Adirondack Long-Term Stream and Soil Monitoring

Science Center Objects

The current Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring Program combines monitoring of streams and soils based on a watershed design. Not only are headwater streams an important component of Adirondack ecosystems, they are closely tied to the terrestrial environment through runoff that is strongly influenced by soil and vegetation processes. This linkage makes headwater streams a useful tool for monitor...

 The current Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring Program combines monitoring of streams and soils based on a watershed design.  Not only are headwater streams an important component of Adirondack ecosystems, they are closely tied to the terrestrial environment through runoff that is strongly influenced by soil and vegetation processes.  This linkage makes headwater streams a useful tool for monitoring the overall condition of the watershed, and by combining stream and soil monitoring within watersheds, the response of Adirondack ecosystems to environmental disturbances such as acid rain and climate change can be better understood.  For example, the unexpectedly slow reversal of stream acidification from decreased atmospheric sulfur deposition is attributable to release of nitrogen previously stored in soil organic matter during the period of high deposition levels (Lawrence et al. 2020).  Under lower sulfur deposition levels, decomposition in soil has increased, which has resulted in continued release of acidifying forms of nitrogen to streams despite the current low deposition levels. 

The monitoring plans for streams and soils have both been developed from previous projects that have been adapted and combined to comprise the current Adirondack Stream and Soil Monitoring Program.  Monitoring under this design is currently scheduled through December 2022.  Descriptions of the monitoring plans and key findings follow.

Stream gaging station on North Buck Creek, NY

Stream gaging station on North Buck Creek, NY
WASS stream 27019 during spring<br />
 snowmelt

WASS stream 27019 during spring snowmelt

 

Streams

Monitoring Plan

The primary focus of this monitoring is to document changes in headwater stream chemistry and biota that are occurring in response to changes in air quality, and more recently, climate.  The stream monitoring program evolved out of several projects designed to assess acidic deposition effects on streams through a combination of year-round data collection in selected streams and periodic surveys that provided information representative of large regions.  The current aquatic program, referred to as WECASS, is comprised of the following elements:

·         Buck-Boreas. — Stream chemistry and flow are monitored year-round with stream gages installed in Buck Creek, two tributaries of Buck Creek (North Buck and South Buck), and three streams in the Boreas River drainage (Durgin Brook, Maple Brook, and Balsam Brook).  Buck Creek was first sampled intermittently from 1982-1985, then again from fall 1988 through spring 1990.  In 1991, weekly collection of water samples at Buck Creek was begun, then monthly collections for additional analyses were added in 1997.   Monitoring was expanded to the current program in 2001.  Monitoring at North and South Buck began in 1998.  

The Buck suite of streams were severely acidified during the period of high deposition (1980s and 1990s) and continue to experience severe acidification episodes.  The Boreas suite of streams, where monitoring began in 2014, become more acidic during high flows, but do not experience severe acidification episodes.  Each of the six streams are instrumented to record stream stage (water level) and water temperature throughout the year.  Automated water samplers collect samples during periods of rapid changes in flow during April through November, and sites are visited at least four times during December through March to manually sample high-flow events.  Satellite telemetry provides near-real time water level information at the Buck Creek, Balsam Brook and Durgin Brook gages.  All sites are visited biweekly, year-round, to download electronic data and manually collect water samples.  On these visits, direct flow measurements are also made every six weeks and during occasional high flows as needed to convert water level data to flow.  Further information on the Buck-Boreas stream monitoring program is available in Lawrence et al.[2011].

·         Western Adirondack Stream Surveys (WASS)<">. —  Every five years, 64 streams in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages are sampled four times over approximately 12 months (once during spring snowmelt, once in summer and fall of that year, and once during the following spring snowmelt).  These drainages have the highest proportion of streams acidified by acidic deposition in the Adirondack ecoregion. The 64 streams, which were part of the original WASS sampling conducted in 2003-2005, were selected from over 500 accessible streams within the region using a stratified random design to ensure representation of the full range in chemistry within that region.  WASS re sampling has thus far been done in 2014-15 and 2018-19.  The original WASS also included 12 streams with chemical data from the early 1980s, the oldest Adirondack stream chemistry records available.  In each WASS cycle, these historically sampled streams are being re sampled eight times to match the seasonal sampling pattern of the original collection. Further information on the WASS stream monitoring program is available in Lawrence et al. [2008a].

·         East Central Adirondack Stream Survey (ECASS). — These surveys follow the same seasonal sampling design as the WASS, but the 64 ECASS streams are distributed throughout the Adirondack ecoregion not covered by the WASS surveys.  The five-year sampling cycle does not overlap with the WASS cycle.  The original ECASS sampling occurred in 2010-2011, and re sampling occurred in 2017-2018.  As part of the ECASS Surveys, thirteen accessible high elevation streams sampled in the original ECASS are also sampled once in summer, fall, and spring snowmelt of two different years, in each 5-year cycle. Further information on the ECASS stream monitoring program is available in Lawrence et al. [2018b]

·         Macroinvertebrate collection. —  Results of the original WASS showed that assessments of macroinvertebrate communities provide a useful tool for determining aquatic ecosystem effects of acidic deposition.  Recovery of aquatic biota often do not closely track chemical recovery.  Therefore, repeated sampling of stream macroinvertebrate communities has been incorporated into the aquatic monitoring program.  Collection of macroinvertebrates are done using standardized kick sampling methods that match the original WASS macroinvertebrate sampling.  Collections are made during summer base flow in 24 WASS and 24 ECASS streams during each five-year cycle.  Community indices are developed to quantify relationships between stream chemistry and this form of stream biota, which is an essential component of healthy stream ecosystems. Further information on the WASS macroinvertebrate program is available in Baldigo et al. [2009]. Further information on the ECASS stream monitoring program is available in Lawrence et al. [2018b].

 Key Findings

• Decreasing atmospheric deposition of nitrogen has not lowered watershed export of nitrogen by Adirondack streams.  As a result, movement of harmful nitric acid and aluminum from soils to streams continues despite lower deposition of sulfur and nitrogen.  Past depletion of soil calcium by acidic deposition may contribute to nitrogen saturation and associated stream acidification [Lawrence et al., 2020].

• The variability, mean, and highest concentrations of the harmful form of aluminum decreased in Buck Creek and in several other western Adirondack streams.  However, despite these decreases, episodic acidification still causes moderate to high mortality of brook trout in Buck Creek [B. P. Baldigo et al., 2019].

• The east-central Adirondack region continued to experience potentially harmful acidification during high-flow episodes in 55% of headwater streams in 2011 [Lawrence et al., 2018b].

Real-time stream flow and water temperature data are available for these stream sites:

 

USGS 04253296 BUCK CREEK NEAR INLET NY

https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ny/nwis/uv/?site_no=04253296&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,63160

USGS 01315170 DURGIN BROOK AT BOREAS RIVER NY

https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ny/nwis/uv/?site_no=01315170&PARAmeter_cd=000...

Stream flow and water temperature for the following stream sites can be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (https://doi.org/10.5066/F7P55KJN) with the following site codes.

USGS 04253294 Buck Creek, North Tributary, Near Inlet NY

USGS  04253295 Buck Creek, South Tributary, Near Inlet NY

USGS 1315226 Vanderwhacker Brook Tributary 1 (Maple Brook) Near Boreas River NY

 

USGS 1315227 Vanderwhacker Brook Tributary 2 (Balsam Brook) Near Boreas River NY

<>Freshly screened mineral soil

Freshly screened mineral soil
<>Samples arranged in order (upper to lower) from each of the primary soil horizons of a single pit collected in WASS watershed 29012

Samples arranged in order (upper to lower) from each of the primary soil horizons of a single pit collected in WASS watershed 29012

 

Soils

Monitoring Plan

Current Adirondack soil monitoring is based on several past projects that included collection and archiving of soil samples with fully documented methods. The archived soil collections and sampling documentation made available by these projects, enables consistency of sampling and chemical analysis methods to be maintained between samplings, thereby allowing Adirondack soils to be assessed for changes over time through repeated soil sampling.  Brief descriptions of these past projects and completed re sampling efforts follow.

·         Northeastern Red Spruce Study (project abbreviation: Spruce). — As part of a study conducted in four northeastern states to evaluate possible links between decline of red spruce trees (Picea rubens) and depletion of soil calcium by acidic deposition, soil sampling was conducted in 1992-1993 in a stand of red spruce trees in the drainage of Big Moose Lake in the western Adirondack ecoregion.  This stand was re sampled with the same methods in 2003 and 2014 to determine if soils were showing changes over the 21-year interval.  These soils, representative of those found in western Adirondack conifer forests, possess a thick organic layer at the surface that naturally produces a high level of acidity from the decomposition of conifer litter. Further information on Spruce Project methods are available in Lawrence et al. [2012].

·         Buck-Boreas. — Soil samples were collected at 30 locations throughout North Buck watershed in 1997 and 30 locations in South Buck watershed in 1998 to evaluate the role of soil properties in controlling stream chemistry and forest growth.  To evaluate changes that may have resulted from decreasing acidic deposition that became more pronounced after 2000, re sampling was done at 28 of the 30 locations in North Buck in 2009-2010, and also at 28 of the 30 locations in South Buck in 2014.  Vegetation data are also collected to evaluate the effects of soils on forest growth.  In circular plots (9-meter diameter) located near 15 of the 28 soil sampling locations in each watershed, all trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) greater than 5 cm were identified and measured for DBH in 2000, then remeasured in 2005, 2010 and 2015.  The number of saplings taller than 1 meter with DBH less than 5 centimeters are also counted and identified by species. Soil moisture and temperature are recorded every 12 hours, year-round, near the stream gages in North and South Buck.  Soil in North Buck tends to have a thick forest floor and high concentrations of organic carbon in the upper mineral soil. Soil in South Buck has a thinner forest floor than in North Buck, and considerably less organic carbon is stored in the upper mineral soil.  Further information on Buck Boreas Project methods are available in Lawrence et al. [2020].

·         Western Adirondack Stream Survey Soil Sampling (project abbreviation: WASS). — To evaluate possible relationships between soils and stream chemistry in watersheds with a range of stream chemistry, soil sampling was done in 10 WASS watersheds as part of the original 2003-2005 WASS Project.  Further information on WASS Project methods are available in Lawrence et al. [2008b].

·         Adirondack Soil Monitoring Pilot Project (project abbreviation: ADK). — To improve methods and assess the feasibility of long-term soil monitoring in the Adirondack region, a pilot project was conducted to evaluate a new sampling method for characterizing soils on a watershed basis.  The primary goal was to compare the effectiveness of the sampling design used in the original WASS soil sampling to a new design developed to both characterize soil variability within small watersheds to better understand controls of stream chemistry, and to also provide data useful in evaluating soil change over time.  The analysis done in this project involved re sampling of four WASS watersheds, as well as utilizing sampling/re sampling soil data from the Spruce and Buck-Boreas projects.  Further information on the methods used in the ADK Pilot Project are available in Lawrence et al. [2016].

 Key Findings

• Long-term decreases in acidifying sulfur deposition are stimulating decomposition of organic matter in the soil.  As a result nitrogen release is being increased in the forest floor of North and South Buck Creek watersheds, although the response is much stronger in South Buck watershed.  Although a likely recovery response, the increased decomposition rate is prolonging soil and stream acidification associated with the nitrogen release [Lawrence et al., 2020].

• In South Buck watershed, reduced mobility of harmful forms of aluminum in the soil coincide with strong regrowth of red spruce (Picea rubens), a species that experienced substantially elevated mortality during the period of high acidic deposition.  However, it remains unclear as to whether regeneration of sugar maple (Acer saccharum), also a species substantially harmed by acidic deposition, has begun to recover [Lawrence et al., 2018a].

• Prior to this study, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little was known regarding the response of soils to ongoing declines in acidic deposition.   This study, which included North and South Buck watersheds, and the Big Moose Lake spruce site, was the first to show that (1) soil acidification has clearly begun to reverse, (2) the greater the decrease in acidic deposition, the stronger the recovery response of impacted soils, and (3) this response is occurring over a large region of the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada.  As part of this recovery, further depletion of soil calcium has slowed or ceased, but increases in soil calcium, which is critical to a strong recovery, has not been detected.  [Lawrence et al., 2015]. 

USGS 04253296 BUCK CREEK NEAR INLET NY

https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ny/nwis/uv/?site_no=04253296&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,63160

USGS 01315170 DURGIN BROOK AT BOREAS RIVER NY

 

https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ny/nwis/uv/?site_no=01315170&PARAmeter_cd=000...

References

 Baldigo, B. P., G. B. Lawrence, R. W. Bode, H. A. Simonin, K. M. Roy, and A. J. Smith (2009), Impacts of acidification on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the western Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA., Ecological Indicators, 9(2009), 226-239.

Baldigo, B. P., B. P. Scott, G. B. Lawrence, and E. A. Paul (2019), Declining aluminum toxicity and the role of exposure duration on brook trout mortality in acidified streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, USA, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4645.

Lawrence, G. B., et al. (2016), Methods of Soil Resampling to Monitor Changes in the Chemical Concentrations of Forest Soils, Journal of Visualized Experiments, e54815, doi:https://doi.org/10.3791/54815.

Lawrence, G. B., P. W. Hazlett, I. J. Fernandez, R. Ouimet, S. W. Bailey, W. C. Shortle, K. T. Smith, and M. R. Antidormi (2015), Declining acidic deposition begins reversal of forest-soil acidification in the Northeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 13103-13111, doi:https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b02904.

Lawrence, G. B., T. C. McDonnell, T. J. Sullivan, M. Dovciak, S. W. Bailey, M. R. Antidormi, and M. R. Zarfos (2018a), Soil base saturation combines with beech bark disease to influence composition and structure of sugar maple-beech forests in an acid-rain impacted region, Ecosystems, 21, 1432-9840, doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0186-0.

Lawrence, G. B., K. M. Roy, B. P. Baldigo, H. A. Simonin, S. B. Capone, J. S. Sutherland, S. A. Nierswicki-Bauer, and C. W. Boylen (2008a), Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005., J. Environ. Qual., 37, 2264-2274, doi:https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0061.

Lawrence, G. B., K. M. Roy, B. P. Baldigo, H. A. Simonin, S. I. Passy, B. R.W., and S. B. Capone (2008b), Results of the 2003-2005 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (WASS).  NYSERDA Report 08-22, New York State Energy Research and Technology Authority, Albany, NY. https://www.nyserda.ny.gov/-/media/Files/Publications/Research/Environmental/EMEP/Western-Adirondack-Stream-Survey.pdfRep.

Lawrence, G. B., K. M. Roy, S. I. Passy, K. L. Pound, S. D. George, D. A. Burns, and B. P. Baldigo (2018b), Results of the 2010–2011 East-Central Adirondack Stream Survey (ECASS), Final Report, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NYSERDA Report 18-26Rep.

Lawrence, G. B., S. E. Scanga, and R. D. Sabo (2020), Recovery of soils from acidic deposition may exacerbate nitrogen export from forested watersheds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 125, e2019JG005036, doi:https://doi.org/:10.1029/2019JG005036.

Lawrence, G. B., W. C. Shortle, M. B. David, K. T. Smith, R. A. F. Warby, and A. G. Lapenis (2012), Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 76, 1407-1417, doi:https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2011.0415.

Lawrence, G. B., H. A. Simonin, B. P. Baldigo, K. M. Roy, and S. B. Capone (2011), Changes in the chemistry of acidified Adirondack streams from the early 1980s to 2008, Environ. Pollut., 159, 2750-2758, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.05.016.

Additional Publications presenting data from the Adirondack Monitoring Program not cited in the Monitoring Plans or Key Findings.  (below this point is the “deliverables list” that would be good if it linked to IPDS)

Baldigo, B. P., G. B. Lawrence, and H. A. Simonin (2007), Persistent mortality of brook trout in episodically acidified streams of the southwestern Adirondack Mountains, New York, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 136, 121-134.

Beier, C. M., J. Caputo, G. B. Lawrence, and T. J. Sullivan (2017), Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA), J. Environ. Manage., 191, 19-27, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.12.069.

Beier, C. M., A. M. Woods, K. P. Hotopp, J. P. Gibbs, M. J. Mitchell, M. Dovciak, D. J. Leopold, G. B. Lawrence, and B. P. Page (2012), Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests, Can. J. For. Res., 42, 1141-1152, doi:10.1139/x2012-071.

Caputo, J., C. M. Beier, T. J. Sullivan, and G. B. Lawrence (2016), Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA), Sci. Total Environ., 565, 401-411, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.008.

David, M. B., A. M. Cupples, G. B. Lawrence, G. Shi, K. Vogt, and P. M. Wargo (1998), Forest floor nitrogen in red spruce stands: response to chronic nitrogen addition, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 105, 183-192.

David, M. B., and G. B. Lawrence (1996), Soil and soil solution chemistry under red spruce stands across the northeastern United States, Soil Science, 161(5), 314-328.

Lapenis, A. G., G. B. Lawrence, A. Buyantuev, S. Jiang, T. J. Sullivan, T. C. McDonnell, and A. S. Bailey (2017), A newly identified role of the deciduous forest floor in the timing of green-up, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 122, 2876-2891, doi:10.1002/2017JG004073.

Lawrence, G. B. (2002), Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil, Atmos. Environ., 36, 1589-1598.

Lawrence, G. B., M. B. David, S. W. Bailey, and W. C. Shortle (1997), Assessment of calcium status in soils of red spruce forests in the northeastern United States, Biogeochemistry, 38, 19-39.

Lawrence, G. B., M. B. David, and W. C. Shortle (1995), A new mechanism for calcium loss in forest-floor soils, Nature, 378(6553), 162-165.

Lawrence, G. B., M. B. David, and W. C. Shortle (1996), Aluminum mobilization and calcium depletion in the Forest Floor of Red Spruce Forests in the Northeastern United StatesRep., 112-117 pp, Radnor, PA.

Lawrence, G. B., B. Momen, and K. M. Roy (2004), Use of stream chemistry for monitoring acidic deposition effects in the Adirondack Region of New York., J. Environ. Qual., 33, 1002-1009.

Lawrence, G. B., W. C. Shortle, M. B. David, K. T. Smith, R. A. F. Warby, and A. G. Lapenis (2012), Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 76, 1407-1417, doi:https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2011.0415.

Lawrence, G. B., T. J. Sullivan, K. C. Weathers, B. J. Cosby, and T. C. McDonnell (2011), Comparison of methods for estimating critical loads of acidic deposition in the western Adirondack region of New York.  NYSERDA Report 11-13, New York State Energy Research and Technology Authority, Albany, NY.Rep.

Lawrence, G. B., J. W. Sutherland, C. W. Boylen, S. A. Nierzwicki-Bauer, B. Momen, B. P. Baldigo, and H. A. Simonin (2007), Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 93-98.

Minocha, R., W. C. Shortle, G. B. Lawrence, M. B. David, and S. C. Minocha (1996), Putrescine: a marker of stress in red spruce treesRep., 119-130 pp, Radnor, PA.

Minocha, R., W. C. Shortle, G. B. Lawrence, M. B. David, and S. C. Minocha (1997), Relationships among foliar chemistry, foliar polyamines and soil chemistry in red spruce trees growing across the northeastern United States, Plant Soil, 191, 109-122.

Passy, S. I., I. Ciugulea, and G. B. Lawrence (2006), Diatom community dynamics in streams of chronic and episodic acidification: the roles of environment and time, International Review of Hydrobiology, 91, 594-608.

Pound, K. L., G. B. Lawrence, and S. I. Passy (2013), Wetlands serve as natural sources for improvement of stream ecosystem health in regions affected by acid deposition, Glob. Chang. Biol., 19, 2720-2728, doi:doi: 10.1111/gcb.12265.

Pound, K. L., G. B. Lawrence, and S. I. Passy (2019), Regional heterogeneity in acidification stress disproportionately influences beta diversity of sensitive versus tolerant diatom species, Divers. Distrib., 25, 374-384, doi:DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12865.

Ross, D. S., A. S. Bailey, G. B. Lawrence, J. B. Shanley, G. Fredriksen, A. E. Jamison, and P. A. Brousseau (2011), Near-Surface Soil Carbon, Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio, and Tree Species Are Tightly Linked across Northeastern United States Watersheds, Forest Science, 57, 460-469.

Ross, D. S., M. B. David, G. B. Lawrence, and R. J. Bartlett (1996), Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of Spodosol Oa horizons, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 60, 1926-1932, doi:https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018080.

Ross, D. S., G. Fredriksen, A. E. Jamison, B. C. Wemple, S. W. Bailey, J. B. Shanley, and G. B. Lawrence (2006), One-day rate measurements for estimating net nitrification potential in humid forest soils, For. Ecol. Manag., 230, 91-95.

Ross, D. S., G. B. Lawrence, and G. Fredriksen (2004), Mineralization and nitrification patterns at eight northeastern US forested research sites, For. Ecol. Manag., 188, 317-335.

Ross, D. S., J. B. Shanley, J. L. Campbell, G. B. Lawrence, S. W. Bailey, G. E. Likens, B. C. Wemple, G. Fredriksen, and A. E. Jamison (2012), Spatial patterns of soil nitrification and nitrate export from forested headwaters in the Northeastern USA, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 117, G01009(G01009), doi:https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JG001740.

Ross, D. S., B. C. Wemple, A. E. Jamison, G. Fredriksen, J. B. Shanley, G. B. Lawrence, S. W. Bailey, and J. L. Campbell (2009), A cross-site comparison of factors influencing soil nitrification rates in northeastern USA forested watersheds, Ecosystems, 12, 158–178, doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-008-9214-4.

Sabo, R. D., S. E. Scanga, G. B. Lawrence, D. M. Nelson, K. N. Eshleman, G. A. Zabala, A. A. Alinea, and C. D. Schirmer (2016), Watershed-scale changes in terrestrial nitrogen cycling during a period of decreased atmospheric nitrate and sulfur deposition, Atmos. Environ., 146, 271-279, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.08.055.

Sebestyen, S. D., Kendall, C., Elliott, E. M., Schiff, S. L., Barnes, R. T., Bostic, J. T., Buda, A. R., Burns, D. A., Campbell, J. L., Dail, D. B., Eshleman, K. N., Fernandez, I. J., Finlay, J. C., Goodale, C. L., Griffiths, N. A., Hall, S. J., Lawrence, G. B., Lovett, G. M., McHale, P. J., Mitchell, M. J., Nelson, D. M., Nelson, S. J., Ohte, N., Pardo, L. H., Rose, L. A., Ross, D. S., Sabo, R. D., Shanley, J. B., Shattuck, M. D., Spoelstra, J., Weintraub, S. R., Wickman, T. R., & Williard, K. W. J. (2019), Unprocessed atmospheric nitrate in waters of the Northern Forest Region in the USA and Canada, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 3620-3633, doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01276.

Weyhenmeyer, G. A., et al. (2019), Widespread diminishing anthropogenic effects on calcium in freshwaters, Scientific Reports, 9(1), 10450, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46838-w.

Project Location by County

Adirondack Region: Essex County, NY, Franklin County, NY, Hamilton County, NY, Herkimer County, NY , Lewis County, NY, Oneida County, NY, St. Lawrence County, NY,  Warren County, NY, Fulton County, NY