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Filter Total Items: 4,527
Year Published: 2011

Massive CO2 Ice Deposits Sequestered in the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars

Shallow Radar soundings from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal a buried deposit of carbon dioxide (CO2) ice within the south polar layered deposits of Mars with a volume of 9500 to 12,500 cubic kilometers, about 30 times that previously estimated for the south pole residual cap. The deposit occurs within a stratigraphic unit that is uniquely...

Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Byrne, Shane; Mellon, Michael T.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Haberle, Robert M.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Smith, Isaac B.; Holt, John W.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Nunes, Daniel C.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Egan, Anthony F.; Titus, Timothy N.; Seu, Roberto
Massive CO2 Ice Deposits Sequestered in the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars; 2011; Article; Journal; Science; Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Byrne, Shane ; Mellon, Michael T.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Haberle, Robert M.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Smith, Isaac B.; Holt, John W.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Nunes, Daniel C.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Egan, Anthony F.; Titus, Timothy N.; Seu, Roberto

Year Published: 2011

Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations

Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its...

Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.
Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations; 2011; Article; Journal; Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets; Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T. ; Yingst, A. ; Ruff, S. ; Farrand, W. ; McSween, Y. ; Powell, M. ; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Grant, J. ; Greeley, R. ; DesMarais, D. ; Schmidt, M. ; Cabrol, N. A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A. E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, R.; Guinness, E. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

Year Published: 2011

Human casualties in earthquakes: Modelling and mitigation

Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there...

Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.
Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation; 2011; Article; Journal; Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society; Spence, R. J. S.; So, E. K. M.

Year Published: 2011

Map of debris flows caused by rainfall during 1996 in parts of the Reedsport and Deer Head Point quadrangles, Douglas County, southern Coast Range, Oregon

This 1:12,000-scale map shows an inventory of debris flows caused by rainfall during 1996 in a 94.4 km2 area in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. This map and associated digital data are part of a larger U.S. Geological Survey study of debris flows in the southern Coast Range. Available evidence indicates that the flows were triggered by a rain...

Coe, Jeffrey A.; Michael, John A.; Burgos, Marianela Mercado
Map of debris flows caused by rainfall during 1996 in parts of the Reedsport and Deer Head Point quadrangles, Douglas County, southern Coast Range, Oregon; 2011; OFR; 2011-1150; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Michael, John A.; Burgos, Marianela Mercado

Year Published: 2011

Hypsometry of Titan

Cassini RADAR topography data are used to evaluate Titan's hypsometric profile, and to make comparisons with other planetary bodies. Titan's hypsogram is unimodal and strikingly narrow compared with the terrestrial planets. To investigate topographic extremes, a novel variant on the classic hypsogram is introduced, with a logarithmic abscissa to...

Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Stiles, Bryan; Le Gall, Alice; Hayes, Alexander; Aharonson, Oded; Wood, Charles A.; Stofan, Ellen; Kirk, Randy
Hypsometry of Titan; 2011; Article; Journal; Icarus; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Stiles, Bryan ; Le Gall, Alice ; Hayes, Alexander ; Aharonson, Oded ; Wood, Charles A.; Stofan, Ellen ; Kirk, Randy

Year Published: 2011

Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts...

Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg
Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP); 2011; OFR; 2010-1295; Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

Year Published: 2011

Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia)

We carried out morphotectonic studies along the left-lateral strike-slip Bogd Fault, the principal structure involved in the Gobi-Altay earthquake of 1957 December 4 (published magnitudes range from 7.8 to 8.3). The Bogd Fault is 260 km long and can be subdivided into five main geometric segments, based on variation in strike direction. West to...

Prentice, Carol S.; Rizza, M.; Ritz, J.F.; Baucher, R.; Vassallo, R.; Mahan, S.
Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia); 2011; Article; Journal; Geophysical Journal International; Carol S Prentice;M. Rizza;J.F. Ritz;R. Baucher;R. Vassallo;S. Mahan

Year Published: 2011

Liquefaction and other ground failures in Imperial County, California, from the April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

The Colorado River Delta region of southern Imperial Valley, California, and Mexicali Valley, Baja California, is a tectonically dynamic area characterized by numerous active faults and frequent large seismic events. Significant earthquakes that have been accompanied by surface fault rupture and/or soil liquefaction occurred in this region in 1892...

McCrink, Timothy P.; Pridmore, Cynthia L.; Tinsley, John C.; Sickler, Robert R.; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Stewart, Jonathan P.
Liquefaction and other ground failures in Imperial County, California, from the April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake; 2011; OFR; 2011-1071; McCrink, Timothy P.; Pridmore, Cynthia L.; Tinsley, John C.; Sickler, Robert R.; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Stewart, Jonathan P.

Year Published: 2011

Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope

The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The...

Lu, Ning; Kaya, Basak Sener; Godt, Jonathan W.
Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope; 2011; Article; Journal; Water Resources Research; Lu, Ning; Kaya, Basak Sener; Godt, Jonathan W.

Year Published: 2011

Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens,...

Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto
Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data; 2011; Article; Journal; Seismological Research Letters; Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

Year Published: 2011

Coastal subsidence in Oregon, USA during the giant Cascadia earthquake of AD 1700

Quantitative estimates of land-level change during the giant AD 1700 Cascadia earthquake along the Oregon coast are inferred from relative sea-level changes reconstructed from fossil foraminiferal assemblages preserved within the stratigraphic record. A transfer function, based upon a regional training set of modern sediment samples from Oregon...

Hawkes, A.D.; Horton, B.P.; Nelson, A.R.; Vane, C.H.; Sawai, Y.
Coastal subsidence in Oregon, USA during the giant Cascadia earthquake of AD 1700; 2011; Article; Journal; Quaternary Science Reviews; Hawkes, A. D.; Horton, B. P.; Nelson, A. R.; Vane, C. H.; Sawai, Y.

Year Published: 2011

Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings

Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can...

Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.
Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings; 2011; Conference publication; Journal; Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society; Uma, S. R.; Ryu, H. ; Luco, N. ; Liel, A. B.; Raghunandan, M.

Filter Total Items: 2,701
Image: Missouri River flood of 2011
May 27, 2011

Missouri River flood of 2011

Releases of 80,000 cubic feet per second from Oahe Dam near Pierre, SD, on May 27, 2011, during 2011 Missouri River flood.

Image: Missouri River Spring Flood
May 27, 2011

Missouri River Spring Flood

Release of 80,000 cfs from Oahe Dam, near Pierre SD on May 27, 2011.  This is the largest release since Oahe Reservoir Filled in 1959.  Releases are expected to increase to 150,000 cfs before mid-June.

Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: Missouri River Spring Flood
May 27, 2011

Missouri River Spring Flood

USGS Crews collecting a discharge measurement on the Missouri River downstream of Oahe Reservoir near Pierre, SD.  Releases from Oahe Reservoir are at 80,000 cfs on May 27 and projected to increase to 150,000 by mid-June at the latest.  Evacuations in Pierre, SD  have been issued and sandbagging in an effort to protect homes and infrastructure is ongoing.  Releases will

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

A USGS streamgage station lies mostly submerged. Following rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood, USGS crews removed sensitive streamgage equipment and replaced them with special, pressure-operated streamgage monitoring equipment that could survive being inundated with water. This streamgage, and many other submerged ones, continue to submit critical streamflow

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

USGS Louisiana Water Science Center Director George Arcement looks at a houseboat parked on the north end of Lake Murphy. Houseboats are a common feature in the Atchafalaya Basin, where people live in them year round, or merely keep them as a hunting or vacation camp. Many of them are riding out the 2011 floodwaters by raising or lowering the mooring ropes that anchor them

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

Invasive Giant Salvinia clogs one end of Lake Murphy. Lake Murphy is home to three of Louisiana's most problematic invasive aquatic plant species: Giant Salvinia, Water Hyacinth, and Hydrilla. As the record-setting 2011 floodwaters push through the Atchafalaya Basin, USGS crews are monitoring these invasive species to see what effects the water have on them.

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

Invasive species Giant Salvinia and Water Hyacinth clog one end of Lake Murphy. Lake Murphy is home to three of Louisiana’s most problematic invasive aquatic plant species: Giant Salvinia, Water Hyacinth, and Hydrilla. As the record-setting 2011 floodwaters push through the Atchafalaya Basin, USGS crews are monitoring these invasive species to see what effects the water

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

Invasive species Giant Salvinia, Hydrilla, and Water Hyacinth clog one end of Lake Murphy. Lake Murphy is home to these three of Louisiana’s most problematic invasive aquatic plant species. As the record-setting 2011 floodwaters push through the Atchafalaya Basin, USGS crews are monitoring these invasive species to see what effects the water have on them.

Location:

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level and safely back from the canal's edge.

Location: Florida Gas Canal,

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

A camp lies flooded on the edge of the Florida Gas Canal. Rising floodwaters during the 2011 flood have inundated many hunting camps and residences. Flooded even before the additional water from the Morganza Spillway arrived, these camps were built on land that is usually well above the water level and safely back from the canal's edge.

Location: Florida Gas Canal,

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

A houseboat lies at anchor in the Florida Gas Canal. Houseboats are a common feature in the Atchafalaya Basin, where people live in them year round, or merely keep them as a hunting or vacation camp. Many of them are riding out the 2011 floodwaters by raising or lowering the mooring ropes that anchor them to trees.

Location: Florida Gas Canal, East Side of the

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Attribution: Natural Hazards
Image: 2011 Spring Flood
May 24, 2011

2011 Spring Flood

A view of the north end of Lake Murphy on the East Side of the Atchafalaya Basin. This section of Lake Murphy is home to a stand of young cypress trees that have successfully colonized an area. Cypress trees are known as a climax species, as their presence often indicates an area that has stabilized with nutrients and water flow. USGS scientists are studying this stand of

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Attribution: Natural Hazards