Due to a lapse in appropriations, the majority of USGS websites may not be up to date and may not reflect current conditions. Websites displaying real-time data, such as Earthquake and Water and information needed for public health and safety will be updated with limited support. Additionally, USGS will not be able to respond to inquiries until appropriations are enacted.  For more information, please see www.doi.gov/shutdown

Mission Areas

Natural Hazards

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Costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous; each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. We develop and apply hazards science to help protect U.S. safety, security, and economic well being. These scientific observations, analyses, and research are crucial for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards.

Read Our Science Strategy
Filter Total Items: 282
Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Fresno (FRN)

The Geomagnetism Program established an observatory near Fresno in 1980. The observatory is on the Pacific Southwest Research Station of the US Forest Service under terms of an agreement with the USGS and the Geomagnetism Program.

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Guam (GUA)

The Guam observatory was established in 1957. The observatory is situated on property owned by the U.S. Air Force according to terms of an agreement with the USGS and the Geomagnetism Program. The facility is shared with the USGS Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) ...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Fredericksburg (FRD)

The Geomagnetism Program established its first observatory at Cheltenham Maryland in 1900, when the Program was part of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and under the leadership of Drs Louis A. Bauer and John A. Fleming. The observatory was moved to Fredericksburg in 1956, a site which for many years served as the Program’s headquarters. Today, because it has produced high-quality data for so...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Deadhorse (DED)

The Deadhorse magnetic observatory is the newest USGS observatory, with initial operational capability established in March 2010. This observatory is unique in that it is a public-private partnership between the USGS and Schlumberger. The observatory was constructed by Schlumberger in cooperation with the USGS under a technical assistance agreement. The...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

College (CMO)

The Geomagnetic Program, then part of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey, began work in Fairbanks during the Second International Polar Year, 1932-1934, as part of an effort with the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution. Collaborative work with the University of Alaska began in the 1940's, with the full-fledged College observatory commencing operation in 1948. Today,...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Stennis (BSL)

The Geomagnetism Program established an observatory on the Stennis Space Center in 1986. The site of the space center is large, including some forest land, which helps insulate the observatory from outside interference. The Stennis observatory, formerly known as the Bay St. Louis observatory, is operated as a partnership between the USGS and the Stennis...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Barrow (BRW)

The Barrow magnetic observatory was established in 1949, with major upgrades in 1957 associated with the International Geophysical Year. The current physical plant was put into place in 1975. The observatory is of particular importance to the Geomagnetism Program because it is the most northerly of all the USGS observatories, being located well within the auroral oval. The observatory is...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active

Boulder (BOU)

The Boulder observatory was established in 1963. The grounds for the observatory are overseen by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration of the Department of Commerce. This observatory is closest to Program headquarters in Golden. Therefore, in addition to serving as a site for routine data collection, Boulder also functions as the...

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active


Get information on and locations of geomagnetic observatories operated by the USGS and partners of the USGS geomagnetism program.

Date published: July 20, 2018
Status: Active


See the instruments we use at our geomagnetic observatories and how they help us to gather data.

Date published: July 18, 2018
Status: Active


USGS Geomagnetism Program research staff evaluate data produced by magnetic observatories, including those operated by the USGS, data processing methods, and magnetic indices derived from observatory data.

Contacts: Jeffrey J Love
Date published: July 18, 2018
Status: Active


Geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) flowing along electric power-transmission systems and other electrically-conducting infrastructure are produced by a naturally induced geo-electric field during geomagnetic disturbances.

Filter Total Items: 143
Date published: January 19, 2018

Total Water Level and Coastal Change Forecast Viewer

Total water level (TWL) at the shoreline is the combination of tides, surge, and wave runup. A forecast of TWL is an estimate of the elevation where the ocean will meet the coast and can provide guidance on potential coastal erosion and flooding hazards.

Date published: January 19, 2018

Oblique Aerial Photography Viewer

Obique photos offer a unique perspective of the coast. Features such as beach erosion or accretion, dune erosion and overwash can all be clearly characterized in this imagery. It also documents coastal infrastructure, as well as the damage that infrastructure may incur as the result of an impacting hurricane. 

Date published: December 29, 2017

Multibeam and multichannel sparker seismic-reflection data between Cross Sound and Dixon Entrance, offshore southeastern Alaska, collected from 2016-05-17 to 2016-06-12 during field activity 2016-625-FA

Multibeam bathymetry and multichannel sparker seismic relfection data collected along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault between Icy Point and Dixon Entrance, offshore southeastern Alaska from 2016-05-17 to 2016-06-12.

Date published: December 8, 2017


Help scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey annotate aerial photographs with keyword tags to identify changes to the coast after extreme storms.

Date published: October 19, 2017

Multichannel minisparker and chirp seismic-reflection data of field activity 2015-651-FA; Chatham Strait and Cross Sound, southeastern Alaska from 2015-08-03 to 2015-08-21

High-resolution multichannel minisparker and chirp seismic-reflection data were collected in August of 2015 to explore marine geologic hazards of inland waterways of southeastern Alaska. Sub-bottom profiles were acquired in the inland waters between Glacier Bay and Juneau, including Cross Sound and Chatham Strait.

Date published: September 20, 2017

Hurricane Jose 2017 Event Support Map

Track hurricane data and USGS resources.

Date published: September 19, 2017

Interpretive data release for Oregon Outer Continental Shelf Seafloor Mapping: Selected Lease Blocks Relevant to Renewable Energy

This data release includes the results of analysis of video data conducted by Oregon State University and the geo-habitat interpretation of multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data conducted by the USGS.

Date published: September 18, 2017

Hurricane Maria 2017 Event Support Map

Track hurricane data and USGS resources.

Date published: September 18, 2017

National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS compilation of updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S. Canadian border to Icy Cape

This data release is an update to the original North Coast of Alaska data and includes revised rate-of-change calculations based on two additional shoreline positions data and improved rate metrics. 

Date published: September 6, 2017

Hurricane Harvey 2017 Event Support Map

Track hurricane data and USGS resources.

Date published: August 24, 2017

Coastal Change Hazards Portal

Interactive access to coastal change science and data for our Nation’s coasts. Information and products are organized within three coastal change hazard themes: 1) extreme storms, 2) shoreline change, and 3) sea-level rise. Each data item represents an individual research product, with some items grouped together as aggregates to show the breadth of the topic and make it easy to explore.

Date published: August 18, 2017

Water level measurements collected in West Falmouth Harbor, MA, 2017

Water-level gauges were deployed at two sites in West Falmouth Harbor between April and June 2017.  One gauge was mounted under the town-owned West Falmouth boat dock and the other on the private Associates dock near the mouth of the Harbor. Data from the upper sensor at the Associates dock were used to make atmospheric pressure corrections at both sites.

Filter Total Items: 4,552
Year Published: 2018

A suite of exercises for verifying dynamic earthquake rupture codes

We describe a set of benchmark exercises that are designed to test if computer codes that simulate dynamic earthquake rupture are working as intended. These types of computer codes are often used to understand how earthquakes operate, and they produce simulation results that include earthquake size, amounts of fault slip, and the patterns of...

Harris, Ruth A.; Barall, Michael; Aagaard, Brad T.; Ma, Shuo; Roten, Daniel; Olsen, Kim B.; Duan, Benchun; Liu, Dunyu; Luo, Bin; Bai, Kangchen; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Duru, Kenneth; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie; Shi, Zheqiang; Dunham, Eric; Bydlon, Sam; Zhang, Zhenguo; Chen, Xiaofei; Somala, Surendra N.; Pelties, Christian; Tago, Josue; Cruz-Atienza, Victor Manuel; Kozdon, Jeremy; Daub, Eric; Aslam, Khurram; Kase, Yuko; Withers, Kyle; Dalguer, Luis
Harris, R.A., M. Barall, B. Aagaard, S. Ma, D. Roten, K. Olsen, B. Duan, B. Luo, D. Liu, K. Bai, J.-P. Ampuero, Y. Kaneko, A.-A. Gabriel, K. Duru, T. Ulrich, S. Wollherr, Z. Shi, E. Dunham, S. Bydlon, Z. Zhang, X. Chen, S.N. Somala, C. Pelties, J. Tago, V.M. Cruz-Atienza, J. Kozdon, E. Daub, K. Aslam, Y. Kase, K. Withers, and L. Dalguer (2018), A suite of exercises for verifying dynamic earthquake rupture codes, Seism. Res. Lett., 89(3), 1146-1162, https://doi.org/10.1785/0220170222.

Year Published: 2018

The intensity signature of induced seismicity

We analyze a comprehensive database of ∼63,000">∼63,000 geocoded community intensity observations from >400">>400 earthquakes of moment magnitude M≥3.5">M≥3.5 in Oklahoma from 2010 to 2016 to define the intensity signature of induced events. We show that natural and induced...

Atkinson, Gail M.; Wald, David J.; Worden, Charles; Quitoriano, Vince
Gail M. Atkinson, David Wald, C. Bruce Worden, Vince Quitoriano; The Intensity Signature of Induced Seismicity. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America ; 108 (3A): 1080–1086. doi: https://doi.org/10.1785/0120170316

Year Published: 2018

The widespread influence of Great Lakes microseisms across the United States revealed by the 2014 polar vortex

During the winter of 2014, a weak polar vortex brought record cold temperatures to the north‐central (“Midwest”) United States, and the Great Lakes reached the highest extent of ice coverage (92.5%) since 1979. This event shut down the generation of seismic signals caused by wind‐driven wave action within the lakes (termed “lake microseisms”),...

Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam T.; Wilson, David C.
Anthony, R.E., A.T. Ringler, D.C. Wilson (2018), The Widespread Influence of Great Lakes Microseisms Across the United States Revealed by the 2014 Polar Vortex, Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 3436-3444. doi:10.1002/2017GL076690

Year Published: 2018

Leveraging geodetic data to reduce losses from earthquakes

Seismic hazard assessments that are based on a variety of data and the best available science, coupled with rapid synthesis of real-time information from continuous monitoring networks to guide post-earthquake response, form a solid foundation for effective earthquake loss reduction. With this in mind, the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the U...

Murray, Jessica R.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Langbein, John O.; Leith, William S.; Minson, Sarah E.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Thatcher, Wayne R.
Murray, J.R., Roeloffs, E.A., Brooks, B.A., Langbein, J., Leith, W., Minson, S.E., Svarc, J., and Thatcher, W., 2018, Leveraging geodetic data to reduce losses from earthquakes: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1037, 34 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181037.

Year Published: 2018

Numerical models of pore pressure and stress changes along basement faults due to wastewater injection: Applications to the 2014 Milan, Kansas Earthquake

We have developed groundwater flow models to explore the possible relationship between wastewater injection and the 12 November 2014 Mw 4.8 Milan, Kansas earthquake. We calculate pore pressure increases in the uppermost crust using a suite of models in which hydraulic properties of the Arbuckle Formation and the Milan earthquake fault zone,...

Hearn, Elizabeth H.; Koltermann, Christine; Rubinstein, Justin R.
Hearn, E. H., C. Koltermann, and J. Rubinstein (2018), Numerical Models of Pore Pressure and Stress Changes Along Basement Faults Due to Wastewater Injection: Applications to the 2014 Milan, Kansas Earthquake, Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems, doi:10.1002/2017GC007194.

Year Published: 2018

Proximity of Precambrian basement affects the likelihood of induced seismicity in the Appalachian, Illinois, and Williston Basins, central and eastern United States

A dramatic seismicity rate increase in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) over the past decade has been largely associated with the increase in enhanced oil and gas recovery operations and change in industry practices. However, certain areas of the CEUS that have experienced large increases in oil and gas operations, such as the Bakken...

Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

Year Published: 2018

The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications

The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Engineering Implications is the second volume of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013, which describes the HayWired scenario, developed by USGS and its partners. The scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic earthquake sequence that is being used to better...

Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.
Detweiler, S.T., and Wein, A.M., eds., 2018, The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013–I–Q, 429 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175013v2.

Year Published: 2018

The HayWired earthquake scenario—We can outsmart disaster

The HayWired earthquake scenario, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), anticipates the impacts of a hypothetical magnitude-7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault. The fault is along the east side of California’s San Francisco Bay and is among the most active and dangerous in the United States, because it runs through a densely urbanized and...

Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Wein, Anne M.; Cox, Dale A.; Porter, Keith A.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; LaPointe, Drew
Hudnut, K.W., Wein, A.M., Cox, D.A., Porter, K.A., Johnson, L.A., Perry, S.C., Bruce, J.L., and LaPointe, D., 2018, The HayWired earthquake scenario—We can outsmart disaster: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3016, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183016.

Year Published: 2018

Measuring impact crater depth throughout the solar system

One important, almost ubiquitous, tool for understanding the surfaces of solid bodies throughout the solar system is the study of impact craters. While measuring a distribution of crater diameters and locations is an important tool for a wide variety of studies, so too is measuring a crater's “depth.” Depth can inform numerous studies including...

Robbins, Stuart J.; Watters, Wesley A.; Chappelow, John E.; Bray, Veronica J.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Craddock, Robert A.; Beyer, Ross A.; Landis, Margaret E.; Ostrach, Lillian; Tornabene, Livio L.; Riggs, Jamie D.; Weaver, Brian P.
Robbins, S.J. et al., 2018. Measuring impact crater depth throughout the solar system. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 53(4), 583-626.

Year Published: 2018

Ancient Martian aeolian processes and palaeomorphology reconstructed from the Stimson formation on the lower slope of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars

Reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental context of Martian sedimentary rocks is central to studies of ancient Martian habitability and regional palaeoclimate history. This paper reports the analysis of a distinct aeolian deposit preserved in Gale crater, Mars, and evaluates its palaeomorphology, the processes responsible for its deposition, and...

Banham, Steve G.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Rubin, David M.; Watkins, Jessica A.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Grotzinger, John P.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Edgar, Lauren; Stack, Kathryn M.; Barnes, Robert; Bell, Jame F. III; Day, Mackenzie D.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Lapotre, Mathieu G.A.; Stein, Nathan T.; Rivera-Hernandez, Frances; Vasavada, Ashwin R.
Banham, S. G., Gupta, S., Rubin, D. M., Watkins, J. A., Sumner, D. Y., Edgett, K. S., Grotzinger, J. P., Lewis, K. W., Edgar, L. A., Stack-Morgan, K. M., Barnes, R., Bell, J. F., Day, M. D., Ewing, R. C., Lapotre, M. G.A., Stein, N. T., Rivera-Hernandez, F. and Vasavada, A. R. (2018), Ancient Martian aeolian processes and palaeomorphology reconstructed from the Stimson formation on the lower slope of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars. Sedimentology. https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12469

Year Published: 2018

Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variation and high heat flows

Viscously relaxed craters provide a window into the thermal history of Ganymede, a satellite with copious geologic signs of past high heat flows. Here we present measurements of relaxed craters in four regions for which suitable imaging exists: near Anshar Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, northern Marius Regio, and Ganymede's south pole. We describe a...

Singer, Kelsi N.; Bland, Michael T.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.
Sing, K. N., Bland, M. T., Schenk, P. M., McKinnon, W. B., 2018. Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variation and high heat flows. Icarus 306, 214-224.

Year Published: 2018

Incorporating spatially heterogeneous infiltration capacity into hydrologic models with applications for simulating post‐wildfire debris flow initiation

Soils in post‐wildfire environments are often characterized by a low infiltration capacity with a high degree of spatial heterogeneity relative to unburned areas. Debris flows are frequently initiated by run‐off in recently burned steeplands, making it critical to develop and test methods for incorporating spatial variability in infiltration...

McGuire, Luke A.; Rengers, Francis K.; Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Mirus, Benjamin B.

Filter Total Items: 2,697
Lava entering the ocean through steam
July 9, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Lava Entering Ocean

Lava entering the ocean as seen through steam and rain early this morning.

Lava running past a residential area
July 9, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Fissure 8 and Leilani Estates

Fissure 8 and Leilani Estates viewed from the south. Houses in the foreground are located in the southern portion of Leilani Estates. Fissure 8 and surrounding 

Dr. Meagan Gonneea (Cape Cod, MA) retrieves a core from an infilling salt marsh pond in the Great Barnstable Marsh
July 9, 2018

Core retrieval

Dr. Meagan Gonneea (Cape Cod, MA) retrieves a core from an infilling salt marsh pond in the Great Barnstable Marsh.

Crusted over lava flow
July 9, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Lower Section of Fissure 8 Flow

The lower section of the fissure 8 lava channel appears to be almost completely crusted over, and the lava level in the channel was lower during this morning's

Rain over a lava flow area
July 9, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Rain at Leilani Estates

This photograph taken during this morning's overflight shows heavy, localized rain at 

Laze plumes
July 8, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Multiple Laze Plumes

Multiple ocean entries were active this early morning, each contributing to the prominent "laze" 

Aerial view over residential area
July 8, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Lava Near Cape Kumukahi

Lava still oozes from the northern edge of the ‘a‘ā flow near the lighthouse at Cape Kumukahi (upper right). Smoke from burning vegetation marks location of lava oozeouts. View is toward the northeast. 

Aerial of braided lava channel
July 8, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Braided Lava Channel

Braided section of the lava channel located "downstream" between about 3.5 to 6 km (2.2 to 3.7 mi) from fissure 8 (upper right). The width of the two channels in the middle center is about 325 m (1,065 ft). View is toward the southwest.

Aerial of lava flow
July 8, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Kapoho Crater

View of the partially filled Kapoho Crater (center) and the open lava channel where it makes a 90-degree turn around the crater. The open channel no longer directly enters the ocean. Lava flows freely through the channel only to the southern edge of Kapoho Crater (left side of image). Clearly, lava moves into and through the molten core of the thick ‘a‘ā flow across a

Lava channel
July 8, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano — Open-Ended Lava Channel

Close view of the "end" of the open lava channel where lava moves beneath the crusted ‘a‘ā flow.

Filter Total Items: 406
Date published: April 4, 2018

USGS Seeks Earthquake Hazards Research Proposals

Applications due May 22, 2018

Date published: March 29, 2018

International Mapping Standards Updated for Planets throughout Solar System

Clarifying Latitude and Longitude for Planets besides Earth

Date published: March 28, 2018

Tracking the movement of sediment and contaminants from northern California wildfire areas to San Francisco Bay

USGS research geologist Renee Takesue of the Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center collected 20 sediment samples from Sonoma Creek and Napa River north of San Francisco Bay on March 17.

Date published: March 27, 2018

Earthquake Early Warning! New Study Examines Safety Potentials and Limits

In a newly published study, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their partners calculate possible alert times that earthquake early warning systems can provide people at different levels of ground motion from light to very strong shaking.

Date published: March 26, 2018

Mapping Beach Changes After Devastating Montecito Debris Flows


During the week of March 26, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey will begin four days of mapping selected beaches and the adjacent seafloor in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties. Results will be compared to surveys from last fall to highlight changes due to winter waves, and to sediment inputs from area streams. 

Date published: March 26, 2018

55-Story Tall Building – Before and After Earthquake Retrofit

A building in Japan was analyzed before and after a seismic retrofit to make it more resilient to shaking.

Date published: March 23, 2018

Collecting clues to the geologic history and mineral resources of the Rio Grande Rise, southwest Atlantic Ocean

USGS scientists James Hein and Kira Mizell participated in a University of São Paulo research cruise to the western Rio Grande Rise, an underwater plateau in international waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Brazil.

Date published: March 23, 2018

Beach surveys planned near deadly California debris flows

Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center researchers plan to survey selected beaches and parts of the shallow seafloor in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties from March 27-30.

Date published: March 22, 2018

USGS and NASA hold collaborative methane workshop

USGS and NASA held a joint workshop titled “From Cells to Satellites: Methane Biogeochemistry at Multiple Scales” on March 16 at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California.

Date published: March 20, 2018

USGS scientists lead investigation of tropical subterranean estuaries in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico!

USGS scientists lead investigation of tropical subterranean estuaries in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico!

Date published: March 14, 2018

Untangling Faults at Depth – What Lies Beneath Panamint Valley, California?

The eastern edge of Panamint Valley,CA has two types of faults that can be seen in the near-surface geology. 150 geophones and a seismic source will help reveal the subsurface picture.

Date published: March 14, 2018

USGS Authors New Report on Seismic Hazard, Risk, and Design for South America

New seismic hazard and risk assessments can help at-risk communities prepare for future earthquake disasters

Filter Total Items: 177