How much sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas does Kīlauea emit?

Kīlauea typically emits between 500 and 14,000 metric tons of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) per day during periods of sustained eruption.

During the 2018 eruption at Kīlauea’s Lower East Rift Zone, SO2 emissions were over 30,000 metric tons per day, in keeping with the increased vigor of that eruption. Methods for calculating emission rates for SO2 can be complicated and challenging in the high-rate conditions that existed at that time. Extremely high SO2 levels can saturate instruments, and accurate wind speed--which is critical in calculations--is sometimes difficult to obtain.

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Image: Vog from Kilauea
January 31, 2008

Vog from Kilauea

The rim of Kīlauea Volcano’s summit caldera, normally clear on trade-wind days (left), became nearly obscured by vog (right) on some non-trade wind days beginning in 2008, when sulfur dioxide emissions from the volcano’s summit increased to unusually high levels. (This photo has been edited.)