Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

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Red hot lava fountaining 100 meters into the air from a cone of hardened, black lava
September 6, 1983

100-meter lava fountain, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

Pu'u 'O'o fountain approximately 100 meters high during eruption episode 8 on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano. Dark clots of spatter land near the base of the fountain, contributing to the growth of the cone. Less dense cinder, visible in the upper right, is carried downwind of the cone.

egg-shaped ball of red-hot lava with a blackened crust sitting on a bed of grass
July 23, 1983

Lava ball, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

Accretionary lava ball comes to rest on the grass after rolling off the top of an 'a'a flow in Royal Gardens subdivision on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano. Accretionary lava balls form as viscous lava is molded around a core of already-soldified lava.

Flat-topped cinder cone with red-hot lava splattering out of the top and cascading down the sides.
June 29, 1983

Pu'u 'O'o cinder-and-spatter cone, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

View at dusk of the young Pu'u 'O'o cinder-and-spatter cone, with fountain 40 meters high, on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano (episode 5).

A stream of red hot lava arcs into the air and splatters down on cooler, black lava flows
February 25, 1983

Arching fountain of lava, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

Arching fountain of lava approximately 10 meters high issuing from the western end of the 0740 vents, a series of spatter cones 170 meters long, south of Pu'u Kahaualea on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano (episode 2). Episodes 2 and 3 were characterized by spatter and cinder cones, such as Pu'u Halulu, which was 60 meters high by episode 3.

Photo showing a dozen narrow, blackened tree trunks with a crusted layer of black lava clinging to the bottom of each tree
January 7, 1983

Forest of lava trees, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

Forest of lava trees resulting from eruption of a 1-km-line of vents east of Pu'u Kahaulea on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano. The bulbous top of each lava tree marks the high stand of the lava flow as it spread through the trees. As the fissure eruption waned, the flow continued to spread laterally; its surface subsided, leaving pillars of lava that had chilled against

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Lava fountains erupting from fissures, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i...
January 5, 1983

Lava fountains erupting from fissures, Kīlauea, Hawai‘i

Lava fountains erupt from fissures during the first week of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō eruption south of Pu‘u Kahaualea, approximately 2.4 km (1.5 miles) northeast of where subsequent eruptions built the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone. The early fissures cut through old forested lava flows in a remote section of Kīlauea's east rift zone. Note single 'ohi'a tree burning in front of the fissures.

Volcano Craters
December 31, 1980

Volcano Craters

Left: Horseshoe-shaped crater of Mount St. Helens in 1980, formed by a landslide that removed the top of the volcano. The crater is about 2 km (1.2 mi) wide and the floor is about 600 m (1,970 ft) below the crater rim. Right: Halema‘uma‘u nestled in the summit crater of Kīlauea Volcano on August 1, the day before the last collapse event. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

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Submerged coconut grove at Halapē after 1975 earthquake, Kīlauea Vo...
December 4, 1975

Submerged coconut grove at Halapē after 1975 quake, Kīlauea

A M 7.7 earthquake on November 29, 1975, was located beneath the south flank of Kīlauea. Along the south coast of Kīlauea at Halapē, 30 km southwest of the earthquake, the ground subsided by as much as 3.5 m (11.5 ft), which left a grove of coconut palms standing in water about 1.2 m (4 ft) deep and the new shoreline about 100 to 150 m (110 to 164 yd) inland from its

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Earthquake-damaged road, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, Kīlauea V...
November 29, 1975

Earthquake-damaged road, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, Kīlauea

Ground cracks along Crater Rim Drive in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park caused by the M 7.7 earthquake on November 25, 1975. The cracks resulted from slumping of the ground toward the rim of Kīlauea Crater, the edge of which is left of the guardrails.

Mauna Loa 1975 eruption. Lava fountains up to 20 m (65 ft) high eru...
July 6, 1975

Mauna Loa 1975 eruption. Lava fountains up to 20 m (65 ft) high eru...

Mauna Loa 1975 eruption. Lava fountains up to 20 m (65 ft) high erupted from fissures on the north flank of the volcano early Sunday morning, July 6, 1975.

South flank of Kīlauea Volcano consists of several large scarps for...
June 24, 1971

South flank of Kīlauea consists of several large scarps formed by r...

Seaward sliding of Kīlauea's south flank over many thousands of years has resulted in large ground displacements along shallow faults that break the surface, as shown by the cliffs ("pali" in Hawaiian) seen here. Most of the movement along the faults occur during sudden slip that cause large earthquakes. Scientists recently discovered that the south flank also moves

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Kilauea Volcano -- Lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
December 31, 1969

Kilauea Volcano -- Lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures

Map as of 10:00 a.m. HST, June 15, 2018. Given the dynamic nature of Kīlauea's lower East Rift Zone eruption, with changing vent locations, 

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