Climate Research and Development Program

Publications

Listed here are the most recent publications, reports and articles by the Climate R&D program.

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Filter Total Items: 777
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Year Published: 2021

FLUXNET-CH4: A global, multi-ecosystem database and analysis of methane seasonality from freshwater wetlands

Methane (CH4) emissions from natural landscapes constitute roughly half of global CH4 contributions to the atmosphere, yet large uncertainties remain in the absolute magnitude and the seasonality of emission quantities and drivers. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CH4 flux are ideal for constraining ecosystem-scale CH4 emissions...

Delwiche, Kyle B.; Knox, Sarah; Malhotra, Avni; Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne; McNicol, Gavin; Feron, Sarah; Ouyang, Zutao; Papale, Dario; Trotta, Carlo; Canfora, Eleonora; Cheah, You-Wei; Christianson, Danielle; Alberto, Ma. Carmelita R.; Alekseychik, Pavel; Aurela, Mika; Baldocchi, Dennis; Bansal, Sheel; Billesbach, David P.; Bohrer, Gil; Bracho, Rosvel; Buchmann, Nina; Campbell, David I.; Celis, Gerardo; Chen, Weinan; Chen, Jiquan; Chu, Housen; Dalmagro, Higo J; Dengel, Sigrid; Desai, Ankur R.; Detto, Matteo; Dolman, Han; Eichelmann, Elke; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Famulari, Daniela; Fuchs, Kathrin; Goeckede, Mathias; Gogo, Sébastien; Gondwe, Mangaliso J; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Gottschalk, Pia; Graham, Scott L.; Heimann, Martin; Helbig, Manuel; Helfter, Carole; Hemes, Kyle S.; Hirano, Takashi; Hollinger, David; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Iwata, Hiroki; Jacotot, Adrien; Jansen, Joachim; Jurasinski, Gerald; Kang, Minseok; Kasak, Kuno; King, John; Klatt, Janina; Koebsch, Franziska; Krauss, Ken; Lai, Derrick Y.F.; Lohila, Annalea; Mammarella, Ivan; Marchesini, Luca B; Manca, Giovanni; Matthes, Jaclyn H; Maximov, Trofim; Merbold, Lutz; Mitra, Bhaskar; Morin, Timothy H.; Nemitz, Eiko; Nilsson, Mats B.; Niu, Shuli; Oechel, Walter C.; Oikawa, Patricia Y.; Ono, Keisuke; Peichl, Matthias; Peltola, Olli; Reba, Michele L.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Riley, William; Runkle, Benjamin RK; Ryu, Youngryel; Sachs, Torsten; Sakabe, Ayaka; Sanchez, Camilo Rey; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Schäfer, Karina VR; Sonnentag, Oliver; Sparks, Jed P.; Stuart-Haëntjens, Ellen; Sturtevant, Cove; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Szutu, Daphne J.; Thom, Jonathan E; Torn, Margaret S.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Turner, Jessica; Ueyama, Masahito; Valach, Alex C.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Varlagin, Andrej; Vazquez-Lule, Alma; Verfaillie, Joseph G.; Vesala, Timo; Vourlitis, George L; Ward, Eric; Wille, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Xhuan Wong, Guan; Zhang, Zhen; Zona, Donatella; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Poulter, Benjamin; Jackson, Robert B.

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Year Published: 2021

Past abrupt changes, tipping points and cascading impacts in the Earth system

The geological record shows that abrupt changes in the Earth system can occur on timescales short enough to challenge the capacity of human societies to adapt to environmental pressures. In many cases, abrupt changes arise from slow changes in one component of the Earth system that eventually pass a critical threshold, or tipping point, after...

Brovkin, V.; Brook, Edward J.; Williams, J.; Bathiany, S.; Lenton, T.; Barton, M.; DeConto, R.; Donges, J.; Ganopolski, A.; McManus, J.; Praetorius, Summer K.; de Vernal, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Cheng, H.; Claussen, M; Crucifix, M.; Iglesias, Virginia; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kleinen, T.; Lambert, Fabrice; van der Leeuw, Sander; Liddy, Hannah; Loutre, Marie-France; McGee, David; Rehfeld, Kira; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Seddon, Alistair W.R.; Vanderveken, Lilian; Yu, Zicheng

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Year Published: 2021

Miocene neritic benthic foraminiferal community dynamics, Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, USA: Species pool, patterns and processes

The presence/absence and abundance of benthic foraminifera in successive discrete beds (Shattuck “zones”) of the Miocene Calvert and Choptank formations, exposed at the Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, USA, allows for investigation of community dynamics over space and time. The stratigraphic distribution of benthic foraminifera is documented and...

Culver, Stephen J.; Sutton, Seth R; Mallinson, David J.; Buzas, Martin A; Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

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Year Published: 2021

The Chesapeake Bay program modeling system: Overview and recommendations for future development

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest, most productive, and most biologically diverse estuary in the continental United States providing crucial habitat and natural resources for culturally and economically important species. Pressures from human population growth and associated development and agricultural intensification have led to excessive...

Hood, Raleigh; Shenk, Gary Wynee; Dixon, Rachel L; Smith, Sean M. C.; Ball, William P.; Bash, Jesse; Batiuk, R.; Boomer, Kathy; Brady, Damian C; Cerco, Carl; Claggett, Peter R.; de Mutsert, Kim; Easton, Zachary M.; Elmore, Andrew J; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Harris, Lora A.; Ihde, Thomas F.; Lacher, Iara; Li, Li; Linker, Lewis; Miller, Andrew; Moriarty, Julia; Noe, Gregory B.; Onyullo, George; Rose, Kenneth A; Skalak, Katherine; Tian, Richard; Veith, Tamie L; Wainger, Lisa A.; Weller, Donald E.; Zhang, Yinglong J.

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Year Published: 2021

A reactive transport approach to modeling cave seepage water chemistry I: Carbon isotope transformations

The majority of Critical Zone research has emphasized silicate lithologies, which are typified by relatively slow rates of reactivity and incongruent weathering. However, the relatively simpler weathering of carbonate-dominated lithology can result in secondary mineral deposits, such as speleothems, which provide a long-term archive for Critical...

Druhan, Jennifer; Lawrence, Corey; Covey, Aaron; Giannetta, Max; Oster, Jessica

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Year Published: 2021

A reactive transport approach to modeling cave seepage water chemistry II: Elemental signatures

Karst systems are useful for examining spatial and temporal variability in Critical Zone processes because they provide a window into the subsurface where waters have interacted with vegetation, soils, regolith, and bedrock across a range of length and timescales. These hydrologic pathways frequently include the precipitation...

Oster, Jessica; Covey, Aaron; Lawrence, Corey; Giannetta, Max; Druhan, Jennifer

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Year Published: 2021

Responses of soil extracellular enzyme activities and bacterial community composition to seasonal stages of drought in a semiarid grassland

Extreme drought can strongly impact belowground communities and biogeochemical processes, including soil microbial community composition and extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), which are considered key agents in ecosystem carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how seasonal timing of drought during the growing season...

Gao, Wenlan; Reed, Sasha; Munson, Seth M.; Rui, Yichao; Fan, Wenyuan; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Li, Linfeng; Che, Rongxiao; Xue, Kai; Du, Jianqing; Cui, Xiaoyong; Wang, Yanfen; Hao, Yanbin

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Year Published: 2021

The Miocene stratigraphy of the Laberinto area (Río Ica Valley) and its bearing on the geological history of the East Pisco Basin (south-central Peru)

Global sea-level changes and substantial vertical displacement along the Monte Grande Fault (MGF) in the lower Río Ica Valley of south-central Peru influenced the accumulation of bioclast-bearing and diatom-bearing Miocene siliciclastic sediments in an area of the East Pisco forearc basin (EPB) colloquially known as Laberinto. Two depositional...

Devries, Thomas J.; Barron, John A.; Urbina-Schmitt, Mario; Ochoa, Diana; Esperante, Raúl; Snee, Lawrence W

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Year Published: 2021

Wetlands

During the last decades, soil organic carbon (SOC) attracted the attention of a much wider array of specialists beyond agriculture and soil science, as it was proven to be one of the most crucial components of the earth’s climate system, which has a great potential to be managed by humans. Soils as a carbon pool are one of the key factors in...

Tangen, Brian; Bansal, Sheel

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Year Published: 2021

Restoration of mangrove forest

Mangrove forests occur worldwide along tropical coasts in inundated soils where primary production and anaerobic conditions contribute to the building of soil organic matter (Also see Mangroves Hot-spot, Volume 2). Note that peat may accumulate in certain coastal mangrove (Middleton and McKee, 2001). The actual amount of soil organic matter stored...

Middleton, Beth; Ward, Eric

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Year Published: 2021

Restoration of organic coastal and inland freshwater forests

Peatland forests occur worldwide in inundated soils where primary production and anaerobic conditions contribute to the building of soil organic matter (Günther et al., 2020). Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) can be substantial from drained freshwater forests with organic soils. Therefore, rewetting peat via hydrologic restoration (see factsheet n°...

Middleton, Beth; Ward, Eric; Menichetti, Lorenzo

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Year Published: 2021

Preserving soil organic carbon in prairie wetlands of central North America

Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) in the Great Plains of central North America are numerous, densely distributed, and have highly productive plant and animal communities (Photo 49). When in a natural, unaltered condition, these wetlands store relatively large amounts of organic carbon in their soils (Photo 50). Human alterations, such...

Bansal, Sheel; Tangen, Brian