Research Conducted in the National Petroleum Reserve – Alaska (NPRA)

Science Center Objects

Selected Bibliography of Research Involving USGS and Conducted in the National Petroleum Reserve – Alaska (NPR-A)

Compiled as of 12/17/2018

Return to Changing Arctic Ecosystems >> USGS Coastal Plain and NPR-A Research Bibliography


Cameron, R.D., B. Griffith, L.S. Parrett, and R.G. White. 2013. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of Arctic caribou. Rangifer 33(21):27-34.

Energy Resources

Attanasi, E.D., and P.A. Freeman. 2011. Economic analysis of the 2010 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1103, 64 p.

Attanasi, E.D., and P.A. Freeman. 2015. Evaluation of development options for Alaska North Slope viscous and heavy oil. Natural Resources Research 24(1):85-106.

Boswell, R., D. Schoderbek, T.S. Collett, S. Ohtsuki, M. White, and B.J. Anderson. 2017. The Ignik Sikumi field experiment, Alaska North Slope: design, operations, and implications for CO2-CH4 exchange in gas hydrate reservoirs: Energy and Fuels, 14 p.

Boswell, R., R. Kelly, T.S. Collett, M. Lee, W. Winters, K. Lewis, and W. Agena. 2011. Geologic controls on gas hydrate occurrence in the Mount Elbert prospect: Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope: Marine and Petroleum Geology 28: 589-607.

Clark, A.C. 2014. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007–2010, Wainwright, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1004, 65 p.

Clark, A.C., S.B. Roberts, P.D. Warwick. 2010. Geologic cross section, gas desorption, and other data from four wells drilled for Alaska rural energy project, Wainwright, Alaska, coalbed methane project, 2007–2009. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010–1210, 1 p.

Collett, T.S. 2004. Alaska North Slope Gas Hydrate Energy Resources: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1454, 7 p.

Collett, T.S., W.F. Agena, M.W. Lee, M.V. Zyrianova, K.J. Bird, R.R. Charpentier, T.A. Cook, D.W. Houseknecht, T.R. Klett, R.M. Pollastro, and C.J. Schenk. 2008. Assessment of Gas Hydrate Resources on the North Slope, Alaska, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-2008-3073, 4 p.

Collett, T. S., M.W. Lee, W.F. Agena, J.J. Miller, K.A. Lewis, M. Zyrianova, R. Boswell, and T.L. Inks. 2011. Permafrost Associated Natural Gas Hydrate Occurrences on the Alaska North Slope: Marine and Petroleum Geology 28:279-294.

Collett, T.S., R.E. Lewis, W.F. Winters, M.W. Lee, K. Rose, and R. Boswell. 2011. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well, North Slope, Alaska. Marine and Petroleum Geology 28:561-577.

Garrity, C.P., D.W. Houseknecht, and K.J. Bird. 2011. 2010 petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)—GIS play maps. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1099, ver. 1.1.

Houseknecht, D.W., R.O. Lease, C.J. Schenk, T.J. Mercier, W.A. Rouse, P.J. Jarboe, K.J. Whidden, C.P. Garrity, K.A. Lewis, S.J. Heller, W.H. Craddock, T.R. Klett, P.A. Le, R.A. Smith, M.E. Tennyson, S.B. Gaswirth, C.A. Woodall, M.E. Brownfield, H.M. Leathers-Miller, and T.M. Finn. 2017. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3088, 4 p.,

Houseknecht, D.W., W.H. Craddock, and R.O. Lease. 2016. Upper Cretaceous and Lower Jurassic strata in shallow cores on the Chukchi Shelf, Arctic Alaska, in Dumoulin, J.A., ed., Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1814–C, 37 p.

Houseknecht, D.W., K.J. Bird, and P.O’Sullivan. 2011. Constraining the age and magnitude of uplift in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)—apatite fission-track analysis of samples from three wells. In Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2010. Eds. J.A. Dumoulin, and C. Dusel-Bacon. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1784-A, 21 p.

Houseknecht, D.W., K.J. Bird, J.H. Schuenemeyer, E.D. Attanasi, C.P. Garrity, C.J. Schenk, R.R. Charpentier, R.M. Pollastro, T.A. Cook, and T.R. Klett. 2010. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010–3102, 4 p.

Lee, M.W. 2011. Connection equation and shaly-sand correction for electrical resistivity. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5005, 9 p.

Lee, M.W., T.S. Collett, and W.F. Agena. 2008. Assessing Gas Hydrate Prospects on the North Slope of Alaska-Theoretical Considerations: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5175, 35 p.

Lewis, K.A., and T.S. Collett. 2013. Brookian Sequence Well Log Correlation Sections and the Occurrence of Gas Hydrates for North-Central North Slope, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5050, 23 p.

Lorenson, T.D., and T.S. Collett. 2011. Gas hydrate prospecting using well cuttings and mud-gas geochemistry from 35 wells, North Slope, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5195, 27 p.

Nandanwar, M.S., B.J. Anderson, T. Ajayi, T.S. Collett, and M. Zyrianova. 2016. Evaluation of gas production potential from gas hydrate deposits in National Petroleum Reserve Alaska using numerical simulations: The Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 36(A):760-772.

Schenk, C.J., and D.W. Houseknecht. 2008. Geologic model for oil and gas assessment of the Kemik-Thomson Play, Central North Slope, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5146, 28 p.

Stier, N.E., C.D. Connors, and D.W. Houseknecht. 2014. Influence of the Kingak Shale ultimate shelf margin on frontal structures of the Brooks Range in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5056, 11 p.


Carey, M.P. and C.E. Zimmerman. 2014. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Ecology and Evolution 4(10):1981-1993. 

Haynes, T.B., A.E. Rosenberger, M.S. Lindberg, M. Whitman, and J.A. Schmutz. 2014. Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment. Freshwater Biology 59(9):1884-1896. 

Heim, K.C., M.S. Wipfli, M.S. Whitman, C.D. Arp, J. Adams, and J.A. Falke. 2016. Environmental cues of Arctic grayling seasonal movement in a small Arctic stream: the importance of surface water connectivity. Environmental Biology of Fishes 99(1):49-65.

Laske, S.M., A.E. Rosenberger, and M.S. Wipfli, and C.E. Zimmerman. 2017. Top-down control of invertebrates by Ninespine Stickleback in Arctic ponds. Freshwater Science 36:124-137. 

Laske, S.M., T.B. Haynes, A.E. Rosenberger, J.C. Koch, M.S. Wipfli, M. Whitman, and C.E. Zimmerman. 2016. Surface water connectivity drives richness and composition of Arctic lake fish assemblages. Freshwater Biology. 

Laske, S.M., A.E. Rosenberger, M.S. Wipfli, and C.E. Zimmerman. 2018. Generalist feeding strategies in Arctic freshwater fish: A mechanism for dealing with extreme environments. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. 

Menning, D., Simmons, T. and Talbot, S. 2018. Using redundant primer sets to detect multiple native Alaskan fish species from environmental DNA. Conservation Genetic Resources.

von Biela, V.R., C.E. Zimmerman, and L.L. Moulton. 2011. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) and environmental influences. Journal of Fish Biology 78(1):39-56.

Zimmerman, C.E., A.M. Ramey, S.M. Turner, F.J. Mueter, S.M. Murphy, and J.L. Nielsen. 2013. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada. Polar Biology 36(11):1543-1555.

Landscape Dynamics

Arp, C.D., B.M. Jones, J.A. Schmutz, F.E. Urban, and M.T. Jorgenson. 2010. Two mechanisms of aquatic and terrestrial habitat change along an Alaskan arctic coastline. Polar Biology 33(12):1629-1640. 

Arp, C.D., M.S. Whitman, B.M. Jones, R. Kemnitz, G. Grosse, and F.E. Urban. 2012. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 44(4):385-398.

Arp, C.D., B.M. Jones, Z. Lu, and M.S. Whitman. 2012. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 39 (L16503):1-5. doi:10.1029/2012GL052518

Arp, C.D., B.M. Jones, A.K. Liljedahl, K.M. Hinkel, and J.A. Welker. 2015. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes. Water Resources Research.

Arp, C.D., M.S. Whitman, B.M. Jones, G. Grosse, B.V. Gaglioti, and K.C. Heim. 2015. Distribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams of Arctic permafrost landscapes. Biogeosciences 12: 1-19. doi:10.5194/bg-12-29-2015

Arp, C.D., B.M. Jones, M. Whitman, A. Larsen, and F.E. Urban. 2010. Lake temperature and ice cover regimes in the Alaskan Subarctic and Arctic: integrated monitoring, remote sensing, and modeling. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 46:777-791.

Arp, C.D., B.M. Jones, F.E. Urban, and G. Grosse. 2011. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain. Alaska. Hydrologic Processes 25:2422–2438. doi:10.1002/hyp.8019

Burke, S.M., Zimmerman, C.E., Branfireun, B.A. et al. 2018. Patterns and controls of mercury accumulation in sediments from three thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Aquat Sci. 80: 1.

Clow, G.D. 2013. USGS Permafrost Temperatures Acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array in Arctic Alaska, 1973-continuing. Arctic Data Center.

Cox, C.J., Stone, R.S., Douglas, D.C., Stanitski, D.M., Divoky, G.J., Dutton, G.S., Sweeney, C., George, J.C., and Longnecker, D.U., 2017, Drivers and environmental responses to the changing annual snow cycle of northern Alaska: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,

Jones, B.M., R. Rykhus, Z. Lu, C.D. Arp, and D.J. Selkowitz. 2008. Radar imaging of winter seismic survey activity in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. Polar Record 44(3).

Jones, B.M., C.D. Arp, K.M. Hinkel, R.A. Beck, J.A. Schmutz, and B. Winston. 2009. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska. Environmental Management 43(6):1071-1084.

Jones, B.M., C.D. Arp, M.T. Jorgenson, K.M. Hinkel, J.A. Schmutz, and P.L. Flint. 2009. Increase in the rate and uniformity of coastline erosion in arctic Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L02503.

Jones, B.M., A. Gusmeroli, C.D. Arp, T. Strozzi, G. Grosse, B.V. Gaglioti, and M.S. Whitman. 2013. Classification of freshwater ice conditions on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain using ground penetrating radar and TerraSAR-X satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 34(23): 8253-8265. 

Jones, B.M., C.L. Amundson, J.C. Koch, and G. Grosse. 2013. Thermokarst and thaw-related landscape dynamics - An annotated bibliography with an emphasis on potential effects on habitat and wildlife. USGS Open-File Report 2013-1161. 

Jones, B.M., and C.D. Arp. 2015. Observing a catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage in northern Alaska. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 26(2):119-128.

Jones, B.M., C.D. Arp, M.S. Whitman, D.A. Nigro, I. Nitze, J. Beaver, A. Gädeke, C. Zuck, A.K. Liljedahl, R.P. Daanen, E. Torvinen, S. Fritz, and G. Grosse. 2017. A lake-centric geospatial database to guide research and inform management decisions in an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska experiencing climate and land-use changes. Ambrio 46(7):769-786.

Jones, B.M., et al. 2018. A decade of remotely sensed observations highlight complex processes linked to coastal permafrost bluff erosion in the Arctic. Environ. Res. Lett. 13 115001

Koch, J.C., K. Gurney, and M.S. Wipfli. 2014. Morphology-dependent water budgets and nutrient fluxes in Arctic thaw ponds. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 25(2):79-93. 

Koch, J.C. 2016. Lateral and subsurface flows impact Arctic Coastal Plain lake water budgets. Hydrological Processes 30(21):3918-3931.

Koch, J. C., Fondell, T. F., Laske, S., & Schmutz, J. A. 2018. Nutrient dynamics in partially drained arctic thaw lakes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123, 440–452.

Mars, J.C., and D.W. Houseknecht. 2007. Quantitative remote sensing study indicates doubling of coastal erosion rate in past 50 yr along a segment of the Arctic coast of Alaska. Geology 35(7):583-586.

Ravens, T.M., B.M. Jones, J. Zhang, C.D. Arp, and J.A. Schmutz. 2012. Process-based coastal erosion modeling for Drew Point, North Slope, Alaska. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 138:122-130.

Tape, K.D., J.M. Pearce, D. Walworth, B.W. Meixell, T.F. Fondell, D.D. Gustine, P.L. Flint, J.W. Hupp, J.A. Schmutz, and D.H. Ward. 2014. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska (ver. 1.1, June 2015). USGS Open-File Report 2014-1140, 22 p.

Whitman, M.S., C.D. Arp, B. Jones, W. Morris, G. Grosse, F. Urban, R. Kemnitz. 2011. Developing a long-term aquatic monitoring network in a complex watershed of the Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain. In Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change. Eds. C.N. Medley, G. Patterson, and M.J. Parker. Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. USDOI and USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5169.

Zhan, S., Beck, R.A., Hinkel, K.M., Liu, H., and Jones, B.M. 2014. Spatio-temporal analysis of gyres in oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska based on remotely sensed images. Remote Sensing, 6(10), 9170-9193.

Migratory Birds

Ely, C.R., D.J. Nieman, R.T. Alisauskas, J. A. Schmutz, and J. E. Hines. 2013. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white‐fronted geese. The Journal of Wildlife Management 77(6):1182-1191. doi:10.1002/jwmg.573

Evers, D.C., J.A. Schmutz, N. Basu, C.R. DeSorbo, J.S. Fair, C.E. Gray, J. Paruk, M. Perkins, K. Regan, B.D. Uher-Koch, and K.G. Wright. 2014. Historic and contemporary mercury exposure and potential risk to Yellow-billed Loons breeding in Alaska and Canada. Waterbirds 37(sp1):147-159. doi:10.1675/063.037.sp117

Flint, P.L., E.J. Mallek, R.J. King, J.A. Schmutz, K.S. Bollinger, and D.V. Derksen. 2008. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change? Polar Biology 31:549-556. 

Flint, P.L., M.E. Whalen, and J.M. Pearce. 2014. Changing Arctic Ecosystems - Sea ice decline, permafrost thaw, and benefits for geese. USGS Fact Sheet 2014–3088, 2 p.

Flint, P.L., B.W. Meixell, and E.J. Mallek. 2014. High fidelity does not preclude colonization: range expansion of molting Black Brant on the Arctic coast of Alaska. Journal of Field Ornithology 85(1):75-83.

Flint, P.L. and B.W. Meixell. 2017. Movements and habitat use of White-fronted geese during the remigial molt in Arctic Alaska, USA. Waterbirds 40(3):272-281. [Pub Brief]

Fondell, T.F., P.L. Flint, J.A. Schmutz, J.L. Schamber, and C.A. Nicolai. 2013. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricanssupports adaptivity of mass loss during moult. Ibis 155(3):593-604. doi:10.1111/ibi.12056 

Franson, J.C., P.L. Flint, and J.A. Schmutz. 2016. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity. Marine Pollution Bulletin 111(1-2):453-455. 

Haynes, T.B., A.E. Rosenberger, M.S. Lindberg, M. Whitman, and J.A. Schmutz. 2013. Method- and species-specific detection probabilities of fish occupancy in Arctic lakes: Implications for design and management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70(7):1055-1062.

Haynes, T.B., J.A. Schmutz, M.S. Lindberg, and A.E. Rosenberger. 2014. Risk of predation and weather events affect nest site selection by sympatric Yellow-billed and Pacific loons in Arctic habitats. Waterbirds 37(sp1):16-25.

Haynes, T.B., J.A. Schmutz, M.S. Lindberg, K.G. Wright, B.D. Uher-Koch, and A.E. Rosenberger. 2014. Occupancy of Yellow-billed and Pacific loons: Evidence for interspecific competition and habitat mediated co-occurrence. Journal of Avian Biology 45(3):296-304. 

Haynes, T.B., J.A. Schmutz, J.F. Bromaghin, S.J. Iverson, V.M. Padula, and A.E. Rosenberger. 2015. Diet of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) in Arctic lakes during the nesting season inferred from fatty acid analysis. Polar Biology 38(8):1239-1247.

Hupp, J.W., Ward, D.H., Soto, D.X.and Hobson, K. A., 2018, Spring temperature, migration chronology, and nutrient allocation to eggs in three species of arctic‐nesting geese: Implications for resilience to climate warming: Global Change Biology.

Lewis, T.L., P.L. Flint, J.A. Schmutz, and D.V. Derksen. 2010. Pre-moult patterns of habitat use and moult site selection by Brent Geese: Individuals prospect for moult sites. Ibis 152(3):556-568. 

Lewis, T.L., P.L. Flint, J.A. Schmutz, and D.V. Derksen. 2010. Temporal and spatial shifts in habitat use by Black Brant immediately following flightless molt. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122:484-493.

Lewis, T.L., P.L. Flint, D.V. Derksen, and J.A. Schmutz. 2011. Fine scale movements and habitat use of Black Brant during the flightless wing molt in Arctic Alaska. Waterbirds 34:177-185.

Lewis, T.L., P.L. Flint, D.V. Derksen, J.A. Schmutz, B. Taylor, E.J. Taylor, K.S. Bollinger. 2011. Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: Evidence for ecological change. Polar Biology 34:1751-1762. 

McCloskey, S. E., B. D. Uher-Koch, J. A. Schmutz, and T. F. Fondell. 2017. International migration patterns of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) from four breeding populations in Alaska. PLoS One 13(1):e0189954.

Meixell, B.W. and P.L. Flint. 2017. Effects of industrial and investigator disturbance on Arctic-nesting geese. Journal of Wildlife Management 81(8):1372-1385. [Pub Brief]

Schmutz, J.A., K.A. Trust, and A.C. Matz. 2009. Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska, USA, are exposed to PCBs while on Asian wintering grounds. Environmental Pollution 157:2386-2393. 

Schmutz, J.A. 2009. Model-based predictions of the effects of harvest mortality on population size and trend of Yellow-billed Loons. USGS Open-File Report 2009-1040, 18 p.

Schmutz, J.A., K. G. Wright, C.R. DeSorbo, J.S. Fair, D.C. Evers, B.D. Uher-Koch, and D.M. Mulcahy. 2014. Size and retention of breeding territories of yellow-billed loons in Alaska and Canada. Waterbirds 37(sp1):53-63.

Schmutz, J.A. 2014. Survival of adult Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) may be linked to marine conditions. Waterbirds 37(sp1):118-124.

Tape, K.D., P.L. Flint, B.W. Meixell, and B.V. Gaglioti. 2013. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic Coast of Alaska. Environmental Research Letters 8:045031.

Uher-Koch, B.D., J.A. Schmutz, M.E. Whalen, and J.M. Pearce. 2014. Changing Arctic Ecosystems - Ecology of loons in a changing Arctic. USGS Fact Sheet 2014–3093, 2 p.

Uher-Koch, B.D., J.A. Schmutz, and K.G. Wright. 2015. Nest visits and capture events affect breeding success of Yellow-billed and Pacific Loons. Condor 117(1):121-129.

Uher-Koch, BD, JC Koch, KW Wright, and JA Schmutz. 2018. Comparative nest survival of three sympatric loon species breeding in the Arctic. Journal of Avian Biology 10.1111/jav.01671

Weiser, E. L., R. B. Lanctot, S. C. Brown, H. R. Gates, R. L. Bentzen, J. Bêty, M. L. Boldenow, W. B. English, S. E. Franks, L. Koloski, E. Kwon, J-F. Lamarre, D. B. Lank, J. R. Liebezeit, L. McKinnon, E. Nol, J. Rausch, S. T. Saalfeld, N. R. Senner, D. H. Ward, P. F. Woodard, and B. K. Sandercock. 2018. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds. The Auk 135(1):29-43.

Overview Documents

Van Hemert, C.R., P.L. Flint, M.S. Udevitz, J.C. Koch, T.C. Atwood, K.L. Oakley, and J.M. Pearce. 2015. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic. BioScience 65(7):718-728.

Wildlife Disease

Amundson, C.L., N.J. Traub, A.J. Smith-Herron, and P.L. Flint. 2016. Helminth community structure in two species of arctic-breeding waterfowl. International Journal of Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5(3):263-272. 

Hansen, C.M., E.A. Himschoot, R.F. Hare, B.W. Meixell, C.R. Van Hemert, and K. Hueffer. 2017. Neisseria arctica sp. nov. isolated from nonviable eggs of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) in Arctic Alaska. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 67:1115-1119. 

Ramey, A.M., J.A. Reed, J.A. Schmutz, T.F. Fondell, B.W. Meixell, J.W. Hupp, D.H. Ward, J.Terenzi, and C.R. Ely. 2014. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 92(8):699-706.