Volcano Hazards Program Office

Publications

Filter Total Items: 2,204
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Year Published: 2020

Observations on the structure of Surtsey

Comparison of investigations of the 1979 and 2017 cored boreholes coupled with continued observations of the dynamic surface of Surtsey has modified our concepts of the subsurface structure of the volcano. A geometrical analysis of the 2017 vertical and inclined cores indicates that near-surface layering dips westerly, indicating that the...

Moore, James G.; Jackson, Marie D.

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Year Published: 2020

Source model for Sabancaya volcano constrained by DInSAR and GNSS surface deformation observation

Sabancaya is the most active volcano of the Ampato-Sabancaya Volcanic Complex (ASVC) in southern Perú and has been erupting since 2016. The analysis of ascending and descending Sentinel-1 orbits (DInSAR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) datasets from 2014 to 2019 imaged a radially symmetric inflating area, uplifting at a rate of 35 to...

Boixart, Gregorio; Cruz, Luis; Miranda, Rafael; Euillades, Pablo; Euillades, Leonardo; Battaglia, Maurizio

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Year Published: 2020

Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter and postglacial hydrothermal activity in the El Tatio geyser field

The El Tatio geothermal field in the Chilean Altiplano contains hydrothermal silica sinter deposits overlaying glacial and volcanic units, providing an opportunity to constrain the timing of deglaciation and volcanic activity in an area with sparse absolute chronologies. We obtained 51 new radiocarbon ages and δ13C values on the organic...

Munoz Saez, Carolina; Manga, Michael; Hurwitz, Shaul; Salgter, Silvina; Churchill, Dakota; Reich, Martin; Damby, David; Morata, Diego

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Year Published: 2020

Climate from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, 1986 – 2017: Surface air temperature trends and redefined summer season

The weather of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, the largest ice‐free region of the Antarctica, has been continuously monitored since 1985 with currently 14 operational meteorological stations distributed throughout the valleys. Because climate is based on a 30‐year record of weather, this is the first study to truly define the contemporary...

Obryk, Maciej; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Myers, Monique; McKay, C. P.

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Year Published: 2020

Linking subsurface to surface using gas emission and melt inclusion data at Mount Cleveland volcano, Alaska

Mount Cleveland is one of Alaska's most active volcanoes, yet little is known about the magmatic system driving persistent and dynamic volcanic activity. Volcanic gas and melt inclusion (MI) data from 2016 were combined to investigate shallow magmatic processes. SO2 emission rates were between 166 and 324 t/day and the H2O/SO2 was...

Werner, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Daniel J.; Plank, Terry; Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph; Lopez, Taryn; Gliss, Jonas; Power, John A.; Roman, Diana; Izbekov, Pavel; Lyons, John J.

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Year Published: 2020

Hydrothermal activity in the southwest Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field

In the past two decades, the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service have studied hydrothermal activity across the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) to improve the understanding of the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to provide a baseline for detecting future anomalous activity. In 2017 and 2018 we sampled water and gas over...

Hurwitz, Shaul; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Bergfeld, Deborah; Peek, Sara; Susong, David; Roth, David A.; Hungerford, Jefferson; White, Erin B; Harrison, Lauren; Hosseini, Behnaz; Vaughan, R. Greg; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paces, James

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Year Published: 2020

The historic events at Kilauea Volcano in 2018: Summit collapse, rift zone eruption, and Mw 6.9 earthquake: Preface to the special issue

Kīlauea Volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi, has had a prominent role in the science of volcanology, and a long history of generating new insights into how volcanoes operate (Tilling et al. 2014; Garcia 2015). Native Hawaiians shared ideas on the behavior of the volcano with early Western visitors to Kīlauea, addressing the basic geometry of magma...

Patrick, Matthew R.; Johanson, Ingrid; Shea, Thomas; Waite, Greg

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Year Published: 2020

Seismic velocity variations associated with the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea, Hawaiʻi

The 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea (Hawai‘i) marked a dramatic change in the volcano’s 35-year-long rift zone eruption. The collapse of the middle East Rift Zone vent Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō was followed by one of the volcano’s most voluminous eruptions in 500 years. Over the course of this 3-month eruption, the draining of summit-stored magma...

Flinders, Ashton; Caudron, Corentin; Johanson, Ingrid; Taira, Taka'aki; Shiro, Brian; Haney, Matthew M.

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Year Published: 2020

Ten ways Mount St. Helens changed our world—The enduring legacy of the 1980 eruption

Mount St. Helens was once enjoyed for its serene beauty and was considered one of America’s most majestic volcanoes because of its perfect cone shape, similar to Japan’s beloved Mount Fuji. Nearby residents assumed that the mountain was solid and enduring. That perception changed during the early spring of 1980. Then, on May 18, 1980,...

Driedger, Carolyn L.; Major, Jon J.; Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Moran, Seth C.; Westby, Elizabeth G.; Ewert, John W.
Driedger, C.L., Major, J.J., Pallister, J.S., Clynne, M.A., Moran, S.C., Westby, E.G., and Ewert, J.W., 2020, Ten ways Mount St. Helens changed our world—The enduring legacy of the 1980 eruption: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2020-3031, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20203031.

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Year Published: 2020

Forecasting, detecting, and tracking volcanic eruptions from space

Satellite monitoring of volcanic activity typically includes four primary observations: (1) deformation and surface change, (2) gas emissions, (3) thermal anomalies, and (4) ash plumes. These phenomena are imaged by remote sensing data that span the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to ultraviolet energy and including visible and infrared...

Poland, Michael P.; Lopez, Taryn; Wright, Robert; Pavolonis, Michael J.

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Year Published: 2020

Deep long-period earthquakes generated by second boiling beneath Mauna Kea volcano

Deep long-period earthquakes (DLPs) are an enigmatic type of volcanic seismicity that sometimes precedes eruptions but mostly occurs at quiescent volcanoes. These earthquakes are depleted in high-frequency content and typically occur near the base of the crust. We observed a near-periodic, long- lived sequence of more than one million DLPs in the...

Wech, Aaron; Thelen, Weston; Thomas, Amanda

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Year Published: 2020

Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015

Five volcanic-hydrothermal systems in the central Aleutians Islands were sampled for water and gas geochemistry in 2015 to provide baseline data to help predict future volcanic unrest. Some areas had not been sampled in 20–30 years (Makushin volcano, Geyser Bight), and other areas had minimal to no prior sampling (Tana volcano and Fisher Caldera...

Werner, Cynthia A.; Kern, Christoph; Kelly, Peter J.
Werner, C., Kern, C., and Kelly, P. K., 2020, Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2020–5043, 35 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20205043.