Climate Research and Development Program

Publications

Listed here are the most recent publications, reports and articles by the Climate R&D program.

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Filter Total Items: 674
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Year Published: 2020

Traversing the wasteland: A framework for assessing ecological threats to drylands

Drylands cover 41% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, play a critical role in global ecosystem function, and are home to over two billion people. Like other biomes, drylands face increasing pressure from global change, but many of these ecosystems are close to tipping points, which, if crossed, can lead to abrupt transitions and persistent...

Hoover, David L.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Huxman, Travis E.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Seastedt, Timothy; Wilmer, Hailey; Ferrenberg, Scott

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Year Published: 2020

Low O2 level enhances CH4-derived carbon flow into microbial communities in landfill cover soils

CH4 oxidation in landfill cover soils plays a significant role in mitigating CH4 release to the atmosphere. Oxygen availability and the presence of co-contaminants are potentially important factors affecting CH4 oxidation rate and the fate of CH4-derived carbon. In this study, microbial populations that oxidize CH4 and the...

He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Chu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Jing; Ma, Ruo-Chan; Wu, Donglei; Zhan, Liang-Tong; Herriott, Ian Charold; Leigh, Mary Beth

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Year Published: 2020

Impacts of Hurricane Irma on Florida Bay Islands, Everglades National Park, U.S.A.

Hurricane Irma made landfall in south Florida, USA, on September 10, 2017 as a category 4 storm. In January 2018, fieldwork was conducted on four previously (2014) sampled islands in Florida Bay, Everglades National Park to examine changes between 2014 and 2018. The objectives were to determine if the net impact of the storm was gain or loss of...

Wingard, G. Lynn; Bergstresser, Sarah E.; Stackhouse, Bethany; Jones, Miriam; Marot, Marci E.; Hoefke, Kristen; Daniels, Andre; Keller, Katherine

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Year Published: 2020

Grazing-induced changes to biological soil crust cover mediate hillslope erosion in a long-term exclosure experiment

Dryland ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to erosion generated by livestock grazing. Quantifying this risk across a variety of landscape settings is essential for successful adaptive management, particularly in light of a changing climate. In the Upper Colorado River Basin, there are nearly 25 000 km2 of rangelands with underlying soils...

Fick, Stephen E.; Belnap, Jayne; Duniway, Michael C.

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Year Published: 2020

The long-term effects of Hurricanes Wilma and Irma on soil elevation change in Everglades mangrove forests

Mangrove forests in the Florida Everglades (USA) are frequently affected by hurricanes that produce high-velocity winds, storm surge, and extreme rainfall, but also provide sediment subsidies that help mangroves adjust to sea-level rise. The long-term influence of hurricane sediment inputs on soil elevation dynamics in mangrove forests are not...

Feher, Laura; Osland, Michael; Anderson, Gordon; Vervaeke, William; Krauss, Ken; Whelan, Kevin R. T.; Balentine, Karen M.; Tiling-Range, Ginger; Smith, Thomas J.; Cahoon, Donald

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Year Published: 2020

Quantifying hydrologic controls on local- and landscape-scale indicators of coastal wetland loss

Background and AimsCoastal wetlands have evolved to withstand stressful abiotic conditions through the maintenance of hydrologic feedbacks among vegetation production and flooding. However, disruption of these feedbacks can lead to ecosystem collapse, or a regime shift from vegetated wetland to open water. To prevent the loss of critical coastal...

Stagg, Camille; Osland, Michael; Moon, Jena A.; Hall, Courtney; Feher, Laura; Jones, William R.; Couvillion, Brady; Hartley, Stephen B.; Vervaeke, William

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Year Published: 2020

Winter climate change and the poleward range expansion of a tropical invasive tree (Brazilian pepper ‐ Shinus terebinthifolius)

Winter climate change is expected to lead to the tropicalization of temperate ecosystems, where tropical species expand poleward in response to a decrease in the intensity and duration of winter temperature extremes (i.e., freeze events). In the southeastern United States, freezing temperatures control the northern range limits of many invasive...

Osland, Michael; Feher, Laura

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Year Published: 2020

Effects of climate-related variability in storage on streamwater solute concentrations and fluxes in a small forested watershed in the Southeastern United States

Streamwater quality can be affected by climate-related variability in hydrologic state, which controls flow paths and affects biogeochemical processes. Thirty-one years of input/output solute fluxes at Panola Mountain Research Watershed, a small, forested, seasonally water-limited watershed near Atlanta, Georgia, were used to quantify the effects...

Aulenbach, Brent T.

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Year Published: 2019

Holocene sedimentary architecture and paleoclimate variability at Mono Lake, California

Mono Lake occupies an internally drained basin on the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada, and it is sensitive to climatic changes affecting precipitation in the mountains (largely delivered in the form of snowpack). Efforts to recover cores from the lake have been impeded by coarse tephra erupted from the Mono Craters, and by disruption of the...

Zimmerman, Susan H; Hemming, Sidney R.; Starratt, Scott W.

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Year Published: 2019

Scientist’s guide to developing explanatory statistical models using causal analysis principles

Recent discussions of model selection and multimodel inference highlight a general challenge for researchers, which is how to clearly convey the explanatory content of a hypothesized model or set of competing models. The advice from statisticians for scientists employing multimodel inference is to develop a well‐thought‐out set of candidate models...

Grace, James B.; Irvine, Kathryn

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Year Published: 2019

Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) growth and defense in response to mountain pine beetle outbreaks

Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a critical forest species of Northern Rocky Mountain upper subalpine ecosystems, yet little is known about the physiological response of whitebark pine to disturbance (e.g. fire, bark beetles, and pathogens) across a range of diverse environmental gradients. Resin–based defenses have long been recognized as the...

Kichas, Nickolas E.; Hood, Sharon M.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Everett, Richard G.; McWethy, David B.

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Year Published: 2019

Glacier retreat in Glacier National Park, Montana

Currently, the volume of land ice on Earth is decreasing, driving consequential changes to global sea level and local stream habitat. Glacier retreat in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A., is one example of land ice loss and glacier change. The U.S. Geological Survey Benchmark Glacier Project conducts glaciological research and collects field...

Florentine, Caitlyn
Florentine, C., 2019, Glacier retreat in Glacier National Park, Montana (ver. 1.1, December 2019): U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2019–3068, 2 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20193068.