Earthquake Hazards Program

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Educational Publications

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Filter Total Items: 2,123
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Year Published: 2020

Operational earthquake forecasting during the 2019 Ridgecrest, California, earthquake sequence with the UCERF3-ETAS model

The first Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3–epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (UCERF3‐ETAS) aftershock simulations were running on a high‐performance computing cluster within 33 min of the 4 July 2019 M 6.4 Searles Valley earthquake. UCERF3‐ETAS, an extension of the third Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (...

Milner, Kevin R.; Field, Edward H.; Savran, William H; Page, Morgan T.; Jordan, Thomas H

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Year Published: 2020

Semiautomated estimates of directivity and related source properties of small to moderate southern California earthquakes using second seismic moments

We develop a semiautomated method for estimating with second seismic moments the directivity, rupture area, duration, and centroid velocity of earthquakes. The method is applied to 41 southern California earthquakes with magnitude in the range 3.5–5.2 and provides stable results for 28 events. Apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of P ...

Meng, Haoran; McGuire, Jeffrey; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

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Year Published: 2020

Basin amplification effects in the Puget Lowland, Washington from strong motion recordings and 3D simulations

Sedimentary basins in the Puget Sound region, Washington State, increase ground‐motion intensity and duration of shaking during local earthquakes. We analyze Pacific Northwest Seismic Network and U.S. Geological Survey strong‐motion recordings of five local earthquakes (M 3.9–6.8), including the 2001 Nisqually earthquake, to characterize...

Thompson, Mika; Wirth, Erin; Frankel, Arthur; Hartog, J. Renate; Vidale, John E.

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Year Published: 2020

Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2018

This map illustrates 119 years of global seismicity in the context of global plate tectonics and the Earth’s physiography. Primarily designed for use by earth scientists, engineers, and educators, this map provides a comprehensive overview of strong (magnitude [M] 5.5 and larger) earthquakes since 1900. The map clearly identifies the locations of...

Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Villaseñor, Antonio H.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.
Hayes, G.P., Smoczyk, G.M., Villaseñor, A.H., Furlong, K.P., and Benz, H.M, 2020, Seismicity of the Earth 1900–2018: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3446, scale 1:22,500,000, https://doi.org/10.3133/sim3446. [Supersedes USGS Scientific Investigations Map 3064.]

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Year Published: 2020

Plastic faulting in ice

Plastic faulting is a brittle‐like failure phenomenon exhibited by water ice and several other rock types under confinement. It is suspected to be the mechanism of deep earthquakes and extreme cases of shear localization in shallow rocks. Unlike ordinary Coulombic failure, plastic faulting is characterized by a pressure‐independent failure...

Golding, Narayama; Durham, William B; Prior, David J; Stern, Laura A.

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Year Published: 2020

Final report to SCEC on the January 8, 2020 SCEC workshop 'Dynamic Rupture TAG Ingredients Workshop – Fault Friction (SCEC Project 19121)'

This workshop was the second of a series of four SCEC5 workshops designed to evaluate the importance of each of the four ingredients required for dynamic earthquake rupture simulations. The four ingredients are: initial stress conditions, fault geometry, rock properties, and fault friction (Figure 1). This workshop included a range of views of...

Harris, Ruth A.; Barall, Michael

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Year Published: 2020

Hybrid broadband ground motion simulation validation of small magnitude earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand

Ground motion simulation validation is an important and necessary task toward establishing the efficacy of physics-based ground motion simulations for seismic hazard analysis and earthquake engineering applications. This article presents a comprehensive validation of the commonly used Graves and Pitarka hybrid broadband ground motion simulation...

Lee, Robin L.; Bradley, Brendon A.; Stafford, Peter J.; Graves, Robert; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian

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Year Published: 2020

Development of a global seismic risk model

Since 2015 the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation and its partners have been supporting regional programmes and bilateral collaborations to develop an open global earthquake risk model. These efforts led to the development of a repository of probabilistic seismic hazard models, a global exposure dataset comprising structural and occupancy...

Silva, Vitor; Amo-Oduro, Desmond; Calderon, Alejandro; Costa, Catarina; Dabbeek, Jamal; Despotaki, Venetia; Martins, Luis; Pagani, Marco; Rao, Anirudh; Simionato, Michele; Viganò, Daniele; Yepes-Estrada, Catalina; Acevedo, Ana Beatriz; Crowley, Helen; Horspool, Nick; Jaiswal, Kishor; Journeay, Murray; Pittore, Massimiliano

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Year Published: 2020

The community code verification exercise for simulating sequences of earthquakes and aseismic slip (SEAS)

Numerical simulations of sequences of earthquakes and aseismic slip (SEAS) have made great progress over past decades to address important questions in earthquake physics. However, significant challenges in SEAS modeling remain in resolving multiscale interactions between earthquake nucleation, dynamic rupture, and aseismic slip, and understanding...

Erickson, Brittany; Jiang, Junle; Barall, Michael; Lapusta, Nadia; Dunham, Eric; Harris, Ruth A.; Abrahams, Lauren; Allison, Kali; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Barbot, Sylvain; Cattania, Camilla; Elbanna, Ahmed; Fialko, Yuri; Idini, Benjamin; Kozdon, Jeremy; Lambert, Valere; Liu, Yajing; Luo, Yingdi; Ma, Xiao; McKay, Maricela Best; Segall, Paul; Shi, Pengsheng; van den Ende, Martijn; Wei, Mengjie

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Year Published: 2020

Potential duration of aftershocks of the 2020 southwestern Puerto Rico earthquake

AbstractAftershocks (earthquakes clustered spatially and chronologically near the occurrence of a causative earthquake) are ongoing in southwestern Puerto Rico after a series of earthquakes, which include a magnitude 6.4 earthquake that occurred near Barrio Indios, Guayanilla, on January 7, 2020, and affected the surrounding area. This report...

Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Michael, Andrew J.
van der Elst, N.J., Hardebeck, J.L., and Michael, A.J., 2020, Potential duration of aftershocks of the 2020 southwestern Puerto Rico earthquake: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2020–1009, 5 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20201009.

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Year Published: 2020

A brief introduction to seismic instrumentation: Where does my data come from?

Modern seismology has been able to take advantage of several technological advances. These include feedback loops in the seismometer, specialized digitizers with absolute timing, and compression formats for storing data. While all of these advances have helped to improve the field, they can also leave newcomers a bit confused. Our goal here is...

Ringler, Adam T.; Bastien, Patrick

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Year Published: 2020

Estimating rupture dimensions of three major earthquakes in Sichuan, China, for early warning and rapid loss estimates

Large earthquakes like in Wenchuan in 2008, MW 7.9, Sichuan, China, provide opportunity for earthquake early warning (EEW) as many heavily shaken areas are far (~50 km) from the epicenter and warning time could be long enough (≥ 5 s) to take effective preventative action. On the other hand, earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ~M 6.5 are...

Li, Jiawei; Böse, Maren; Wyss, Max; Wald, David J.; Hutchinson, Alexandra; Clinton, John F.; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhou, Shiyong