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Year Published: 2015

Plugs or flood-makers? the unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly...

Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Ely, Lisa L.; House, P. Kyle; Grant, Gordon E.; Harrity, Kelsey; Croall, Kelsey; Jones, Emily

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Year Published: 2015

Assessment of existing and potential landslide hazards resulting from the April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

Introduction On April 25, 2015, a large (M7.8) earthquake shook much of central Nepal and was followed by a series of M>6 aftershocks, including a M7.3 event on May 12, 2015. This earthquake and aftershocks, referred to as the “Gorkha earthquake sequence,” caused thousands of fatalities, damaged and destroyed entire villages, and...

Collins, Brian D.; Jibson, Randall W.
Collins, B.D., and Jibson, R.W., 2015, Assessment of existing and potential landslide hazards resulting from the April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence (ver. 1.1, August 2015): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1142, 50 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142.

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Year Published: 2015

Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

As part of a larger study, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a study to identify the potential for phosphate deposits in Afghanistan. As part of this study, a geographic information system was constructed containing a database of phosphate occurrences in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, and a database of potential host lithologies compiled...

Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John; Wynn, Jeff
Orris, G.J., Dunlap, Pamela, and Wallis, J.C., 2015, Phosphate occurrence and potential in the region of Afghanistan, including parts of China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, with a section on geophysics by Jeff Wynn: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1121, 70 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151121.

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Year Published: 2015

Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and...

Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.
Oviatt, C.G., Madsen, D.B., Miller, D.M., Thompson, R.S., and McGeehin, J.P., 2015, Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA: Quaternary Research, v. 84, p. 57-68. [doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2015.05.001]

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Year Published: 2015

Paleodischarge of the Mojave River, southwestern U.S.A, investigated with single-pebble measurements of 10Be

The paleohydrology of ephemeral stream systems is an important constraint on paleoclimatic conditions in arid environments, but remains difficult to constrain quantitatively. For example, sedimentary records of the size and extent of pluvial lakes in the Mojave Desert have been used as a proxy for Quaternary climate variability. Although the...

Cyr, Andrew J.; Miller, David M.; Mahan, Shannon A.

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Year Published: 2015

Geologic map of the Vashon 7.5' quadrangle and selected areas, King County, Washington

This map is an interpretation of a 6-ft-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation model combined with geology by Derek B. Booth and Kathy Goetz Troost. Field work by Booth and Troost was located on the 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Vashon and Des Moines 7.5' quadrangles that were published in 1997 and 1995, respectively. Much of the...

Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz; Tabor, Rowland W.
Booth, D.B., Troost, K.G., and Tabor, R.W., 2015, Geologic map of the Vashon 7.5' quadrangle and selected areas, King County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3328, pamphlet 11 p., scale 1:24,000, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3328.

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Year Published: 2015

Geologic map of the Julian 7.5' quadrangle, San Diego County, California

The Julian 7.5' quadrangle lies within the Jurassic-Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith of southern California and Baja California. Four granitic plutonic units and one gabbroic unit, most comprising a number of individual plutons, have been mapped in the Julian quadrangle and informal names have been assigned. The formal name Cuyamaca Gabbro...

Todd, Victoria R.

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Year Published: 2015

Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California

Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-...

John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter G.

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Year Published: 2015

Storm-influenced deltaic deposits of the Middle Jurassic Gaikema Sandstone in a measured section on the northern Iniskin Peninsula, Cook Inlet basin, Alaska

Middle Jurassic strata of the Gaikema Sandstone were deposited about 170 million years ago on a delta that was located on the western shoreline of the Cook Inlet basin (Detterman and Hartsock, 1966; LePain and others, 2011, 2013). The delta was built by swift, sediment-laden rivers that flowed southeastward from a mountainous volcanic terrane west...

Stanley, Richard G.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; LePain, David L.
Stanley, R.G., Helmold, K.P., and LePain, D.L., 2015, Storm-influenced deltaic deposits of the Middle Jurassic Gaikema Sandstone in a measured section on the northern Iniskin Peninsula, Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, in Wartes, M.A., Energy-related studies during the 2014 field season, western Cook Inlet, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Preliminary Interpretive Report 2015-5-6, p. 29-42. doi:10.14509/29461, http://dggs.alaska.gov/pubs/id/29461

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Year Published: 2015

Geotechnical soil characterization of intact Quaternary deposits forming the March 22, 2014 SR-530 (Oso) landslide, Snohomish County, Washington

During the late morning of March 22, 2014, a devastating landslide occurred near the town of Oso, Washington. The landslide with an estimated volume of 10.9 million cubic yards (8.3 x 106 m3) of both intact glacially deposited and previously disturbed landslide sediments, reached speeds averaging 40 miles per hour (64 kilometers per hour) and...

Riemer, Michael F.; Collins, Brian D.; Badger, Thomas C.; Toth, Csilla; Yu, Yat Chun
Riemer, M.F., Collins, B.D., Badger, T.C., Toth, C., and Yat Chun, Y., 2015, Geotechnical soil characterization of intact Quaternary deposits forming the March 22, 2014 SR-530 (Oso) landslide, Snohomish County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1089, 17 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151089.

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Year Published: 2015

Identifying multiple timescale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple timescales. We examine intra-annual to multi-year relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and...

Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

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Year Published: 2015

1000 dams down and counting

Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe...

O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.