Due to a lapse in appropriations, the majority of USGS websites may not be up to date and may not reflect current conditions. Websites displaying real-time data, such as Earthquake and Water and information needed for public health and safety will be updated with limited support. Additionally, USGS will not be able to respond to inquiries until appropriations are enacted.  For more information, please see www.doi.gov/shutdown

Mission Areas


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The Ecosystems Mission Area provides impartial science information and tools to the Nation’s natural resource managers, with particular focus on the science needs of the Department of the Interior (DOI) and DOI bureaus to manage species, lands and priority ecosystems; fulfill treaty obligations; respond to and reduce threats to natural resources; and manage mineral and energy resources.


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Filter Total Items: 715
Date published: October 30, 2018
Status: Active

Conservation Planning

Conservation planning tools, such as those listed below, have been developed by USGS scientists to assist resource managers in prioritizing areas for future energy development.

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 30, 2018
Status: Active

Fish Migration

 As hydropower dams age and require critical upgrades, USGS hydrologists, engineers and fish biologists work together to design the next generation of dams and operational protocols that improve passage for migratory fish and cause fewer negative effects on upstream and downstream ecosystems.  

Date published: October 30, 2018
Status: Active

Adaptive Management

USGS scientists conduct a combination of short- and longterm biological research, survey and monitoring, data analysis and applications, new tool and technology development and application, decision support, and adaptive management to address energy and wildlife management issues.

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 30, 2018
Status: Active

Population Effects

USGS science is helping to understand the potential population effects for a number of wildlife species. Scientists are also developing risk assessment tools to guide energy development to locations where it will have minimal impact on wildlife. 

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 30, 2018
Status: Active

Monitoring and Detection

USGS scientists collect data and develop tools and techniques to minimize potential negative effects of new energy development. These tools are critical for supporting management efforts to monitor and improve effectiveness of how facilities are located, built, and operated.

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 30, 2018
Status: Active

Mitigation and Compensation

USGS supports the U.S. goal to increase energy production from clean, renewable sources by conducting research into minimizing or mitigating potential negative effects of an expanding renewable energy infrastructure. USGS scientists collect data and develop tools and techniques to minimize potential negative effects of new energy development. Monitoring protocols and habitat-use models are...

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 29, 2018
Status: Active

Deterrent Technologies

USGS scientists are testing bird and bat deterrent devices (such as ultrasonic acoustic deterrents) as well as operational management strategies that can cost-effectively reduce wildlife fatalities while allowing wind operators to generate this carbon-free energy.

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 29, 2018
Status: Active

Migration and Movement

USGS assists state fish and wildlife agencies, land and wildlife managers, and other stakeholders by producing applied science-based tools to guide wind and solar energy development to locations where it will have minimal impact on wildlife. As a basis for these tools, USGS researchers study the movement and migration of wildlife.

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 29, 2018
Status: Active

Fatality Estimation

USGS has made significant strides in addressing research needs identified by resource managers and industry to understand wildlife interactions with turbines, estimate causes and magnitude of fatalities, develop wildlife and mortality survey protocols, assess population effects, describe migrations and movement patterns, and develop potential mitigation measures. USGS also has developed tools...

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 29, 2018
Status: Active


For big game, USGS research on migrating animals interacting with housing and energy development suggests that this development and change to migration routes can alter optimal foraging. Continued energy development will lead to the loss of the foraging benefit of migration. 

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 29, 2018
Status: Active


Wind-generated electricity in the marine environment promises to be an important source of renewable energy, but poses a potential risk to seabirds that share the airspace with wind turbines. USGS research assists regulatory agencies such as BOEM and USFWS evaluate the potential for adverse effects of wind facilities and other offshore activities on seabirds. To this end, scientist study...

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Date published: October 26, 2018
Status: Active

Landbirds and Waterfowl

Potential impacts of large wind energy developments to migratory landbirds and waterfowl remain poorly understudied even though thousands of turbines are actively generating power in these habitats and numerous wind energy projects have been proposed. 

Contacts: Mona Khalil
Filter Total Items: 119
Date published: June 12, 2018

DATA RELEASE - Simulated Soil Water Potential in National Parks and Monuments of the Southern Colorado Plateau, 1915-2099—Data

These data were simulated using the SOILWAT model and were intended to characterize soil-water conditions at different ecological sites on the southern Colorado Plateau. The sites simulated correspond with Inventory and Monitoring plots established by the National Park Service’s Southern Colorado Plateau Network.

Date published: June 5, 2018

DATA RELEASE - The influence of water temperature on salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America—Data

These data were used to examine drivers behind changes in water temperature downriver of dams across the western U.S. from 1995-2015 and the influence of such changes on rainbow trout recruitment and rainbow and brown trout adult length.

Date published: May 3, 2018

Land Treatment Exploration Tool

The Land Treatment Exploration Tool is designed for resource managers to use when planning land treatments. The tool provides useful summaries of environmental characteristics of planned treatment areas and facilitates adaptive management practices by comparing those characteristics to other similar treatments within a specified distance or area of interest. ...

Date published: May 2, 2018

DATA RELEASE - Population dynamics of humpback chub, rainbow trout and brown trout in the Colorado River in its Grand Canyon Reach: modelling code and input data

These data were compiled to fit an integrated population model of brown trout in the Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River and test hypotheses regarding the driver of brown trout population dynamics. Also, data were compiled as inputs for a model to simulate population dynamics and species interactions among brown trout, rainbow trout, and humpback chub in the Colorado River.

Date published: April 13, 2018

DATA RELEASE & MODEL - Continuous Detection PIT Array - Data & Model

These data represent a set of capture histories of rainbow trout captured in the Colorado River and(or) detected on the multiplexer array in the Little Colorado River.

Date published: April 6, 2018

DATA RELEASE - Remote sensing derived maps of tamarisk (2009) and beetle impacts (2013) along 412 km of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona - Data

These data are aerial image-derived, classification maps of tamarisk in a riparian zone of the Colorado River. Two maps are published: 1) a classification of tamarisk from a 0.2 m resolution multispectral image dataset acquired in May 2009, and 2) a classification of tamarisk impacted by the tamarisk beetle from a 0.2 m resolution multispectral image dataset acquired in May 2013.

Date published: April 5, 2018

DATA RELEASE - Landscape-scale wildlife species richness metrics - Data

These raster data represent the results of a case study in Arizona on how vertebrate richness metrics can be used with existing state and federal guidance in wind and solar energy facility siting. Each of the four geodatabases contain eight native terrestrial wildlife group models in Arizona: all vertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, bats, raptors and long-distance migratory birds...

Date published: March 13, 2018

Wildlife Health Information Sharing Partnership – event reporting system (WHISPers)

The NWHC developed the Wildlife Health Information Sharing Partnership – event reporting system (WHISPers) to increase public awareness of wildlife disease events and promote collaboration and data sharing among wildlife professionals. It is a partner driven tool that provides a dynamic, timely, searchable web-based system for visualizing and accessing data on wildlife disease events...

Date published: March 13, 2018

DATA RELEASE - Laboratory experiment data—turbidity response to increasing silt and clay concentration-Data

These data were compiled during a laboratory experiment showing the turbidity response to increasing silt and clay concentration. The sediment used for the laboratory experiment was collected in the Grand Canyon study area, from the bank of the Little Colorado River, approximately 1 kilometer upstream from its confluence with the Colorado River.

Date published: March 7, 2018

Geospatial Data for Object-Based High-Resolution Classification of Conifers within Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat across Nevada and a Portion of Northeastern California

These products were developed to provide scientific and correspondingly spatially explicit information regarding the distribution and abundance of conifers (namely, singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)) in Nevada and portions of northeastern California. 

Date published: March 6, 2018

Weighted Surveillance for Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease

This application provides an easy-to-use interface for conducting weighted surveillance for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer populations. The first tool called 'Design' is used for planning weighted surveillance activities. The second tool called 'Estimation' is for use after sampling for CWD detection has occurred and no positive cases were found.

Date published: March 6, 2018

Annotated bibliography of scientific research on Greater Sage-grouse published since January 2015

The Greater Sage-grouse annotated bibliography was developed as a synthesis of scientific information developed since the records of decision were completed for 2015 Bureau of Land Management/U.S. Department of Agriculture plan amendments for Greater Sage-grouse. This site provides an interactive, searchable interface to summaries of the scientific literature.

Filter Total Items: 21
Date published: February 15, 2017

2016 Cooperative Research Unit Story Map

In this Year in Review report, you will find details on staffing, vacancies, research funding, and other pertinent information. You will also see snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. That is the essence of what we do: science that matter.


Date published: September 20, 2016

The Eastern Region Initiative on the Clinch (ERIC)

The Clinch-Powell River Basins Spanning Virginia and Tennessee

Date published: March 7, 2016

Nonindigeneous Aquatic Species (NAS) Database Search

Multiple search functions: State, major drainage area (HUC2), drainage area (HUC6), drainage area (HUC8), Zebra Mussel Collections, and fact sheets.

Date published: February 17, 2016

Bsal Risk by County

Heat map of the United States showing the total relative risk of Bsal to native US salamanders based on the introduction and consequences assessment (Richgels et. al. 2016).

Date published: February 1, 2016

2015 Cooperative Research Units Story Map

The Cooperative Research Unit mission is our hallmark: meeting the actionable science needs of our cooperators, providing them technical guidance and assistance in interpreting and applying new advances in science, and developing the future workforce through graduate education and mentoring. 

Date published: September 2, 2014

Species On Lands Affected by Renewables (SOLAR)

Multiple large scale solar, wind, and geothermal energy development projects are currently proposed across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the southwestern U.S., and these development needs are likely to continue or increase into the future. Agencies tasked with managing biological resources must understand the potential impacts in order to select appropriate sites and to mitigate effects. 

Date published: April 22, 2012

Extinct Taxa in States/Provinces of North America (2012)

Extinct Taxa in States/Provinces of North America (2012)

Date published: April 22, 2012

Extinct Taxa in Ecoregions of North America (2012)

Extinct Taxa in Ecoregions of North America (2012)

Date published: April 22, 2008

Numbered Ecoregions of North America (2008)

Numbered Ecoregions of North America (2008)

Filter Total Items: 2,932
Year Published: 2018

Natural resource condition assessment: Olympic National Park

The Natural Resource Assessment Program aims to document condition and trends of selected park resources while identifying emerging issues and information needs. This information is intended to serve as a platform for natural resource managers to use in developing future resource stewardship priorities and planning.Olympic National Park (OLYM) on...

Mccaffery, Rebecca; Jenkins, Kurt J.

Year Published: 2018

Invasive rat control is an efficient, yet insufficient, method for recovery of the critically endangered Hawaiian plant hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus)

Biological invasions of rodents and other species have been especially problematic on tropical islands. Invasive Rattus rattus consumption of Hibiscadelphus giffardianus (Malvaceae; common Hawaiian name hau kuahiwi) fruit and seeds has been hypothesized to be the most-limiting factor inhibiting the critically endangered tree, but this has not been...

Gill, Nathan S.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Banko, Paul C.; Dixon, Christopher B.; Jaenecke, Kelly; Peck, Robert

Year Published: 2018

Quantitative acoustic differentiation of cryptic species illustrated with King and Clapper rails

Reliable species identification is vital for survey and monitoring programs. Recently, the development of digital technology for recording and analyzing vocalizations has assisted in acoustic surveying for cryptic, rare, or elusive species. However, the quantitative tools that exist for species differentiation are still being refined. Using...

Stiffler, Lydia L.; Schroeder, Katie M.; Anderson, James T.; McRae, Susan B.; Katzner, Todd E.

Year Published: 2018

Insect communities in big sagebrush habitat are altered by wildfire and post‐fire restoration seeding

Natural resource managers sow grass, forb, and shrub seeds across millions of hectares of public lands in the western United States to restore sagebrush‐steppe ecosystems burned by wildfire. The effects of post‐fire vegetation treatments on insect communities in these ecosystems have not been investigated.We conducted the first investigation of...

Rohde, Ashley T.; Pilliod, David S.; Novak, Stephen J.

Year Published: 2018

American Recent Eulipotyphla: Nesophontids, Solenodons, Moles, and Shrews in the New World

The mammalian taxonomic order Eulipotyphla is comprised of the living taxonomic families Erinaceidae (gymnures, hedgehogs, and moonrats), Solenodontidae (solenodonts), Soricidae (shrews), and Talpidae (desmans and moles). Morphological and molecular studies continue to alter our view of relationships within and among these families, and this...

Woodman, Neal

Year Published: 2018

GenEst user guide—Software for a generalized estimator of mortality

GenEst (Generalized Estimator) is a software tool for estimating the total number of individuals arriving in an area during a specific time period when their detection probability is unknown but estimable. Its development was motivated by the need to accurately estimate the total number of bird and bat fatalities occurring at wind and solar energy...

Simonis, Juniper; Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M.; Mintz, Jeffrey; Madsen, Lisa; Rabie, Paul; Studyvin, Jared
Simonis, J., Dalthorp, D., Huso, M., Mintz, J., Madsen, L., Rabie, P., and Studyvin, J., 2018, GenEst user guide—Software for a generalized estimator of mortality: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 7, chap. C19, 72 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm7C19.

Year Published: 2018

GenEst statistical models—A generalized estimator of mortality

IntroductionGenEst (a generalized estimator of mortality) is a suite of statistical models and software tools for generalized mortality estimation. It was specifically designed for estimating the number of bird and bat fatalities at solar and wind power facilities, but both the software (Dalthorp and others, 2018) and the underlying statistical...

Dalthorp, Daniel; Madsen, Lisa; Huso, Manuela M.; Rabie, Paul; Wolpert, Robert; Studyvin, Jared; Simonis, Juniper; Mintz, Jeffrey
Dalthorp, D., Madsen, L., Huso, M., Rabie, P., Wolpert, R., Studyvin, J., Simonis, J., and Mintz, J., 2018, GenEst statistical models—A generalized estimator of mortality: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 7, chap. A2, 13 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm7A2.

Year Published: 2018

Batrachochytrium salamandriovrans (Bsal) in Appalachia—Using scenario building to proactively prepare for a wildlife disease outbreak caused by an invasive amphibian chytrid fungus

Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), a pathogenic chytrid fungus, is nonnative to the United States and poses a disease threat to vulnerable amphibian hosts. The Bsal fungus may lead to increases in threatened, endangered, and sensitive status listings at State, Tribal, and Federal levels, resulting in financial costs associated with...

Hopkins, M.C.; Adams, M.J.; Super, P.E.; Olson, D.H.; Hickman, C.R.; English, P.; Sprague, L.; Maska, I.B. ; Pennaz, A.B.; Ludwig, K.A.
Attribution: Ecosystems
Hopkins, M.C., Adams, M.J., Super, P.E., Olson, D.H., Hickman, C.R., English, P., Sprague, L., Maska, I.B., Pennaz, A.B., and Ludwig, K.A., 2018, Batrachochytrium salamandriovrans (Bsal) in Appalachia—Using scenario building to proactively prepare for a wildlife disease outbreak caused by an invasive amphibian chytrid fungus: U.S. Geological Survey Report 2018–1150, 31 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181150.

Year Published: 2018

Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus

Multi-state occupancy modeling can often improve assessments of habitat use and site quality when animal activity or behavior data are available. We examine the use of the approach for evaluating foraging habitat suitability of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) from classifications of site occupancy based on flight...

Gorresen, Paulo Marcos; Brinck, Kevin W.; DeLisle, Megan A.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Bonaccorso, Frank
Gorresen, P. M., K. W. Brinck, M. A. DeLisle, K. Montoya-Aiona, C. A. Pinzari, and F. J. Bonaccorso. 2018. Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus). PLoS ONE 13:e0205150.

Year Published: 2018

Long-term impacts of exotic grazer removal on native shrub recovery, Santa Cruz Island, California

A combination of overgrazing and exotic species introduction has led to the degradation of habitats worldwide. It is often unclear whether removal of exotic ungulates will lead to the natural reestablishment of native plant communities without further management inputs. I describe here my return to sites on Santa Cruz Island, California, 12 years...

Yelenik, Stephanie G.
Yelenik, S. G. 2018. Long-term impacts of exotic grazer removal on native shrub recovery, Santa Cruz Island, California. Western North American Naturalist 78:777–786.

Year Published: 2018

Flooding tolerance of Sagittaria latifolia and Sagittaria rigida under controlled laboratory conditions

Pool‐scale growing‐season water‐level reductions (drawdowns) have been implemented on the Upper Mississippi River in an effort to improve fish and wildlife habitat. Aquatic vegetation is a key habitat component, with perennial emergent species, such as Sagittaria latifolia and Sagittaria rigida, especially important. River managers...

Kenow, Kevin P.; Gray, Brian R.; Lyons, James E.
Kenow, K.P., Gray, B.R., Lyon, J.E. 2018. Flooding tolerance of Sagittaria latifolia and Sagittaria rigida under controlled laboratory conditions. River Research and Applications. 34(8):1024-1031. DOI: 10.1002/rra.3337.

Year Published: 2018

Resiliency of biological soil crusts and vascular plants varies among morphogroups with disturbance intensity

Background and aimsDisturbance affects the ability of organisms to persist on a site, and disturbance history acts as a filter of community composition. This is true for vascular plants and morphological groups of biocrusts, which respond differently to disturbance. Although functioning arid ecosystems include both groups, filtering of...

Condon, Lea A.; Pyke, David A.
Condon, L.A., Pyke, D.A., 2018, Resiliency of biological soil crusts and vascular plants varies among morphogroups with disturbance intensity: Plant and Soil, p. online, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3838-8.

Filter Total Items: 660
October 5, 2018

Bandit Download

This screencast is a tutorial on how to find Bandit for download as well as finding Bandit resources via the BBL's webpages. 

A RestoreNet garden with plots covered by white cloth.
August 31, 2018

RestoreNet garden testing seedling establishment.

The RestoreNet gardens test seedlings of priority restoration species across the Southwest. This is a recently installed garden located in the juniper woodlands of the Colorado Plateau. The experiemental network will support land managers by providing insight into various restoration techniques, including testing seedlings vs seeds.

Array of photovoltaic cells and a wind energy facility
August 28, 2018

Array of photovoltaic cells and a wind energy facility

Photovoltaic, or solar, cells array at the Ivanpah Solar Power Facility in the Mojave Desert and a wind energy facility in the Northeastern United States.

A restoration field trial site on red soils, adjacent to buttes.
August 16, 2018

A RestoreNet Garden on the Colorado Plateau

A completed restoration field trial site just after installation. Half of the site is seeded, and the other half had plants and weed cloth (white fabric) installed. RAMPS will be collecting data on this site for

A group of field workers installs an experimental garden.
August 16, 2018

Installing a restoration field trial site

These workers are planting seedlings as part of the restoration field trial network. Each garden in the network is examining seedlings and seeds in conjunction with restoration treatments to better understand how

Bare ground with 2x2 meter square plots of various restoration treatments.
August 16, 2018

Seeding treatment experiment

View of a recently installed Restoration Field Trial Network site in the rangelands of Northern Arizona. This part of the site contains the seeding treatments: mulch, ConMods (metal crosses), pits, and two

Image of scientist setting up a radar system in Colorado to test its efficacy in detecting birds and bats flying towards turbine
August 1, 2018

Setting up radar system near a wind energy field in Colorado.

Image of scientist setting up a radar system in Colorado to test its efficacy in detecting birds and bats flying towards spinning wind turbines.

July 19, 2018

Drilling an Ice Core

Researchers start drilling an ice core in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

adult male harrier
July 13, 2018

Adult Male Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)

An adult male Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) surveys Suisun Marsh, CA. Males are known for their beautiful, steel-gray plumage.

Salt marsh harvest mouse
July 13, 2018

Endangered Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris)

A Federally endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) climbs a branch.

Female northern harrier
July 13, 2018

Adult Female Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)

An adult, female northern harrier (Circus cyaneus) flies overhead in Suisun Marsh, CA. Before habitat loss drove declines in the bird's populations, Suisun Marsh hosted the state's largest population of northern harriers.

July 11, 2018

Four Examples of Nest Predation by Rats - Hawaii Volcanoes National

Black rats were unintentionally introduced to Hawai’i in the late 1800s, most likely as hitchhikers on trading vessels. Since their introduction, they have disrupted native ecosystems by destroying native plants, eating native arthropods, and depredating bird nests. Black rats have contributed to population declines and species extinctions of Hawaiian forest birds, and

Filter Total Items: 280
Date published: May 25, 2018

USGS Fish Passage Research Helps Fish Get to Spawning Grounds

The Blackstone River in Rhode Island is where one of the Nation’s first fish passages was built back in 1714 to help fish navigate past manmade obstructions so they could complete their instinctual migration cycles.

Date published: May 21, 2018

Scientists Collecting Bird Data on Grasslands in Montana this Spring

Now through late July, 2018, U.S. Geological Survey scientists will conduct fieldwork on public lands in Phillips and Valley counties near Malta and Glasgow, Montana, as part of a grassland bird project.

Date published: April 25, 2018

Invasive Cuban Treefrogs Leap Out of Florida, Establish First Known Population in Louisiana

A population of exotic invasive Cuban treefrogs has been discovered in New Orleans, more than 430 miles (700 kilometers) from the nearest known population in Florida, making this the first known breeding population in the mainland United States outside that state, reports a new study by the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Scroll down to hear and download calls of Cuban treefrogs and two native treefrogs.

Date published: April 13, 2018

A Day in the Life of a WERC Seabird Scientist

In the featured photo, WERC scientists search for potential nesting habitat of seabirds like the Ashy Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa) on False Klamath Rock off the coast of California.

Date published: April 11, 2018

NOROCK Scientist Receives USGS Award for Lifetime Achievement in Science Communications

Research Ecologist Dan Fagre is the recipient of the 2017 Eugene M. Shoemaker Award for Lifetime Achievement in Communications

Date published: March 29, 2018

New Control Methods Can Help Protect Coral Reefs from Invasive Species

Honolulu, Hawaii – Control efforts such as the removal of shipwrecks and application of chlorine may help mitigate the damaging effects of corallimorph, which is a type of invasive anemone, on valuable coral reefs in the Central Pacific Ocean, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey study.

Date published: March 19, 2018

New genetic test detects manatees' recent presence in fresh or saltwater

Environmental DNA picks up traces of the elusive mammals’ saliva, skin, waste, or exhaled breaths.


Date published: March 1, 2018

Waterbirds at Risk in the Chesapeake Bay

Scientists investigate the impacts of shoreline armoring

Date published: February 22, 2018

USGS and NASA Team Up to Help Scientists Study the “Social Networks” of Wildlife

In the future of wildlife tracking, sea otters have their own social network.

Date published: February 1, 2018

Polar Bears Film Their Own Sea Ice World

In June of 2014, the USGS released the first-ever polar bear point-of-view footage, offering a never-seen-before perspective from the top Arctic predator.

Date published: January 19, 2018

Scientists, volunteers rescue about 1,000 cold-stunned sea turtles

Florida's second-largest turtle rescue of 21st century is “exhausting, inspiring,” USGS biologist says