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U.S. Geological Survey Manual

SM 445-2-H CHAPTER 30

Ionizing Radiation

Instruction:  Chapter 30 is revised to remove reference to non-ionizing radiation (which will be placed in a new handbook chapter), to incorporate requirements of SM 308.66 Specialized Safety Program Committees, and to correct errors. 

1.  Purpose.  To specify the minimum Occupational Safety and Health Program requirements for protecting Department of the Interior (DOI) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) employees and the public from adverse exposure to sources of ionizing radiation.

A.  This chapter covers all employees who work with materials or devices that produce ionizing radiation.

B.  This Chapter does not supersede any requirement established by a license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or any regulation cited in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

2.  References.

A.  10 CFR Parts 0 - 199, Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

B.  Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, as amended.

C.  29 CFR 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation.

D.  SM 308.66 Specialized Safety Program Committees.

E.  Appendix D of SM 308.66 Charter - USGS Radiation Safety Advisory Board.

F.  STD 01-04-001 - STD 1-4.1 – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Coverage of Ionizing Radiation Sources Not Covered by Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

3.  Requirements.  The USGS will implement a program based on written procedures that include the following, as a minimum:

A.  Identifying, evaluating, and controlling potential radiation hazards to employees, contractors, and the visiting public.

(1)  Limits for radiation doses shall be as provided in 10 CFR 20.1201 and 29 CFR 1910.1096.

(2)  The USGS radiation safety program adopts the policy that all radiation doses should be “as low as reasonably achievable”.  Reasonable efforts must be made to keep doses low. 

B.  Description of the intended use of radiation material and/or radiation-producing equipment.

C.  Training in radiation hazards and/or proper use of radiation producing equipment/source for personnel who are occupationally exposed to radiation.

D.  Using methods such as warning signs and barriers to prevent accidental exposures to harmful quantities of radiation.  Laboratories and other areas where radioactive materials are used shall be posted and containers labeled per 10 CFR 20 Subpart J, Precautionary Procedures and 29 CFR 1910.1096 (e) Caution Signs, Labels, and Signals.

E.  Appointing and assigning responsibilities to a qualified Radiation Protection Officer at each applicable facility.

F.  Appointing a regional radiation safety representative to the Bureau Radiation Safety Advisory Board and to the Regional Safety Committee in each Region.

G.  Establishing Radiation Safety Committees as required by the governing NRC license that meets at least annually or more often, as required.

H.  Establishing a Bureau Radiation Safety Advisory Board (RSAB).

(1)  RSAB Members.  USGS RSAB voting membership will include the following (a quorum of the board requires greater than half of the voting membership):

(a)  Bureau Safety Representative.

(b)  Bureau Radiation Safety Board Manager (RSBM).  The RSBM must be a current user of NRC licensed materials and will serve as a technical representative.

(c)  NRC-designated Radiation Safety Officers from USGS possessed NRC licenses.

(d)  The USGS Reactor Manager.

(e)  Appointed members as necessary from any other USGS operations involving ionizing radiation.

(f)  All USGS site with NRC licenses held by the USGS shall be represented by membership on the RSAB.

(g)  Regional Safety Managers.

(h)  The RSAB shall have an upper-level management representative from each Region. 

(i)  Regional and/or local management approval is required for each of their respective appointed board members.

(j)  The RSBM is responsible for ensuring the appointed membership reflects appropriate non-NRC radiation safety issues within the bureau. Non-NRC related issues include exposures to X-ray producing machines, accelerator-produced materials, electron microscopes, and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as radon, radium, and uranium.  In addition to voting members, the RSBM may, through the Bureau Safety Manager, nominate nonvoting ex-officio members as needed to provide additional technical expertise to the Board.  The RSBM will serve as the Board chair.  The Vice-chair and secretary will be elected every two years by the committee.  The RSAB meetings will be held at least twice per year, according to a published schedule prepared by the RSBM.  Additional meetings may be held as deemed necessary (e.g., whenever a serious accident occurs or an incident occurs that could have potentially resulted in serious exposure or injury).  Subcommittees and ad hoc workgroups to address specific tasks may be formed as needed to provide reports and/or recommendations to the RSAB.

I.  Furnishing, using, monitoring, and maintaining employee-monitoring devices, such as film badges, pocket dosimeters, and pocket chambers.

(1)  Personal monitoring devices (dosimeters) are required for workers who may receive 10 percent of the applicable radiation dose permissible under NRC regulations (10 CFR 20.1501) or OSHA regulation (29 CFR 1910.1096).

(2)  Dosimetry records shall be maintained as part of the employee(s) permanent record. 

(3)  Employees must wear any dosimetry as required by applicable local radiation procedures.

J.  Disposing of radiation waste properly.

K.  Handling emergencies.

(1)  Any dose of 10 percent or greater of any NRC limit, received in any one quarter shall be investigated to determine how the exposure was obtained and how future exposures can be avoided.

(2)  If a dose of 25 percent or greater is received in any one quarter the employee shall be removed from radiation work until the cause of exposure is identified and eliminated.

(3)  Overexposures and incidents shall be reported in accordance with 10 CFR 20 Subpart M, Reports.  For non-NRC related radiation work, overexposures shall be reported in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1096(m).

L.  Securing ionizing radiation sources.

M. Transporting radioactive materials.

N.  Using lockouts and tag-outs to prevent unauthorized access to radiation sources.

O.  Maintaining mandatory records.

P.  Storing and leak testing of equipment.

Q. Performing surveys using direct reading instruments and swipes, if appropriate, to identify radiation areas and/or contaminated areas.

4.  Responsibilities.

A.  Bureau Safety Manager.  Through the RSBM, provides oversight of the radiation safety program and ensures the conduct of periodic radiation safety program evaluations to determine overall effectiveness.

B.  Bureau Radiation Safety Board Manager (RSBM).

(1)  Develops, teaches, and promotes ionizing radiation safety programs for employees who employ ionizing radiation in the performance of their official duties.

(2)  Serves as primary technical subject matter expert within USGS in the development of plans and advising the Bureau Safety Manager.

(3)  Assists the Bureau Safety Manager in the development of plans, recommends policy, provides guidance, and promotes actions as required to maintain a Bureau ionizing radiation safety program.

(4)  Questions and program support related to radiation issues should be directed to the RSBM and/or respective Regional Safety Manager/Officer, Bureau Industrial Hygienist, or local Radiation Safety Officer.

(5)  Performs regional or site-specific program evaluations.

(6)  Reports program information such as Board findings, recommendations and provides program status reports to the Bureau Designated Agency Safety and Health Official (DASHO) through the Bureau Safety and Health (OSH) Council.

(7)  Serves on the RSAB in the capacity of chairperson.

(8)  Oversees the maintenance of bureau ionizing radiation safety program records.

(9)  Oversees all ionizing radiation safety training courses involving bureau personnel.

(10)  Conducts annual self-assessment of radiation program elements and works toward the abatement of identified deficiencies.

(11) Conducts a program assessment within the Inspection and Abatement System (IAS).

(12) Provides the Bureau Safety Manager with an annual report detailing previous fiscal year accomplishments and subsequent fiscal year plans for program improvement for gaps that are identified within the IAS program assessment, by September 15th, of each fiscal year.  Subject report should be coordinated and developed in conjunction with the RSAB.

(13) Ensures that RSAB minutes are retained in accordance with the USGS records schedule.

C.  Bureau Radiation Safety Advisory Board (RSAB).

(1)  Develops plans and recommends policy, provides guidance, and promotes actions as required to maintain a Bureau Radiation Safety Program involving ionizing radiation.

(2)  Reviews and evaluates NRC, OSHA, Departmental, USGS, and other Federal and local regulations for impact on USGS radiological operations, developing recommendations and proposing alternatives for implementing compliance programs.

(3)  Participates in USGS and Department level planning for ionizing radiation safety.

(4)  Assists Radiation Safety Officers to ensure compliance with NRC, as well as other Federal and local requirements for training and specified qualifications, as needed.

(5)  Assists in the identification of suitable instructors for training of radiation workers, as needed.

(6)  Assists in the development of safety evaluations as required by NRC, as well as other Federal and local regulatory personnel as needed.

(7)  Assists personnel in determining suitable disposal alternatives for radioactive wastes and surplus radioactive sources, as needed.

(8)  Assists licensees in the decommissioning of facilities and sites where licensed radioactive materials were used, as needed.

(9)  Assists in maintaining or restoring compliance with NRC, as well as other federal and loca rules and regulations.

(10)  Assists in addressing regulatory findings of noncompliance, as needed.

(11)  Investigates ionizing radiation accidents and recommend corrective action, as appropriate.

(12)  Develops database techniques to assist in ionizing radiation and licensed radioactive material safety program management (e.g., training databases).

(13)  Develops basic standard guidelines regarding ionizing radiation safety issues to ensure consistency throughout USGS.

(14)  Assists all USGS organizations in promoting and implementing departmental and bureau ionizing radiation safety programs.

(15)  Provides management and supervisory involvement through identification of radiation safety issues and associated recommendations for program improvement.

(16)  Provides an outlet to ensure good communications and sharing of ideas and resources among bureau radiation workers.

(17)  Evaluates and recommends safety equipment for bureau radiation workers.

(18)  Distributes radiation safety information to USGS radiation workers.

(19)  Identifies and addresses all ionizing radiation safety program operations within USGS.

(20)  Investigates ionizing radiation related accidents and incidents involving bureau personnel, as necessary.

(21)  Provides the an annual report the Bureau Executive Leadership Team (ELT) through the Bureau DASHO detailing previous fiscal year accomplishments and subsequent fiscal year plans for program improvement by September 15th of each fiscal year.  Subject report should be coordinated and developed in conjunction with the RSAB.

(22) Advises the Bureau DASHO (through ad hoc membership on the Bureau OSH Council) to address all radiation issues and review all accidents related to radiation.  Makes recommendations to prevent future accidents of a similar nature.

(23) Meets at least twice per year, according to a published schedule prepared by the Chairperson.

(24) Records and distributes minutes of each RSAB meeting to all members, the Bureau OSH and EMC Councils, the Regional Safety Managers, and the Regional Committees.

D.  Regional Directors.  Appoint and support the regional radiation safety representative to the Bureau Radiation Safety Board and the Regional Safety Committees.

E.  Regional Safety Managers/Regional Safety Officers.

(1)  Provide regional radiation safety program oversight and assist Collateral Duty Radiation Safety Officers in conducting periodic evaluations of the regional radiation safety program.

(2)  Assist Radiation Safety Officers as required in coordinating employee training and personnel monitoring programs.

F.  Organizational Managers.

(1)  Establish a radiation safety program in accordance with the requirements of this chapter for operations producing ionizing radiation under their control.

(2)  Appoint and assign responsibilities to a qualified Radiation Safety Officer at each applicable facility.

(3)  Identify workers who may receive 10 percent of the applicable radiation dose permissible under NRC regulations (10 CFR 20.1.1501) or OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.1096 and provide personal monitoring devices (dosimeters) as required.

(4)  Provide employees who work directly with radioisotopes, x-ray producing devices, or who work in radiation areas dosimeters and direct reading instruments, as applicable.

(5)  Maintain dosimetry records as part of the employee(s) permanent record and advise each employee of his or her individual exposure on at least an annual basis.

(6)  Investigate radiation exposures to determine how the exposure was obtained and how future exposures can be avoided.

(7)  Remove the employee from radiation work until the cause of exposure is identified and eliminated if a dose of 25 percent or greater is received in any one fiscal quarter.

(8)  Report overexposures and incidents in accordance with 10 CFR 20 Subpart M, Reports, and via the DOI Safety Management Information System.

G.  Radiation Safety Officers.

(1)  A Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) shall be designated for each NRC license possessed.  The NRC approval is required for each RSO.  The RSO shall have both education and work experience in ionizing radiation.  The RSO shall have the following responsibilities at minimum:

(a)  Coordinates with the NRC on licenses, responds to correspondence, and accompanies inspectors. Ensures that all requirements of NRC licenses are met, maintains required record, inventories, wipe tests, and air flow measurements ionizing radiation laboratory hoods, etc.

(b)  Arranges for proper disposal of radioactive waste materials.

(c)  Develops ionizing radiation safety manual for the licensed material under that specific license.

(d)  Coordinates and conducts the radiation safety training and personnel monitoring programs.

(e)  Certifies that a program is in place to limit personal exposure to as low as is reasonably achievable.

(f)  Serves as the Contracting Officer’s Representative for contracts involving ionizing radiation services.

(g) Coordinates or conducts surveys of X-ray producing machines at least annually. 

H.  Radiation Safety Committees (RSCs).

(1)  Shall be established at each facility as required by the governing NRC license.

(2)  Meet at least annually, or more often as required by the governing NRC license, and shall perform the following, as applicable:

(a)  Establish local procedures for requiring/approving radioactive materials permits, as applicable.
 
(b)  Certify that all requirements of the NRC license are met.

(c)  Work with the Regional Safety Manager or RSO in obtaining personal monitoring devices.

(d)  Assist the RSO in maintaining records required by the NRC license and interface with NRC officials, as required.

(e)  Investigate any incident where personnel receive radiation exposure greater than 10 percent of a NRC limit.

I.  Personnel.

(1)  Participate in radiation safety training and follow all procedures established for the safe use of radiation producing materials and devices.

(2)  Wear dosimetry and use direct reading instruments, as required by applicable local radiation procedures.

5.  Additional Resources.

A.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation Protection Home Page, http://www.epa.gov/radiation.

B.  Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual,
http://www.tis.eh.doe.gov:80/docs/rcm/rcm.html.

C.  Nuclear Regulatory Commission Home Page, http://www.nrc.gov.

D.  Terminology, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/glossary.html.

E.  EPA’s Federal Guidance for Radiation Protection, http://www.epa.gov/radiation/federal/index.html.



___/s/Karen D. Baker________                                                   __2/24/06________________

Karen D. Baker                                                                                                      Date
Acting Associate Director for Administrative Policy and Services 

SM 445-2-H Table of Contents || Handbooks || Survey Manual Home Page
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: http://www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/handbook/hb/445-2-h/ch30.html
Contact: APS, Office of Policy and Analysis
Content Information Contact: wrmiller@usgs.gov
Last modification: 13-Feb-2013@17:00 (kk)