of surface and ground water resources. Eleven aquifers, six named outwash groups, and many isolated outwash bodies were mapped. Results of the investigations were published as Water Resource Investigation Report (WRIR) 01-4219. Contact: Ryan Thompson, 605-352-4241 ext. 225,

Flandreau Water Supply Assessment. USGS hydrologists compiled and summarized water-quality data in order to describe a water source for the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe and the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Flandreau Indian School. USGS employees also collected water samples from selected ground- and surface-water sites relevant to an aquifer that is a possible Tribal water source. The samples were analyzed for many compounds including emerging contaminants. The USGS studies found little evidence of widespread water-quality problems in the aquifer, which has been used to supply past and local water needs. The USGS reported these results to the Tribe and the BIA. Contact: Bryan Schaap, 605-352-4241 ext. 226,

Hydrogeology of the Ogallala and Arikaree Aquifers for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and are used extensively for agricultural, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Water-resource tools are needed to evaluate management and environmental options such for issues such as planning for source-water protection, describing potential impacts of contamination, and estimating sustainable aquifer withdrawals. The objective of the USGS study is to develop, calibrate, and document a numerical ground-water flow model of the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers underlying the Rosebud lands. The model will be used by the Tribe to test various hydrologic conditions. Contact: Andy Long, 605-355-4560 ext. 237,

Water Quality on Lands of the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation. The USGS provides periodic water-quality assessments at selected sites on the lands of the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation to identify and monitor potential sources of contamination that could cause human-health concerns. Tribal staff are helping to build self-sufficiency, in cooperation with USGS, by accompanying USGS personnel during water-quality sampling trips on Tribal lands and by helping to collect and process samples for analysis. As part of the training program, several Tribal staff members attended a water-quality sampling course at the USGS National Training Center in Denver. Contact: Heather Ross, 785-832-3575,

Overview of Water Resources for the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes. The USGS provided the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes with a draft report that describes surface and ground water, water use and availability, and water quality in northern Caddo County and northwestern Grady County, Oklahoma. The study area is about 900 square miles and extends from the Canadian River on the north to the Washita River on the south. Contact: Marvin M. Abbott, 405-810-4411,

Surface-Water Quality and the Effects of Oil Production, Osage Nation. The USGS provided the Osage Nation with a draft report describing water-quality and stream discharge at 140 surface-water sites on lands of the Osage Nation. The study also identified the oil wells that are upgradient from the sampling sites using a digital elevation model. Water-quality data were compared to oil-well information for upgradient wells. Contact: Marvin M. Abbott, 405-810-4411,

Availability of Water in Arkansas River Alluvial Aquifer, Osage Nation. A new cooperative project with the Osage Nation will use drilling, litho-stratigraphic and hydrologic analyses, and water-quality sampling to evaluate the quantity and quality of water in alluvial and terrace aquifers along the Arkansas River in Osage County. Two Native American student hydrologists will carry out the project under USGS supervision as part of their Masters of Science program requirements for Oklahoma State University. Contact: Marvin M. Abbott, 405-810-4411,

Ground-Water-Quality Monitoring for the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes. Recent studies by the USGS in cooperation with the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes identified two significant ground-water-quality problems: saline-water contamination and large nitrate concentrations in ground- water. Several studies identified more than 12 square miles of saline-water contamination in the East Poplar oil field. Another study found that nitrate concentrations were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard (10 mg/l) in ground water from more than 50 percent of wells completed in the Flaxville and underlying aquifers. Additional monitoring was needed to determine if the salt water plumes in the East Poplar oil field have migrated since the last sampling period (1993). Additional sampling was also needed to determine if nitrate concentrations vary seasonally or over longer periods of time. A long-term ground-water-sampling network was needed to determine changes in ground-water quality for these areas of concern. Wells in the East Poplar oil field and wells screened in the Flaxville aquifer were selected by the USGS in consultation with the Fort Peck Tribes for additional monitoring over a 3-year period. Wells selected in the East Poplar oil field were sampled annually to detect plume migration. Wells selected in the Flaxville and underlying aquifers were sampled quarterly to determine seasonal and temporal trends in nitrate concentrations. The data will be compiled and published in a report. Contact: Joanna Thamke, 406-457-5900,

USGS Plague Workshop. Since the introduction of bubonic plague into the United States in 1900, the disease has spread throughout the West, where a variety of rodent species serve as reservoirs for both human and wildlife plague infection. Plague has significantly impacted populations of prairie dogs. Outbreaks in prairie dog colonies can kill 90-100% of the population. Since prairie dogs are the primary food source of the endangered black-footed ferret, decimation of prairie dog colonies by plague is hampering recovery efforts. In addition, the black-footed ferret itself can be highly susceptible to plague. Black-tailed prairie dog populations have been severely impacted in north-central Montana, including the Fort Belknap Reservation of the Assiniboine and Gros Ventre Tribes. A wildlife biologist with the Fort Belknap Reservation has been active in regional plague management and in planning for reintroduction of black-footed ferrets to these lands. In September 2000, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center sponsored a workshop entitled "Landscape Ecology of Plague in the American Southwest". The wildlife biologist from Fort Belknap participated in the workshop and presented a key paper entitled "Plague Management During Black-Footed Ferret Reintroductions in Montana." Proceedings from this workshop is being prepared and are be published as a USGS Technical Report Series in Fiscal Year 2002. Contact: Christopher Brand, 608-270-2440,

Tom Stafne, Fort Peck Tribes Assiniboine and Sioux intern, digitizing land-use.  Photo by Joanna N. Thamke, USGS Tom Stafne, Fort Peck Tribes Assiniboine and Sioux intern, digitizing land-use. Photo by Joanna N. Thamke, USGS

Water Resource Studies for the Crow Tribe. The Crow Tribe of Indians is concerned about the availability and quality of water for domestic and other uses by Tribal members. Both ground-water and surface-water studies were conducted by USGS to provide information for Tribal decisions. Ground-water along the Little Bighorn River may be an important future water resource for the Crow Tribe, but little detailed information is available describing this resource. The USGS is completing a study that used existing data and new, field-collected information to evaluate the availability and quality of water in the alluvial and terrace deposits along the river. The potential availability of water from underlying bedrock aquifers was also described. To promote understanding of surface water conditions, USGS collected water-quality samples six times per year from three sites along the Little Bighorn River, Crow Indian Reservation, between May 1993 and September 2001. These data were collected to provide stream water-quality information to the Crow Tribe. These data may be used by the Crow Tribe to determine if a large, confined animal-feeding operation is affecting stream-water quality. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and trace elements; results were published in the annual USGS water-data reports for Montana. Contact: Lori Tuck, 406-457-5900,

Hydraulic Characteristics and Flood-Limit Delineation of the Jocko River on Part of the Flathead Reservation. The objective of this cooperative project is to delineate the flood limits and hydraulic floodway for 100- and 500-year events for a 20-mile reach of the Jocko River from near Arlee, Montana, to the river's mouth near Dixon on the Flathead Reservation of the Confederated Salish and Kootanai Tribes. USGS hydrologists surveyed channel-geometry (cross-section) data for the Jocko River and are using the data in a hydraulic model to calculate water-surface profiles and other hydraulic parameters such as flow area, conveyance, flow widths, mean flow depths, and velocities. The hydraulic data will be used to delineate the flood plain and floodway. The 100-year flood is commonly used as a regulatory flood for flood-plain management and flood insurance purposes. Adoption of flood-plain management regulations for the Jocko River would enable land-use and fishery managers for the Salish and Kootenai Tribes to better plan and guide future development to minimize riverine impacts and would also enable citizens to purchase subsidized flood insurance. The hydraulic analyses will be completed in 2002. Contact: Charles Parrett, 406-457-5928,

The Effects of Sediments on Life in the Wind River. The Eastern Shoshone Tribe and the Northern Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation are concerned about the effects of sediment, and sediment releases, related to the Wind River Diversion Dam. Several times during each irrigation season, the gates of the Wind River Diversion Dam are opened to flush out accumulated sediment deposits in the dam pool. Although these brief pulses do not release new sediment to the river, the magnitude and timing of the events concern the Tribal water resources managers. The released sediment is deposited in settings like pools and backwaters, where it may become a stressor to benthic fauna and downstream fish communities. The USGS is working on a study of the effects of Diversion Dam releases on pools and benthic biological communities in the Wind River. The objectives of the proposed study are to document any difference in the patterns of pool sedimentation of the Wind River upstream and downstream from this dam, monitor suspended-sediment transport downstream from the diversion dam, and compare the benthic invertebrate and algal communities upstream and downstream from the diversion dam. The spatial and temporal patterns of effects on aquatic habitat and fauna caused by sediment releases from the diversion dam will provide an improved understanding for diversion-dam management broadly applicable to many similarly regulated gravel-bed streams. An additional benefit of the study will be the dataset developed as part of the project as currently there are limited physical-habitat and benthic-invertebrate data currently available for the Wind River. Contact: Thomas Quinn, 307-778-2931 ext. 2748,

Water-quality for the Southern Ute Indian Tribe. The Southern Ute Indian Tribe has rights to 1/6 of the storage capacity of the Vallecito Reservoir and has supported USGS water quality work there. The Vallecito Dam and Reservoir were constructed to furnish supplemental water to about 54,000 acres. The Vallecito Dam prevents the flooding of crops, farmland, and structures along the Vallecito River during spring runoff by storing the floodwater for controlled releases to benefit irrigation. The Southern Ute Tribe is supporting a USGS study that is characterizing current water-quality conditions in the Vallecito Reservoir watershed over five years beginning in 2000. These data will be used to establish a baseline of major ions, metals, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in reservoir inflows, in the reservoir itself, and in the reservoir outflow. Current conditions will form the baseline for comparisons with later years, to assess the affects of future population growth and land-use changes on reservoir water quality. Monitoring is planned to continue for 10 to 20 years after the initial 5-year characterization of existing water-quality conditions to determine water-quality trends. Contact: Tony Ranalli, 303-236-4882 ext. 313,

Geohydrologic and Water-Quality Assessment for the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. On behalf of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso, USGS hydrologists are studying the Pueblo's surface- and ground-water quality and will provide data on the geohydrology and water quality to the Pueblo staff. The study will determine the water-quality characteristics of water resources on the Pueblo and the environmental impacts to the geohydrologic system from internal and external sources. The scientific information from this study will be used by the Pueblo's Department of Environmental and Cultural Preservation to prepare future health risk assessments and, potentially, for establishing the Pueblo's water-quality standards. Pueblo staff are participating in the study by working with USGS personnel collecting surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data, and learning basic interpretation of water-quality data. Contact: Dale Rankin, 505-830-7965,

Geologic Framework of Rio Grande Basins, New Mexico. The USGS is conducting geologic and geophysical studies to provide a framework for understanding aquifers in several critical ground-water basins along the Rio Grande, which extends from Colorado to Mexico. The current focus of this project is the Española ground-water basin in the greater Santa Fe, New Mexico, region, which includes lands belonging to the Pueblos of Cochiti, Nambe, Pojoaque, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, and Santa Clara. A major project goal is to develop a three-dimensional geologic model of the ground-water basin that will eventually improve the understanding of ground-water flow and resources. The project includes: geologic mapping in cooperation with the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and the University of New Mexico; geophysical mapping of the subsurface in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience educational program; investigations into how faults affect the aquifer system; and studies of geologic history to predict the distribution of underground aquifers. Geologic and geophysical maps of Pueblo areas provide information that aids in ground-water protection, and assessment of water and other natural resources. Related geologic and geophysical mapping efforts from a previous project in the Middle Rio Grande basin cover portions of the Pueblos of Isleta, Sandia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santo Domingo, and Zia. Most products of that phase of the work are completed or in the final compilation stages. Contact: Mark Hudson, 303-236-7446,; Tien Grauch, 303-236-1393,

Geo-Ecological Studies of Land Use, Climate Change, and Landscape Vulnerability on the Navajo Nation. Work is underway to examine the history of land-use impacts in the ecologically sensitive Hopi Buttes region, Navajo Nation, and the relations between human health and water quality in an environment with known uranium and arsenic contamination. Collaboration with offices and people of the Navajo Nation is crucial to the project, with the ultimate goal of providing information for education and community-based land-use planning. Research on separate aspects of the ecosystem includes bedrock geology, surficial processes, soil and water quality, plant ecology, as well as the history of human habitation. Geologic controls on water quality are being examined to outline areas where good quality water can be found. Changes in surface stability and erosion and arroyo development are being examined with the aid of existing photographic records. Regional work on sand dune stability encompasses eolian deposits within the entire Navajo Nation. Recent drought years have resulted in reactivation of sand dunes, threatening agriculture and grazing, destroying one home and threatening others. The distribution of eolian deposits is being mapped and classified according to the amount and type of stabilizing vegetation. Dunes that are mostly active are closely associated with Russian Thistle (tumbleweeds), an invasive annual that requires minimal moisture to germinate. The relationship between dune mobility and vegetation may be altered due to the recent appearance of this plant, as it dies off and becomes detached during dry, windy periods. Vegetation mapping, repeat photography, and consultations with Navajo plant experts are providing information on conditions that promote the spread of invasive species. USGS scientists met with Northern Arizona University scientists and independent researchers in June 2001 to discuss collaborative work on this project. They visited several locations on the Navajo Nation and discussed the interrelationship of water quality, topography, invasive plant species, and current and historic land use. In 2002, USGS scientists will collect widespread plant distribution data that will be used to develop a preliminary map linking the geomorphology and substrate of the area with plant distribution. Contact: Margaret Hiza Redsteer (project leader), 928-556-7366,; Kathryn Thomas (vegetation studies), 520-556-7466 ext. 235, Website for this project:

Members of the Navajo Nation draw water from Lokasaad Spring, which is also a sampling site for studies of rock and water geochemistry.  Photo by Margaret Hiza Redsteer. Members of the Navajo Nation draw water from Lokasaad Spring, which is also a sampling site for studies of rock and water geochemistry. Photo by Margaret Hiza Redsteer.

Black Mesa Monitoring Program. The N aquifer is the major source of water for the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area of Northern Arizona. The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The USGS is monitoring ground-water levels, changes in water quality and quantity, and summarizing ground-water usage for the Black Mesa area on an annual basis in cooperation with the Hopi Tribe, the Navajo Nation, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the State of Arizona, and Peabody Coal Company. A ground-water flow model is currently being evaluated for use in making predictions of ground-water change in the N aquifer as development continues on Hopi and Navajo lands. Contact: Blakemore E. Thomas, 928-556-7255,

Geochemical Analysis of Ground-Water Ages, Recharge Rates, and Hydraulic Conductivity of the D Aquifer, Black Mesa. The N aquifer is the most heavily used aquifer for water supply in the Black Mesa area of northern Arizona by both the Hopi Tribe and the Navajo Nation. Concern exists that increasing withdrawals of water from the N aquifer to slurry coal will cause excessive declines in water levels or will cause poor-quality water from the overlying D aquifer to infiltrate the N aquifer. (The D aquifer overlies the N aquifer in the Black Mesa area.) The USGS is characterizing the ground-water geochemistry of the D aquifer through the use of naturally occurring inorganic constituents and stable and radioisotope. Differences in geochemical signatures between the D and N aquifers will help determine whether leakage is occurring to the N aquifer from the overlying D aquifer as a result of pumping ground water from the N aquifer. D aquifer geochemistry will also be used to estimate ground-waters age and recharge regimes in comparison to the N aquifer. Water users in the Black Mesa area, including the Hopi and Navajo, will use the information from this study to make informed decisions on how best to manage available water resources. Contact: Margot Truini, 520-556-7352,

Inventory of Vascular Plants and Vertebrate Animals. In collaboration with the Navajo Nation, Ute Mountain Ute, and Southern Ute Tribes, USGS scientists from the Colorado Plateau Field Station initiated a comprehensive inventory of vascular plants and vertebrate animals in ten National Parks and National Monuments within and adjacent to Navajo and Ute Tribal lands. The purpose of the inventory is to document overall species diversity, collect data on distribution and abundance of rare species, and identify non-native, weedy species. Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, and Navajo National Monument include lands of the Navajo Nation. At these areas, USGS scientists are working cooperatively with Navajo Nation Fish and Wildlife Service biologists on field surveys. Likewise, surveys at Mesa Verde National Park and Yucca House National Monument will provide information of interest to neighboring Ute tribal lands. The project employs students of the Haskell Indian Nations College in fieldwork for the study, providing the students with hands-on experience in field research and technologies such as geographic information systems. Contact: Charles Drost, 928-566-7466 ext. 233,

Aquifer Sensitivity on Navajo Nation Lands and Ground-Water Vulnerability to Pesticide Contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. This study is determining the sensitivity of aquifers to impacts from activities occurring on the overlying land surface, and estimating the effects of irrigated agriculture and attendant pesticide use on ground water underlying the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. GIS coverages that describe recharge areas, areas of unconsolidated deposits, soil hydrologic group, topography, and precipitation have been developed. The aquifer sensitivity assessment consisted of combining these coverages and interpreting the resulting coverage. The assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project consisted of combining the results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment with pesticide leachability ratings for each pesticide used during 2000. Leachability ratings were estimated on a field-by-field basis. Contact: Paul Blanchard, 505-830-7947,

Investigations of Wildlife Mortality Events. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin has responsibility for disease prevention, detection, and control in free-ranging wildlife. Species under Federal stewardship, such as migratory birds, endangered species and animals on Federal lands, are the focus of field investigations, diagnostic work, and research. Avian, mammalian, and amphibian wildlife carcasses from all over the country are submitted to the Center for diagnostic evaluation. When a wildlife mortality event is reported, potential responses include on-site assistance to contain the outbreak, diagnostic services to determine the cause, and research to further understand the ecology of the disease. Services are available to bureaus within the Department of the Interior and to Tribal organizations. During Fiscal Year 2001, the (non-USGS) Veterinarian of Record submitted two carcasses, a prairie falcon and a peregrine falcon, for the Navajo Nation Zoological and Botanical Park in Arizona. Both birds apparently died of emaciation. Contact: Scott Wright, National Wildlife Health Center, 608-270-2460,

USGS Science Assists Navajo and Hopi Nations. USGS scientists met with Northern Arizona University scientists and independent researchers in June 2001 to discuss collaborative work on a project entitled: "Geo-Ecologically Based Study of Historic and Prehistoric Land Use in the Arid Region of Hopi Buttes, Navajo and Hopi Reservations, Arizona." They visited several locations on the reservation and discussed the interrelations of water quality, topography, invasive plant species, and current and historic land use. In 2002, USGS scientists will collect widespread plant distribution data that will be used to develop a preliminary map linking the geomorphology and substrate of the area with plant distribution. Contact: Kathryn Thomas, 520-556-7466 ext. 235, Website for this project:

Climate Change and Land-Use Impacts, Navajo Nation and Hopi Tribe. Sand dunes on the Navajo Nation in Arizona are being examined as indicators of climate change and the potential movement of sand dunes is being determined. This project, begun in Federal fiscal year 2000, consists of mapping sand dune deposits and classifying them according to stability, based on the degree and type of vegetation holding them in place, and on regional meteorological information. The mobility of sand dunes is important for determining potential impacts of sand encroachment on grazing and farming resources, native plants, and infrastructure. A USGS scientist was invited to speak at the Navajo Nation's Shiprock Chapter GIS Conference and to participate in the Navajo EPA's strategic planning session. These projects emphasize outreach with the Native community, including the coordination of training sessions in image processing and acquisition of Landsat 7 imagery on the Navajo and Hopi lands. Contact: Margaret Hiza Redsteer, 928-556-7366,

Tsezhin Bii' - The name of this area in the Navajo language means 'within black rocks'. This butte dotted landscape of the Navajo Nation formed from volcanic activity 7 million years ago.  Photo by George Breit, USGS. Tsezhin Bii' - The name of this area in the Navajo language means "within black rocks". This butte dotted landscape of the Navajo Nation formed from volcanic activity 7 million years ago. Photo by George Breit, USGS.

Vegetation Surveys on Navajo Nation Lands. USGS scientists from the Colorado Plateau Field Station received permission to conduct vegetation surveys on the Navajo Nation for the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program in Arizona. Data collection began during the summer of 2001. The Navajo Nation will be involved in the land cover mapping process by reviewing the draft map and will be given products. Contact: Kathryn Thomas, 928-556-7466 ext. 235,

Terrestrial Monitoring. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is leading a project in Grand Canyon National Park to monitor and evaluate the effects of water releases from Glen Canyon Dam on terrestrial resources. The Hopi Tribe, Hualapai Tribe, and the Southern Paiute Consortium participated in a project by providing Tribal input to USGS biologists and participating in monitoring activities. Fiscal Year 2001 was the first year of the project, which is planned to continue for three years. In Fiscal Year 2003, the Navajo Nation and the Pueblo of Zuni are scheduled to begin participating in the project. Contact: Ruth Lambert, 928-556-7285,

Geoenvironmental Effects of Glen Canyon Dam. The environment in Grand Canyon has been affected by Glen Canyon Dam. The USGS is collaborating with other researchers to provide information for policy decisions concerning the management of water flow from Glen Canyon Dam. Under the post-dam flow regime, which limits floods and impounds sediment, sandbars have degraded, campsites and riparian habitat have been lost, and species have become endangered. Congress passed the Grand Canyon Protection Act, requiring the Bureau of Reclamation to alter discharge from the dam to enhance the environment downstream in Grand Canyon National Park. Representatives of seven Tribes or Pueblos (Havasupai, Hopi, Hualapai, Navajo, San Juan Southern Paiute, Southern Paiute, and Zuni) are among more than two dozen stakeholders who participate in the Adaptive Management Program or regularly receive reports on the progress of this project from USGS Coastal and Marine Team and the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center. The USGS has provided marine survey technology including side-scan sonar, rotating sonar, seismic reflection profiling, and underwater video equipment. USGS scientists are interpreting sedimentary structures to provide explanations for sediment transport, particularly for use in determining sediment transport prior to the dam, and developing new approaches to sediment-transport modeling. Contact: David Rubin, 831-459-3156,

Parasites of Native and Non-native Fishes in the Lower Little Colorado River. Scientists from the USGS National Wildlife Health Center studied parasites in fishes in the lower 21 km of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, an area administered by the Navajo Natural Heritage Program (Navajo Nation) and National Park Service (Grand Canyon National Park). Fish populations were sampled by the USGS in Fiscal Year 2000 and Fiscal Year 2001. In Fiscal Year 2001, a total of 1,235 fish representing seven species (all four native and seven non-native species) were captured and examined for internal parasites. Results from both years indicate that between 50-60 per cent of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) were infected with the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi). Such infections can cause disease and retard growth. The disease could be severe enough to cause mortality. A reduced growth rate could increase the time that fish are susceptible to predation and also cause the fish to be small when they enter the mainstem of the Colorado River during monsoon season. Smaller fish do not survive as well as larger fish in the cold waters of the mainstem. In addition, zooplankton (critical to tapeworm transmission) were collected, identified, and counted. Temperature was monitored in various tributaries of the Little Colorado River to evaluate environmental conditions involved in the transmission of the tapeworm. Laboratory infections of bony-tailed chub, a surrogate for the endangered humpback chub, were initiated in Fiscal Year 2001. These experiments are designed to assess the impact of the Asian tapeworm on fish growth, body condition, and ability to withstand thermal stress. These studies will provide managers with results to evaluate the effects of management options for water flow and temperature of the Glen Canyon Dam and, consequently, on the dispersal of this parasite and its impact on native fishes. Contact: Rebecca Cole, 608-270-2468,

Verde River Headwaters Aquifer Framework Study. The objectives of this project are to collect geophysical and geochemical data that will delineate major flow paths, determine rates of travel, and accurately measure relative source contributions from Big and Little Chino Basins to perennial springs in the Upper Verde River. The springs provide water for downstream water users (including the Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe in Verde Valley) and sustain riparian habitat for abundant wildlife, including several native fish species such as the threatened spikedace minnow (Medafulgida). This project is funded by the Arizona Water Protection Fund, which is administered by the Arizona Department of Water Resources. The project has three technical components. First, the latest advancements in airborne geophysics will be used to identify subsurface features that serve as conduits or obstacles to ground-water movement. Second, water chemistry, including isotopes, will be used to determine major ground-water flow paths and to determine the age and travel time of ground water. Third, project personnel will conduct a tracer dilution study to determine the contribution of base flow from multiple spring networks in the upper Verde River. The product of this study will be technically reliable information on ground-water flow paths, ground-water travel times, and relative contributions from different aquifer sources. Study results are needed by ground-water modelers and water resource managers in the Prescott Active Management Area, Yavapai County, and the Verde River Watershed. Contact: Laurie Wirt, 303-236-2492,

Hydrogeologic Study of the Upper and Middle Verde River Watershed, Arizona. The population of Yavapai County, Arizona, is growing rapidly, resulting in an increased demand on water resources in the upper and middle Verde River watershed. The watershed contains a thriving riparian zone and is the primary water supply for the county, as well as for large populations further downstream, including the Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe and the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. The hydrogeologic system in the watershed has not been comprehensively studied, and the effects of historic and present development on regional water resources are poorly understood. Beginning in 2001, this study was funded by the Yavapai County Water Advisory Committee (YCWAC) to improve hydrologic and geologic information. This 3-year effort will use geophysical and geologic methods to better define the geometry of and internal structures in the basins and the composition and architecture of the basin fill. As part of the study, USGS personnel will establish and operate a microgravity network to measure changes in ground-water storage. Precipitation and stream-flow data will also be collected from new rain gages and a new stream gage on a tributary to Big Chino Wash. USGS scientists will collect and analyze ground-water samples to help delineate ground-water flow paths, and conduct surface resistivity surveys to delineate the thickness and extent of alluvial sediments in selected reaches of the Verde River. All of these investigations will produce data that can be directly used in the regional hydrogeologic investigation and will provide parameters for the conceptual model of the system. Contact: Victoria Langenheim, 650-329-5313;; John Hoffman, 520-670-6671 ext. 265,

Vegetation Surveys on Native Lands. USGS scientists from the Colorado Plateau Field Station received permission to conduct vegetation surveys on the Navajo Nation and on lands of the Colorado River Indian Tribes for the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program. Data collection began in 2001. All Tribal governments will be involved in the land cover mapping process by reviewing the draft map and will be given results and products of the project. Additionally, presentations on the Gap Analysis Program were made to Tohono O'odham Nation Districts to inform them of the project and possible uses of the data, and to request permission to conduct vegetation surveys on lands of the Tohono O'odham Nation. Contact: Kathryn Thomas, 928-556-7466 ext. 235,

Invasive and Exotic Plant Species on Navajo and Hopi Lands. In cooperation with the Hopi Tribe and the Navajo Nation, USGS scientists collected information about invasive and exotic plant species for the Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Project regional database. Contact: Kathryn Thomas, 928-556-7466 ext. 235,

Navajo Nation Siting a Solar Power Grid. The USGS Eastern Region Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) staff provided map and digital data research services for the Navajo Nation to assist in site location of a solar power grid. A Navajo representative visited the ESIC and researched and purchased USGS map products. ESIC staff also provided the client with information on USGS digital products and assistance with web research on energy and power infrastructure data. Contact: Steve Shivers, 703-648-5921,

Vegetation and Animal Population Monitoring Program at 'Ahakhav Preserve. The USGS Colorado Plateau Field Station is providing assistance to the Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT) in a vegetation and animal population monitoring program to assess the progress and success of riparian restoration projects on the 'Ahakhav Tribal Preserve belonging to the CRIT near Parker, Arizona. This work has included overall design of the monitoring protocols for vegetation, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, as well as assistance on preliminary fieldwork for the monitoring. Contact: Charles Drost, 928-566-7466 ext. 233,

Mining Contamination. Parts of the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River in Idaho have been contaminated by historic mining activity. The USGS participated in the Coeur d'Alene Natural Resource Damage Assessment to ascertain the extent of injury. Of particular importance was documenting any injury to water, soil, or biological resources associated with ecosystems on lands of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. Scientists studied contamination from metals and other mining wastes released from the mine. During the past two years, USGS scientists have participated as expert witnesses and witnesses of fact in the court proceedings. Decisions for this case are currently pending. Contact: Columbia Environmental Research Center, 573-875-5399,

White Sturgeon Habitat Simulations to Assess the Feasibility of Enhancing Spawning Substrate in the Kootenai River. In 1999, the USGS, in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, began examining Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate habitat. The Kootenai River Sub-Basin is an international watershed that encompasses parts of British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho. The Kootenai River is the second largest tributary to the Columbia River. During the last 80 years, the hydraulic, sediment transport, and substrate characteristics of the Kootenai River have been altered as a result of the construction of Libby Dam, dike construction, and wetlands drainage. The operation of Libby Dam has altered the river ecosystem, resulting in the decline of many resident fish populations including the Kootenai River white sturgeon (listed as an endangered species in 1994). One limitation to white sturgeon spawning success may be the change from the natural fluctuations in flow and sedimentation in sturgeon spawning areas resulting from the operation of the dam. To aid in white sturgeon recovery efforts, the USGS has been conducting studies to characterize bed-sediment conditions in the Kootenai River, including 30 kilometers of seismic sub bottom profiles in the spawning reach and beyond, and in 3.5-meter long cores of river bottom sediments at 30 locations in the spawning reach. These data were integrated with data defining pre- and post-dam water-surface and riverbed elevations and the river's sediment load to develop a conceptual model describing the sedimentation history of the spawning substrate habitat. The integrated analysis helped characterize how sedimentation processes in the river have changed over time and whether changes have affected the quality of the habitat area as it relates to spawning conditions. The USGS plans to measure the bathymetry, streamflow, sediment load, and bedforms of the Kootenai River, and develop state-of-the-art digital models to simulate streamflow and sediment transport. The sediment transport model will simulate conditions in the spawning reach located near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The transport model will be developed as a tool to evaluate sedimentation characteristics under various flow regimes and the feasibility of various recovery actions on improving substrate conditions in sturgeon spawning areas. Contact: Gary Barton, 253-428-3600 ext. 2613,

Employees of the USGS and the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho work together to investigate means of improving the quality of the white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River.  Photo by Mark Hardy Employees of the USGS and the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho work together to investigate means of improving the quality of the white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River. Photo by Mark Hardy

Western U.S. Phosphate and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes. The eastern half of the Fort Hall Reservation, home of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and part of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area in the Western Phosphate Field, is included in the study area of the USGS project "Geologic and Geoenvironmental Studies of the Western Phosphate Field." Although the project was initially focused on evaluating the resource potential of the region, research efforts have been extended to include multidisciplinary geoenvironmental studies of selenium and other potentially toxic elements. Selenium, an element released from phosphate waste piles, has had a detrimental effect on local livestock. The study area includes the Gay Mine, one of the largest open-pit mines in southeastern Idaho. The mine was operated by commercial entities on the Shoshone-Bannock lands from 1946 to 1993. The site now consists of numerous mine pits, waste dumps, and mill shale piles spread over an area of nearly 25 square miles. After initial contacts and meetings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and the Tribal Land Use Committee, USGS staff visited the Gay Mine site, and conducted geologic mapping to support resource estimates for the Chesterfield Quadrangle. Samples were also collected for chemical and petrographic analysis. In fiscal years 2000 and 2001, both the BIA and the USGS have been participants in regular meetings of the Interagency Area-Wide Technical Group and the Selenium Working Group Advisory Committee. Contact: James R. Hein, 650-329-5287,

Golden Eagle Studies in Idaho. USGS staff from the Snake River Field Station have been cooperating with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and indirectly with Tribes regarding golden eagles. The USFWS implements the Federal Indian trust responsibility for contacts with Tribes involving protected species and the taking of those species by Native Americans for ceremonial uses. Contact by USGS staff with the Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation was limited by legal circumstances. Contact: Mark Fuller, 208-426-4115, mark_fuller

Golden Eagle with chick.  Photo by Mike Collopy, USGS. Golden Eagle with chick. Photo by Mike Collopy, USGS.

Willow Flycatcher. Scientists from the USGS Colorado Plateau Field Station have assisted with willow flycatcher subspecies determination in collaboration with the Northern Ute Indian Tribe. Contact: Mark Sogge, 928-556-7466 ext. 232,

Salmonoid Genetics. Biologists at the USGS Alaska Biological Science Center are researching the genetic population structure of Lahontan cutthroat trout, in collaboration with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The scientists are examining the genetics of Snake River steelhead for the State of Idaho. Results of this research will have significant implications for Tribes that comprise the Nevada Indian Fish Commission and other Tribes in the interior of the Great Basin. Research results are being prepared for publication and presentation. Contact: Alaska Biological Science Center, 907-786-3512,

Cui-ui in Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The cui-ui is an endangered fish of the sucker family that is found only in Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The Pyramid Lake Paiute Indians and other Northern Paiutes historically relied upon annual spawning runs of cui-ui for food. Since the Tribe controls use of Pyramid Lake and fully supports efforts to restore the cui-ui population, the Tribal Council has passed resolutions prohibiting harvest of cui-ui by non-Indians and Tribal members. The USGS is continuing studies of the population dynamics and reports results to the Tribal Chairman. Adult cui-ui are netted at the south end of Pyramid Lake in the spring and are marked to determine the mortality rate. Fish are recaptured in the fall at selected stations around the lake to determine juvenile population size and estimate mortality over the summer. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, 702-784-5451,

Research biologists retrieving a trap net at Pyramid Lake.  
Photographer: Gary Scoppettone. Research biologists retrieving a trap net at Pyramid Lake. Photographer: Gary Scoppettone.

Fallon Basalt Aquifer. The Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, the U.S. Navy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Nevada Division of Water Resources are cooperating with the USGS on a study to better define sources of water to, controls on, and the quality of water in the Fallon Basalt Aquifer. This aquifer is the sole source of drinking water for the Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, the City of Fallon, and the Fallon Naval Air Station. The Fallon Tribe is contributing data and funding to the project and is providing access to Tribal lands for this study. Phase II of the project involves developing geochemical and numerical ground-water flow models, attempting to define the transmissivity of the aquifer, determining the hydraulic conductivity, and assessing the potential for in situ treatment of arsenic concentrations (which currently exceed drinking water standards) in the basalt. Contact: Douglas Maurer, 775-887-7631,

Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus. In the final year of a multi-year project, research scientists at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center are assisting fisheries managers at the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission and the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission in identifying specific strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) affecting fish in Pacific Northwest hatcheries. During 2001, additional isolates of IHNV were provided by Tribal biologists and analyzed by USGS scientists to determine important features of the epidemiology of the virus in the Pacific Northwest. The final results, now including more than 300 isolates of the virus, have been presented to managers in regional meetings and presented in 2 peer-reviewed manuscripts on isolates of regional significance (Alaska and the Washington State coast). The integrated data set including all the isolates from throughout the geographic range of the virus in North America is the subject of a large manuscript in final preparation. This manuscript acknowledges the assistance of Tribal biologists. The study has received continued support from Tribal entities and the results will be incorporated into hatchery management plans and used in salmon restoration activities proposed by Tribes in the Pacific Northwest. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, 206-526-6282,

Exotic Virus Affects Salmon. The Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, in collaboration with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is supporting research at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center on the effects of an exotic virus on Pacific salmon. The virus, infectious salmon anemia virus, causes significant mortality in Atlantic salmon reared in aquaculture in Europe and on the Atlantic coast of Canada. There is substantial concern that, if introduced to the west coast, the virus would have a devastating effect on wild and cultured Pacific salmon. Preliminary work, conducted with the assistance of Tribal fish health biologists, indicates that Pacific salmon are more resistant to the effects of the virus than are Atlantic salmon. These findings have been communicated to Tribal and other fisheries managers in the Pacific Northwest. The Western Fisheries Research Center houses a state-of-the-art Biosafety Laboratory in which this work can be safely carried out. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, 206-526-6282,

Trace Metal Concentrations in Sediments along Lake Roosevelt. The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation are concerned about the potential threat to human health of trace metals in exposed lake-bottom sediment. These sediments can become airborne during high winds and ingested by people. Lake Roosevelt is a 125 mile-long reservoir in eastern Washington State that extends from Grand Coulee Dam to near the Canadian border where the Columbia River is free flowing. During periods when the water level of the reservoir is in drawdown, large areas of contaminated sediment are exposed. Upon drying, the fine-grained portion of these sediments becomes airborne during frequent wind storms. The USGS conducted a study to determine the concentrations of trace metals in the fine-grained sediment exposed during the spring 2001 drawdown. The results of the study will be published in an interpretive report. Plans were also made to conduct an air-monitoring study where trace metal concentrations of air samples will be measured. Contact: Sue Kahle, 253-428-3600 ext. 2616,

Nooksack River Basin Hydrologic Data. The USGS prepared an administrative report for the Bureau of Indian Affairs summarizing hydrologic data collected in the Nooksack River Basin in Washington State during 1998-2000. The report includes the results of streamflow measurements obtained at numerous sites in the basin and daily mean discharges for six continuous-recording streamflow gages for water years 1999-2000. Contact: Robert Kimbrough, 253-428-3600 ext. 2608,

Support for a Ground-Water Model of the Swinomish Indian Reservation. The Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (SITC) is interested in protecting the water resources of its reservation for the beneficial uses of the members of the Tribe. Concerns have arisen that pumping of ground water has resulted in depleted stream flows and has caused seawater intrusion into parts of the reservation. There is also concern that a landfill may be contaminating the ground-water system. The USGS recently completed a study to provide updated stream flow and ground-water-quality data to the SITC. The Tribe is constructing a model of the ground-water system. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency supported the USGS technical assistance. The USGS involvement in this project was completed in Fiscal Year 2001. Contact: Brian Drost, 253-428-3600 ext. 2642,

Water Resources of The Tulalip Tribes. Future increases in population and development of lands of The Tulalip Tribes and neighboring areas would lead to increased pumping of ground water both on and off the Native lands. Increased pumpage may decrease baseflows of streams and could affect fish-rearing operations in the Tulalip Creek watershed. The USGS is evaluating the current ground-water and surface-water resources of The Tulalip Tribes by computing a water budget and mapping the hydrogeologic system. An estimate of future ground-water use also will be made. Contact: Lonna Frans, 253-428-3600 ext. 2694,

otoliths.gif: Otolith: ear stone or ear bone of a fish (salmon, in this photo) made from calcium carbonate.  The fish uses the otolith for maintaining balance while swimming.  Biologists can determine a fish's age counting the number of rings, similar to using tree rings to determine a tree's age.  Otolith growth patterns can also be used to determine residence times of juvenile salmon in fresh water and estuarine habitats. otoliths.gif: Otolith: ear stone or ear bone of a fish (salmon, in this photo) made from calcium carbonate. The fish uses the otolith for maintaining balance while swimming. Biologists can determine a fish's age counting the number of rings, similar to using tree rings to determine a tree's age. Otolith growth patterns can also be used to determine residence times of juvenile salmon in fresh water and estuarine habitats.

Salmon Life History. USGS fishery biologists are continuing to assist the Skagit System Tribal Cooperative in studying the life history of chinook salmon in the Skagit River, Washington. The study is funded by Seattle City Light and the USGS, and investigates the importance of intertidal estuarine habitats in the life cycle of chinook salmon. The length of time spent in this ecosystem is determined, and the daily growth of juvenile chinook salmon measured by studying the changes in "ear stone" (otolith) microstructure. The USGS provides the Cooperative with laboratory space, access to specialized equipment, supervision, and technical assistance in conducting the study. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, 206-526-6282,

Restoration of the Elwha River Ecosystem. Scientists from the USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center are providing technical advice to the National Park Service (NPS) and the Lower Elwha Tribal Community of the Lower Elwha Reservation on restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem. As part of this project the USGS will conduct a workshop for NPS and Tribal employees to determine research issues associated with dam removal. Restoration of anadromous fisheries is a priority for Tribes on the Olympic Peninsula. Contact: Edward Schreiner, 360-565-3044,

Concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen in the Lower Puyallup and White Rivers. The Puyallup Tribe of Indians is concerned that wasteload allocations for biochemical oxygen demand and ammonia based on a modeling study conducted in the early 1990s will not protect the quality of water in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Tribe and the Washington State Department of Ecology, monitored concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the river during August and September 2001. Using the data, the USGS will publish a report analyzing factors that affect concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers. The Washington State Department of Ecology will use the data to recalibrate the model used to determine wasteload allocations. Contact: Gary Turney, 253-428-3600 ext. 2626,

Salmon River Watershed Analysis, Quinault Indian Nation. The Quinault Indian Nation collaborated with USGS and several other agencies to conduct an analysis of the Salmon River watershed. The Salmon River watershed covers three square miles of forested land, much of which has been affected by timber harvesting. The river has native runs of chinook and coho salmon, as well as steelhead trout. The Quinault Nation also operates a salmon hatchery on the river. The watershed analysis will serve as a tool to support decision-making processes in managing the river system and restoring salmon runs. Under two separate projects, the USGS led efforts for two modules - hydrology and geomorphology - of the watershed analysis. As part of the hydrology module, USGS staff measured and described low-flow discharge at selected sites on the Salmon River and correlated low-flow discharges with nearby continuous-discharge records to estimate low-flow magnitudes and recurrence intervals on the Salmon River. As part of the geomorphology module, USGS scientists investigated channel-migration processes, including interactions among channel migration, large woody debris, floodplains, and the surrounding forest. Historic channels and logjams were also mapped. The results of these studies were written in separate report chapters that will be published in Fiscal Year 2002. Contact: Bill Bidlake, 253-428-3600 ext. 2641,; Jim O'Connor, 503-251-3222,

Coastal Erosion in Willapa Bay, Washington. The USGS, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Army Corps of Engineers are cooperating in a study of coastal erosion on lands of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe, located in Willapa Bay, Washington. Tribal lands are rapidly eroding, increasing the frequency of flooding and the loss of valuable intertidal habitat. The joint study will allow the Tribe to make informed decisions to remedy this coastal problem. This study is benefiting from the recently completed "Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study" carried out by the USGS and the Washington State Department of Ecology. This cooperative project used fundamental and applied studies to develop a regional perspective and understanding of coastal processes, sediment transport, and associated shoreline changes. The study examined the effects of man-made influences (enhanced runoff, dredging operations, Columbia River dams) and natural processes (climate variability, subsidence caused by earthquakes, coastal dune development) on sediment budgets and on the long-term shoreline change trends of the southwest Washington coast. Contact: Guy Gelfenbaum, 650-329-5483,

Hydrogeologic Issues of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe and Tokeland Peninsula. The Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe obtains water from an artesian aquifer underlying its lands and the Tokeland Peninsula. The Tribe is concerned about the effects of increasing population and commercial activities on the quantity and quality of water in the aquifer. Specific water-quality concerns include seawater intrusion, contamination from septic tanks, and contamination from pesticides applied in nearby forests. The USGS conducted a study describing the general hydrology and water chemistry of the aquifer, including concentrations of nitrate and selected pesticides. An interpretive report describing the findings was prepared and will be published next year. Contact: Gary Turney, 253-428-3600 ext. 2624,

Ground-Water Resources of the Yakima River Valley, Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation. Surface water in the Yakima River Basin is under adjudication. The amount of surface water available for appropriation is not known, but there are increasing demands for water for municipal, fisheries, agricultural, industrial, and recreational uses. These demands must either be met by ground-water withdrawals and/or by changes in the way water resources are allocated and used. Ongoing management of water in the basin also may be affected by rules to protect salmonoid fish under the Endangered Species Act. In 2000, the USGS began a study of the ground-water system in the basin, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Washington State Department of Ecology, and working with the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation. The study will describe the geologic framework and ground-water flow system in the Yakima River basin, as well as the interaction between ground water and surface water. A ground-water model will be constructed as a tool to improve understanding of the system and to help estimate the effects of selected management strategies. As part of this project about 2,000 wells were visited to verify locations and measure water levels. Data on these wells has added to the USGS National Water Inventory System. Water levels were measured five times at about 800 of these wells. Lithologic information from the visited wells is currently being put into digital form for use in constructing maps of the hydrogeologic units. Concurrently, the interaction of ground water and surface water along selected reaches is being monitored on an hourly basis by collecting continuous water-level and temperature data. Historical municipal ground-water withdrawal data has been collected and compiled, and agricultural withdrawal data will be collected in Fiscal Year 2002. Work began on estimating ground-water recharge, with recharge being estimated for the upland, forested areas in the basin using four previously constructed watershed models. New methods were developed to thermally profile long river reaches to locate areas of large ground-water contributions and to estimate potential areas of good salmonid habitat. Contact: John Vaccaro, 253-428-3600 ext. 2620,

Yakima River Basin Stream Quality and Biological Communities. The lands of the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation encompass more than 100,000 acres of intensively irrigated land within the Yakima River Basin. Agricultural runoff from the Yakama Nation has been assessed by USGS hydrologists during this project, along with similar data from the rest of the basin's agricultural areas to determine the effect of different irrigation methods and agricultural practices on surface water quality. The USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program has worked cooperatively with personnel from the Yakama Nation's Department of Natural Resources. Small- and intermediate-sized agricultural drainages within the Yakama Nation were added to the NAWQA sampling network. In addition, chemical suites from routinely sampled sites were augmented with NAWQA pesticide and trace element determinations to characterize agricultural return flow at the mouths of tributaries to the Yakima River. A ground-water sample was collected to measure emerging contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, that may be entering the shallow ground water from combined animal feeding operations. Sampling small- and medium-sized agricultural drainages was undertaken in June, July, and October 2001. Results from these samplings are being interpreted during 2002. An interpretative report, Water-Resources Investigations Report (WRIR) 01-4211, has been completed on present-day pesticides and degradation products in surface water; it is available at: This report is based on samples collected from the mouths of major agricultural tributaries to the Yakima River. Samples were collected during peak irrigation in August 1999 as well as multiple times from three locations (two agricultural tributaries and a main stem site) from May 1999 to January 2000. Other reports are expected to be available in the first half of 2003. Contact: Greg Fuhrer, 503-251-3231,

Columbia River Chinook Salmon. The U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Laboratory in Washington State has become a nuclear waste disposal site. Tribes in the region, including the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, and the Nez Perce Tribe, are concerned that chromium leaking from the site might adversely affect a wide variety of salmonids through reduced survival. Gender alterations identified in these stocks also raised concerns about diminished reproductive capacity of natural populations. In addition, earlier studies focused on anadromous salmonids, especially chinook salmon, that only live in the Hanford Reach during early development. Until the present study, species that spend their entire lives in the Hanford Reach have been largely ignored. The Tribes are particularly concerned about the human health aspects of consuming these fish. In a USGS laboratory, USGS biologists have simulated conditions of the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in Washington to study impacts under various exposures to chromium. Contact: Michael J. Mac, 573-875-5399,

Steelhead Restoration. USGS fishery biologists continue cooperating with the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation in an effort to restore steelhead trout in the Wind River basin in southwestern Washington State. Federal scientists and Tribal representatives worked together on a Technical Advisory Committee to the Wind River Watershed Council. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 509-538-2299,

Watershed Restoration for Reintroduction of Salmon and Steelhead. USGS fishery biologists are partnering with the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation fishery biologists in an effort to assess and restore the Rattlesnake Creek watershed of the White Salmon River basin. Restoration of this watershed is especially important because of the possible reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam on the White Salmon River. Federal scientists and Tribal representatives worked together on a Technical Advisory Committee to the White Salmon Watershed Management Council. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 509-538-2299,

Water Management and Steelhead on National Wildlife Refuges. USGS fishery biologists have begun to study the effects of water and land management at Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge (managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). Fishery biologists of the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Indian Nation are cooperating in this study. A study is underway to estimate the numbers of steelhead that enter the refuge, their residence times, and their condition and growth rate. The Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge is adjacent to the Yakama Indian Reservation in southern Washington State. Information should be useful to refuge managers for managing water movement, constructing or removing dykes, or altering vegetation types. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 509-538-2299,

Pacific Lamprey. The USGS is continuing to assist the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation (CTUIR) in their effort to reestablish Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River. Currently, USGS biologists are cooperating with the CTUIR to conduct research on several aspects of the life history and habitat needs of lampreys in the Columbia River basin. First, USGS staff completed a preliminary examination of the timing, behavior, and overwintering and spawning habitat use by Pacific lampreys migrating upstream in the John Day River, a river system similar to the Umatilla. Second, the USGS is continuing a CTUIR-funded investigation of the olfactory sensitivity of Pacific lampreys to pheromones released by other lampreys and lampreys' use of these pheromones as a migratory cue. Third, the USGS is completing a study to define critical habitat needs of lamprey eggs and early larvae by conducting experiments to measure effects of temperature on these early life history stages. Lastly, in cooperation with the CTUIR, the USGS is refining identification and aging techniques for larval lamprey. All of these projects are intended to provide information that will help the CTUIR implement their Umatilla River restoration plan. Biologists from the USGS and CTUIR have often combined efforts in such activities as field collections of larval lampreys, and laboratory dissections of larval lampreys for identification and aging studies. Additionally, USGS and CTUIR biologists have routinely shared information from cooperative studies, as in USGS presentations of two studies on olfactory sensitivity and temperature effects on larvae at the 19th Annual Pacific Regional Conference of the Native American Fish and Wildlife Society, which was hosted by the CTUIR. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 509-538-2299,

Lamprey have round, elongate, flexible cartilaginous bodies and skin with no scales. Lamprey feel very smooth and slimy. The mouth is down-turned and adapted for clinging and sucking. Pacific lamprey are dark bluish-gray or dark brown, can reach 30 inches long, and weigh more than a pound. Photo by Jim Seelye and Jennifer Bayer Lamprey have round, elongate, flexible cartilaginous bodies and skin with no scales. Lamprey feel very smooth and slimy. The mouth is down-turned and adapted for clinging and sucking. Pacific lamprey are dark bluish-gray or dark brown, can reach 30 inches long, and weigh more than a pound. Photo by Jim Seelye and Jennifer Bayer

Bull Trout in Beulah Reservoir, Oregon. In 2001, USGS fishery biologists began a study of the condition and growth of bull trout in Beulah Reservoir, which was created by a Bureau of Reclamation dam. The study includes collaboration with fishery biologists from the Burns Paiute Tribe. Aspects of the study include the seasonal occurrence of bull trout in the reservoir and their diet and movements. A bioenergetics model of bull trout growth will be used, along with physical measurements and a reservoir temperature model, to help managers predict whether a minimum pool level is necessary for bull trout survival in the reservoir. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, 509-538-2299,

Studies of the Deschutes Basin, Oregon. A hydrologic study has been completed that characterized the regional ground-water flow system of the upper Deschutes Basin and developed a methodology to quantitatively evaluate the effects of ground-water pumping on streamflow of the Deschutes River and its tributaries. USGS scientists cooperated with the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, who hold rights to considerable flow in the river and who have vital interests in streamflow, fisheries, and habitat quality. Legally mandated minimum flows in the Deschutes River are required to protect aquatic wildlife and recreation. These requirements are often not met during dry months, and ground-water pumping has the potential to further reduce streamflow. Another study is under way to determine the distribution of juvenile hatchery-raised spring chinook salmon in the Deschutes River and their potential impact on the aquatic community. Juvenile spring chinook salmon are tagged with radio transmitters and then tracked throughout the lower Deschutes River as they migrate downstream from the Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Tracking the juvenile salmon will indicate where fish released during fall will overwinter and how they might impact wild salmon in the Deschutes River. Working together, the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and USGS scientists have shared the responsibilities for trapping, tagging, tracking, and instream sampling during this study. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center (fisheries study), Columbia River Research Laboratory, 509-538-2299,; Marshall Gannett (hydrologic study), 503-251-3233,

Geomorphology of the Deschutes River, Oregon. The results of this project will describe the overall geologic and geomorphic context of the Deschutes River system in a way that will help evaluate the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric complex on downstream channel morphology. Project reports are currently being prepared. Portland General Electric and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation are currently applying jointly to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for relicensing of the hydroelectric complex. Contact: Jim O'Connor, 503-251-3222,

Regional Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California. USGS hydrologists are quantitatively characterizing the regional ground-water hydrology in the upper Klamath Basin. The study includes characterizing the relation between ground water and surface water, and evaluating the potential for additional ground-water development without adversely affecting streamflow or existing ground-water users. Changes in water management in the basin to accommodate aquatic wildlife have caused shortages of water available for agriculture and for wildlife refuges. Ground water has the potential to augment surface water supplies, but also has the potential to diminish streamflow in some areas. A number of Tribes have interests in the fisheries in both Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River, including the Klamath, Yurok, Karuk, and Hoopa Valley Tribes. Contact: Marshall Gannett, 503-251-3233,

Anadromous Fishery Restoration. USGS biologists and hydrologists participated in the Klamath River Fishery Restoration Program, a cooperative effort among the Yurok, Karuk, and Hoopa Valley Tribes, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. USGS is improving the System Impact Assessment Model (SIAM) to provide a better understanding of water quality and quantity management problems that limit anadromous fish restoration in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam. Scientists will also collect data to fit the model and perform the required analysis. SIAM is scheduled for completion in 2003. Contact: Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, 970-226-9383, Additional information is available at and

Sediment Oxygen Demand in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon. USGS scientists conducted a study to determine the magnitude and variability of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes. SOD is a critical component of the dissolved oxygen budget in the lakes, where low dissolved oxygen concentrations are detrimental to endangered sucker fish species of interest to The Klamath Tribes. One aspect of the study evaluated the change in SOD from before the development of summertime algal blooms to late summer, after or during the decline of the blooms. The study also attempted to correlate SOD and other quantifiable sediment characteristics, in particular coarse/fine distribution, organic carbon content, and the residue lost on ignition. The study was completed in January 2001. Results were published as the Water Resource Investigation Report 01-4080 - "Sediment Oxygen Demand In Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 1999." The report is also available online at Contact: Tamara Wood, 503-251-3255,

Traditional Management Techniques on Mesquite Tree Stands at Death Valley. A planning effort is underway to attempt to evaluate and quantify the effects of the re-institution of traditional natural resource usage on stands of mesquite trees in Death Valley National Park. The Timbisha Shoshone Tribe will use traditional methods of wood gathering, stand maintenance, and collection of mesquite bean pods on plots in a pattern designed to understand the effects of such management practices on individual trees and the mesquite tree population. USGS scientists intend to determine the effect (if any) that traditional management practices have on various measures of plant production, plant physiology, and population demography. This project will integrate diverse factors including elements of cultural anthropology. Contact: Todd C. Esque, 702-914-2206 ext. 226,

Ichthyophonus Infections in Yukon River Chinook Salmon. With continued funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Alaska, scientists at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center conducted the third year of a study on the prevalence and intensity of Ichthyophonus infections in returning adult chinook salmon in the Yukon River. The pathogen, similar to a fungus, appears to be an increasing problem in these important stocks, causing adverse flesh quality and possible pre-spawning losses. Historical data and reports from Tribal elders suggest that increasing temperatures in the Yukon River in the past few decades may be associated with the increased severity of disease. This project is of great interest to Tribal, Federal and Canadian fisheries managers and is receiving direct assistance from Athabascans from the communities of Tanana, Louden, Fairbanks, and Nenana, as well as Yupiits from Emmonak. Contact: Western Fisheries Research Center, 206-526-6282,

Kuskokwim Mineral Belt Project. The USGS Kuskokwim Mineral Belt project, which is scheduled to be completed this year, has investigated the regional geology and assessed the undiscovered mineral deposit potential of one of Alaska's most promising mineral frontiers. The Kuskokwim Mineral Belt (KMB) is an important precious metal-bearing region covering approximately 190,000 km2 (73,000 mi2) in southeastern Alaska. USGS investigations have focused on the historically productive central part of the mineral belt, a 15,000 km2 (5,800 mi2) region, of which nearly 25 percent is Native-patented or interim-conveyed land. Calista Corporation, the regional Alaska Native Corporation, will use the results of these studies to evaluate and manage the resources of their lands-a goal supported by the Department of the Interior's policy to assist Alaska Native groups. Deposits of gold and silver are now known to be associated with specific igneous rock units in this part of Alaska. In addition to precious metals, the KMB has produced mercury from shallow, relatively low-temperature deposits. USGS and Calista geologists have performed joint field investigations and shared geologic, geochemical, and mineral deposit information for the Calista lands. Results of these studies will help USGS scientists estimate the mineral value of this largely unexplored region and will allow Calista Corporation to make better-informed decisions to benefit its people. The USGS and Calista will continue to cooperate under a new Bureau of Land Management mining district project that builds on the USGS work and encompasses the entire KMB. Contact: Marti Miller, 907-786-7437,; Dwight C. Bradley, 907-786-7434,

Geochemical Landscape of Alaska Native Corporation Lands. Geologists from the USGS have developed collaborative plans with Alaska Native Corporations to conduct projects with the goal of understanding the geochemical landscape (that is, the spatial variations in the distribution of chemical elements within media such as stream sediment and soil) of Native and adjacent lands. The study areas comprise the southwestern quadrant of Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands. Part of the project includes collecting one sample per 289 km2 (20 km cell) and analyzing each sample for 43 chemical elements of both geological and environmental significance (e.g., mercury, arsenic, and selenium). Geologists from the Calista Corporation and the Bristol Bay Native Corporation participated in acquiring samples for analysis. In Fiscal Year 2001, sampling was completed in the Bristol Bay area; sampling is continuing in the Calista and adjacent areas. The geochemical data will be used to create interpretive derivative maps involving watersheds, lithologies, geology, mineral deposits, and political boundaries. The products of the project are designed to assist the Native Corporations in managing their lands. Contact: Andrew E. Grosz, 703-648-6314,

Mapping Sensitive Islands in the Bering Sea. The USGS is working with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Response and Restoration to produce digital and paper maps of the Pribilof Islands of Alaska. The maps will be used to identify and protect sensitive habitat areas for migratory birds and marine mammals, particularly the Northern Fur seal. The data will be shared with Alaska Native communities on the islands for them to use in decisions relating to land use, economic development, and natural resource management. The residents will supply traditional Aleut names for geographic features on the islands that will be incorporated into the final cartographic products. Contact: A.C. Brown, 907-786-7002,

Water Quality Sampling of the Taku River. The Douglas Indian Association (DIA), the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the USGS initiated a 5-year cooperative water-quality project to collect baseline water-quality data for the Taku River, an important salmon fishery. Although the watershed is undeveloped, a new mine is proposed in the watershed on the Canadian side of the border. The Taku River is also subject to glacial outburst floods that affect the River's water quality. The USGS is conducting the field sampling, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is analyzing the samples. The DIA has provided an intern to assist USGS researchers with the sampling for part of the project. During 2001, USGS scientists began working with the Water Survey of Canada and the Canadian faction of DIA by providing logistical support and discharge measurements for the collection of water quality samples on the Taku River and several of its tributaries on the Canadian side of the border. Contact: Bruce Bigelow, 907-586-7287,

Traditions of Gathering Eggs. A study of traditional egg-gathering practices in Glacier Bay National Park has documented the use of selected park areas by Native residents of Hoonah for the purpose of bird-egg-gathering over several generations. Glaucous-winged gulls are the species most commonly targeted. Harvest strategies vary by family but are generally based on accurate knowledge of gull nesting behavior and ecology. Traditional Huna Tlingit gull egg harvests were not highly ritualized but were sometimes marked by individual spiritual observances. Virtually all Huna respondents responded negatively to the prohibition of their gull egg harvests by the Federal government. Respondents voiced strong interest in resuming legal gull egg harvests within Glacier Bay National Park and Reserve. Results are reported in: Hunn, E., D. R. Johnson, P. Russell, and T. Thornton, June 2001, A Study of Traditional Use of Birds' Eggs by the Huna Tlingit. Technical Report, USGS/BRD/FRESC/Cascadia Field Station, Seattle, WA, 181 pp. Contact: Darryll Johnson, CFS, 206-685-7404,

Water Quality Sampling of Peterson Creek. In the summer of 2001, the Central Council of Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska entered into a two-year cooperative agreement with USGS to collect baseline water-quality data for Peterson Creek, a valuable salmon fishery located on north Douglas Island near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek, with a drainage basin less than five square miles, will be affected by a large development project that is scheduled to begin in the near future. Field crews consisting of two Tlingit-Haida staff, an Alaska Department of Fish and Game employee, and two USGS personnel divided the basin into nine sub-basins and began a rigorous sampling and measuring program for each sub-basin over a variety of flow conditions. Contact: Bruce Bigelow, 907-586-7287,

Alaska Volcanoes and Alaska Natives. Open communications between Alaska Natives and the USGS Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) are crucial in helping to safeguard Alaskan communities. Numerous Alaska Native villages and corporations communicate with the AVO during periods of volcanic activity. Native officials transmit on-site observations to AVO, and AVO scientists distribute interpretive and hazards information to the Native communities. Many of these communities are on the AVO automatic weekly update fax and/or electronic mail lists that provide the status of activity of more than 40 active volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands. All Native villages in the Aleutians, including Nelson Lagoon, Naknek, Unalaska, Akutan, False Pass, Atka, and King Cove, are near active volcanoes. AVO also conducts geological field studies and services existing seismic-monitoring equipment to provide real-time warnings of volcanic activity and related hazards to aircraft and local communities. USGS communications and research involved obtaining letters of non-objection for proposed volcano hazards work and accessing lands owned or selected by several Alaska Native corporations, including The Aleut Corporation, Akutan Corporation, Ounalashka Corporation, Ahtna Corporation, and Cook Inlet Region Incorporated. Contact: Thomas Murray, 907-786-7042,

Black-footed ferret.  
Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control. Black-footed ferret. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control.

The contacts provided in the report were accurate at the time of publication. Please refer to the USGS Employee Directory or the Office of Tribal Relations contact page if you require information about a specific activity.

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