Florence Bascom Geoscience Center

Publications

Filter Total Items: 608
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Year Published: 2021

The Chesapeake Bay program modeling system: Overview and recommendations for future development

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest, most productive, and most biologically diverse estuary in the continental United States providing crucial habitat and natural resources for culturally and economically important species. Pressures from human population growth and associated development and agricultural intensification have led to excessive...

Hood, Raleigh; Shenk, Gary Wynee; Dixon, Rachel L; Smith, Sean M. C.; Ball, William P.; Bash, Jesse; Batiuk, R.; Boomer, Kathy; Brady, Damian C; Cerco, Carl; Claggett, Peter R.; de Mutsert, Kim; Easton, Zachary M.; Elmore, Andrew J; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Harris, Lora A.; Ihde, Thomas F.; Lacher, Iara; Li, Li; Linker, Lewis; Miller, Andrew; Moriarty, Julia; Noe, Gregory B.; Onyullo, George; Rose, Kenneth A; Skalak, Katherine; Tian, Richard; Veith, Tamie L; Wainger, Lisa A.; Weller, Donald E.; Zhang, Yinglong J.

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Year Published: 2021

Borehole sampling of surficial sediments in Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland

From 2014 to 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Florence Bascom Geoscience Center (FBGC) entered into an inter-agency agreement with the Federal Highway Administration’s Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) to assist in field site selection and auger drilling fieldwork. The TFHRC was developing a device to measure the erosional...

Chirico, Peter G.; DeWitt, Jessica D.; Bergstresser, Sarah E.
Chirico, P.G., DeWitt, J.D., and Bergstresser, S.E., 2021, Borehole sampling of surficial sediments in Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1038, 27 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211038.

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Year Published: 2021

Permafrost thaw in northern peatlands: Rapid changes in ecosystem and landscape functions

Peatlands within the northern permafrost region cover approximately 2 million km2 and are characterized by organic soils that can be several meters thick, and a fine-scale mosaic of permafrost and non-permafrost landforms interspersed by shallow ponds and lakes. Ongoing permafrost thaw is transforming these peatlands, causing abrupt changes...

Olefeldt, David; Hefferman, Liam; Jones, Miriam C.; Sannel, A. Britta; Treat, Claire C.; Turetsky, Merritt R.

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Year Published: 2021

Enhanced terrestrial runoff during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 on the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

A global increase in the strength of the hydrologic cycle drove an increase in the flux of terrigenous sediments into the ocean during the Cenomanian–Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) and was an important mechanism driving nutrient enrichment and thus organic carbon burial. This global change is primarily known from isotopic records, but...

Lowery, Christopher M; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Barrie, Craig

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Year Published: 2021

Estimating Piacenzian sea surface temperature using an alkenone-calibrated transfer function

Stationarity of environmental preferences is a primary assumption required for any paleoenvironmental reconstruction using fossil materials based upon calibration to modern organisms. Confidence in this assumption decreases the further back in time one goes, and the validity of the assumption that species temperature tolerances have not changed...

Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Foley, Kevin M.
Dowsett, H.J., Robinson, M.M., and Foley, K.M., 2021, Estimating Piacenzian sea surface temperature using an alkenone-calibrated transfer function: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2021–5051, 17 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20215051.

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Year Published: 2021

Biogeography and ecology of Ostracoda in the U.S. northern Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas

Ostracoda (bivalved Crustacea) comprise a significant part of the benthic meiofauna in the Pacific-Arctic region, including more than 50 species, many with identifiable ecological tolerances. These species hold potential as useful indicators of past and future ecosystem changes. In this study, we examined benthic ostracodes from nearly 300 surface...

Gemery, Laura; Cronin, Thomas M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.

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Year Published: 2021

Capturing the transient hydrological response in sandy soils during a rare cloudburst associated with shallow slope failures; A case study in the Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, USA

A cloudburst on 7 August 2018 in the coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, induced flooding, erosion and multiple shallow slope failures that adversely affected the surrounding hillside residential area. Historically, short-duration deluges are rare in the New York Bay region, with only eight cloudbursts of greater magnitude...

Ashland, Francis; Reilly, Pamela A.; Fiore, Alex R.

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Year Published: 2021

Quantifying diagenesis, contributing factors, and resulting isotopic bias in benthic foraminifera using the Foraminiferal Preservation Index: Implications for geochemical proxy records

Geochemical records generated from the calcite tests of benthic foraminifera, especially those of the genera Cibicidoides and Uvigerina, provide the basis for proxy reconstructions of past climate. However, the extent to which benthic foraminifera are affected by postdepositional alteration is poorly constrained. Furthermore, how...

Poirier, Robert; Gaetano, Madison Q.; Acevedo, Kimberly; Morgan F. Schaller, Morgan F.; Raymo, Maureen E.; Kozdon, Reinhard

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Year Published: 2021

A review of spatially resolved techniques and applications of organic petrography in shale petroleum systems

This review examines new techniques and applications of organic petrography in source-rock reservoir petroleum systems that have occurred along with development of the global ‘shale revolution’ in energy resources. The review is limited to techniques and instrumentation that provide spatially resolved information, typically at...

Hackley, Paul C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; McAleer, Ryan J.; Valentine, Brett J.; Birdwell, Justin E.

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Year Published: 2021

Critical shallow and deep hydrologic conditions associated with widespread landslides during a series of storms between February and April 2018 in Pittsburgh and vicinity, western Pennsylvania, USA

The potential for widespread landslides is generally increased when extraordinary wet periods occur during times of elevated subsurface hydrologic conditions. A series of storms in early 2018 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, overlapped with a period of increased shallow soil moisture and rising bedrock groundwater levels resulting from seasonally...

Ashland, Francis

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Year Published: 2021

Stable oxygen isotopes in shallow marine ostracodes from the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas

Stable oxygen isotope measurements on calcitic valves of benthic ostracodes (δ18Oost) from the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas were used to examine ecological and hydrographic processes governing ostracode and associated seawater δ18O values. Five cryophilic taxa were analyzed for δ18Oost values: Sarsicytheridea bradii; Paracyprideis...

Gemery, Laura; Cooper, L.W.; Magen, C; Cronin, T. M.; Grebmeier, J.M.

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Year Published: 2021

Synthesis of geochronologic research on Late Pliocene to Holocene emergent shorelines in the lower Savannah River area of southeastern Georgia, USA

Emergent late Pliocene and Pleistocene shoreline deposits, morphologically identifiable Pleistocene shoreline units, and seaward-facing scarps characterize the easternmost Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) of the United States of America. In some areas of the ACP, these deposits, units, and scarps have been studied in detail. Within these areas,...

Markewich, Helaine W.; Pavich, Milan J.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Alemán‑González, Wilma B.; Schultz, Arthur P.
Markewich, H.W., Pavich, M.J., Mahan, S.A., Bierman, P.R., Alemán‑González, W.B., and Schultz, A.P., 2021, Synthesis of geochronologic research on Late Pliocene to Holocene emergent shorelines in the lower Savannah River area of southeastern Georgia, USA: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1015, 48 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211015.