Wisconsin Water Science Center
This list of Wisconsin Water Science Center publications spans from 1953 to present. It includes both official USGS publications and journal articles authored by our scientists.
Updated polychlorinated biphenyl mass budget for Lake Michigan
This study revisits and updates the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that was conducted in 1994–1995. This work uses recent concentrations of PCBs in tributary and open lake water, air, and sediment to calculate an updated mass budget. Five of the 11 LMMBP tributaries were revisited in 2015. In these...Guo, Jiehong; Romanak, Kevin; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Li, An; Kreis, Russell; Hites, Ronald A.; Venier, Marta
Estimation of the groundwater resources of the bedrock aquifers at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin
Groundwater resources information was needed to understand regional aquifer systems and water available to wells and springs for rearing important Lake Michigan fish species at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. As a basis for estimating the groundwater resources available, an existing groundwater-flow...Dunning, Charles; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haserodt, Megan
Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes
The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from...Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.
Spatial early warning signals in a lake manipulation
Rapid changes in state have been documented for many of Earth's ecosystems. Despite a growing toolbox of methods for detecting declining resilience or early warning indicators (EWIs) of ecosystem transitions, these methods have rarely been evaluated in whole-ecosystem trials using reference ecosystems. In this study, we experimentally tested EWIs...Butitta, Vince L; Carpenter, Stephen R; Loken, Luke; Pace, Michael L; Stanley, Emily H.
Using models to identify the best data: An example from northern Wisconsin
Linear-based data-worth analysis is an efficient and straightforward method for identifying the most important data for model forecasts.Leaf, Andrew T.
Current-use flame retardants in the water of Lake Michigan tributaries
In this study, we measured the concentrations of 65 flame retardants in water samples from five Lake Michigan tributaries. These flame retardants included organophosphate esters (OPEs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and Dechlorane-related compounds. A total of 59 samples, including both the particulate and the dissolved phases, were...Guo, Jiehong; Romanak, Kevin; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Hites, Ronald A.; Venier, Marta
Quantitative microbial risk assessment for spray irrigation of dairy manure based on an empirical fate and transport model
BACKGROUND: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation aﬀordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) estimate human health...Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Stokdyk, Joel; Kieke, Burney A; Larson, Rebecca A; Firnstahl, Aaron; Rule, Ana M; Borchardt, Mark A.
An “EAR” on environmental surveillance and monitoring: A case study on the use of Exposure–Activity Ratios (EARs) to prioritize sites, chemicals, and bioactivities of concern in Great Lakes waters
Current environmental monitoring approaches focus primarily on chemical occurrence. However, based on concentration alone, it can be difficult to identify which compounds may be of toxicological concern and should be prioritized for further monitoring, in-depth testing, or management. This can be problematic because toxicological characterization...Blackwell, Brett R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Corsi, Steven; DeCicco, Laura; Houck, Kieth A.; Judson, Richard S.; Li, Shibin; Martin, Matthew T.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Smith, Edwin R.; Swintek, Joe; Villeneuve, Daniel L.
Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of...Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fields, Chad L. ; Hladik, Michelle L.; Iwanowicz, Luke
Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels
Collection of water-quality samples that accurately characterize average particle concentrations and distributions in channels can be complicated by large sources of variability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a fully automated Depth-Integrated Sample Arm (DISA) as a way to reduce bias and improve accuracy in water-quality...Selbig, William R.
Depletion mapping and constrained optimization to support managing groundwater extraction
Groundwater models often serve as management tools to evaluate competing water uses including ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, industry, municipal supply, and others. Depletion potential mapping—showing the model-calculated potential impacts that wells have on stream baseflow - can form the basis for multiple potential management approaches in...Fienen, Michael N.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Kniffin, Maribeth; Barlow, Paul M.
Flood of July 2016 in northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation
Heavy rain fell across northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation on July 11, 2016, as a result of several rounds of thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding in the Bad River Basin and nearby tributaries along the south shore of Lake Superior. Rainfall totals were 8–10 inches or more and most of the rain fell in an 8-hour period. A...Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Dantoin, Eric D.; Tillison, Naomi; Watson, Kara M.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Blount, James D.