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Browse more than 160,000 publications authored by our scientists over the past 100+ year history of the USGS.  Publications available are: USGS-authored journal articles, series reports, book chapters, other government publications, and more.

Filter Total Items: 6025

A refined assessment of the paleoceanographic and tectonic influences on the deposition of the Monterey Formation in California

Application of updated diatom biochronology to the Monterey Formation and related biosiliceous rocks reveals the imprint of both global paleoclimatic/ paleoceanographic and regional tectonic events. A rise in global sea level combined with regional tectonic deepening associated with the development of the transform California margin resulted in the abrupt onset of deposition of fine-grained Monte
John A. Barron

Teams, networks, and networks of networks advancing our understanding and conservation of inland waters

Networks are defined as groups of interconnected people and things, and by this definition, networks play a major role in the science of inland waters. In this article, we bring the latest social network research to understand and improve inland waters science and conservation outcomes. What we found is that relationships matter. Different teams and networks have different objectives and lifespan
Emily K. Read, Jennifer Cross, Nicole M. Herman-Mercer, Samantha K. Oliver, Catherine M. O'Reilly

Measurement and variability of lake metabolism

Aim: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of what contributes to lake metabolism, a brief overview of methods for estimating lake metabolism, and drivers of metabolism variability within and across lakes.Main concepts covered: In this article, we describe the key drivers of within and across lake variability in metabolism including lake morphometry, nutrients, light availability, temp
Jacob Aaron Zwart, Ludmila S Brighenti

Hydrological cycle and water budgets

In this chapter, we describe the hydrological cycle and each of its components (pools). The hydrological cycle is important to the transport and cycling of nutrients and energy. Quantifying the various components of the hydrological cycle, referred to as constructing water budget for a defined area, is an important framework for wise and equitable water management. The hydrological cycle has chang
Dale M. Robertson, Howard A. Perlman, T. N. Narisimhan

Worldwide wetland loss and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services

Aim: Best strategies for future conservation and management to address global and regional trends in wetland loss and degradation are assessed in this article.Main concepts covered: Direct drivers of wetland loss and change include land drainage and filling, hydrologic alteration, degradation from pollutants and sediments, and conversion to agriculture, urban and industrial usage. Estimates of glo
Beth Middleton

An introduction to current climate projections and their use in climate impacts research

Using climate projections to evaluate future climate impacts and their associated risks requires a background knowledge of the nature of climate change, use of climate models to develop future projections, and knowledge of how to address climate scenario uncertainty. This chapter provides an overview of climate and climate change, some of the foundational climate science that underlies current cli
Jeremy S. Littell

Wetlands under global change

Wetlands are among the ecosystem types most threatened by global change, including both climate change and other anthropogenic factors such as sea level rise, urban development, deforestation, agricultural land use, drainage, levees, tidal flow restrictions, pollution, eutrophication, and fires. Wetlands not only store disproportionate amounts of carbon compared to other terrestrial ecosystems, bu
Eric Ward

Earthquakes and tsunami

Earthquakes occur as a burst of sudden ground shaking created by the release of accumulated stress along a fault, often influenced by movement of the world’s tectonic plates. Ground shaking from an earthquake can generate additional hazards, including landslides, liquefaction, and tsunami. According to the 2019 “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”, earthquakes combined with tsunam
Julia S. Becker, Sara McBride, Lauren Vinnell, Wendy Saunders, Graham S. Leonard, Timothy J. Sullivan, Ken Gledhill

Societal values of inland fishes

a.Aim: To demonstrate the societal values of inland fishes through nine services provided by inland fishes. Each service is defined, key stakeholders identified, and threats enumerated. Diverse case studies (geography, taxonomy, fishery-type) provide examples to highlight the societal values around the world.b.Main concepts: Nine societal services of inland fishes – 1. Livelihoods and subsistence
Abigail Lynch, Robert I. Arthur, Claudio Baigun, Julie E. Claussen, Külli Kangur, Aaron A. Koning, Karen J. Murchie, Bonnie Myers, Gretchen L. Stokes, Ralph William Tingley, So-Jung Youn

Greenhouse gas balances in coastal ecosystems: Current challenges in “blue carbon” estimation and significance to national greenhouse gas inventories

Coastal wetlands are defined herein as inundated, vegetated ecosystems with hydrology, and biogeochemistry influenced by sea levels, at timescales of tides to millennia. Coastal wetlands are necessary components of global greenhouse gas estimation and scenario modeling, both for continental and oceanic mass balances. The carbon pools and fluxes on coastal lands, especially those influenced by tida
Lisamarie Windham-Myers, James R. Holmquist, Kevin D. Kroeger, Tiffany G. Troxler

Hot spots and hot moments in the Critical Zone: Identification of and incorporation into reactive transport models

Biogeochemical processes are often spatially discrete (hot spots) and temporally isolated (hot moments) due to variability in controlling factors like hydrologic fluxes, lithological characteristics, bio-geomorphic features, and external forcing. Although these hot spots and hot moments (HSHMs) account for a high percentage of carbon, nitrogen and nutrient cycling within the Critical Zone, the abi
Bhavna Arora, Martin Briggs, Jay P. Zarnetske, James Stegen, Jesus Gomez-Velez, D. Dwivedi

Leading change with diverse stakeholders

The shift to holistic approaches to managing wildlife health, and the complex landscape of partners and stakeholders, has led to a focus on the development of leadership skills in addition to technical expertise. This chapter introduces key elements and core skills for successful cross-sectoral and transdisciplinary leadership that will help wildlife health practitioners effectively lead change to
Catherine Machalaba, Jonathan M. Sleeman