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Browse more than 160,000 publications authored by our scientists over the past 100+ year history of the USGS.  Publications available are: USGS-authored journal articles, series reports, book chapters, other government publications, and more.

Filter Total Items: 6028

Technique to estimate generalized skew coefficients of annual peak streamflow for natural watershed conditions in Texas, Oklahoma, and eastern New Mexico

Reliable information about the frequency of annual peak streamflow is needed for floodplain management, objective assessment of flood risk, and cost-effective design of dams, levees, other flood-control structures, and roads, bridges, and culverts. Generalized skew coefficients are among the data needed for log-Pearson type III peak-streamflow frequency analyses of annual peak streamflows. A techn
William H. Asquith, Monica Veale Yesildirek, Raven N. Landers, Theodore G Cleveland, Zheng N. Fang, Jiaqi Zhang

The use of boundary-spanning organizations to bridge the knowledge-action gap in North America

The goals of boundary-spanning organizations include communicating among researchers, stakeholders, and resource managers to improve decision-making. These efforts span public agencies, environmental non-governmental organizations, and private stakeholders and occur throughout Canada, the USA, and Mexico. We describe how the core philosophy of boundary-spanning organizations may help address conse
Mark W. Schwartz, Erica Fleishman, Matthew A. Williamson, John N. Williams, Toni Lyn Morelli

What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota?

No abstract available.
Rune Dietz, Robert J. Letcher, Josh T. Ackerman, Benjamin D. Barst, Niladri Basu, Olivier Chastel, John Chételat, Sam Dastnai, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Collin A. Eagles-Smith, Igor Eulaers, Jérôme Fort, Jacob Nabe-Nielsen, Feiyue Wang, Simon Wilson

Vitrinite reflectance analysis

Vitrinite is a maceral group (a set of organic matter types with similar properties and appearance) derived from the remains of woody material from vascular plants and is composed of the thermally evolved products of lignin and cellulose. Vitrinite is the dominant component of humic coal and is found as a minor component dispersed into sedimentary rocks, especially mudrocks, the primary source roc
Paul C. Hackley

Lognormal distribution

No abstract available. 
M. Glòria Mateu-Figueras, Ricardo A. Olea

Dam removal and river restoration

The removal of dams from rivers has become a common and widespread practice in the United States and Europe. Although often initiated by factors like economics and safety, ecosystem restoration is often a desired benefit and outcome of dam removal. We describe the physical and ecological effects that the placement and removal of dams have on rivers. We then focus on the drivers of dam removal, pre
Jeffrey J. Duda, J. Ryan Bellmore

Land use change and climate-smart agriculture in the Sahel

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Sahel experienced recurrent drought and famine. Farmers and their development partners reacted to this crisis by developing climate-smart agricultural practices and changes in land use, including water-harvesting techniques to restore degraded land to productivity. In several densely populated parts of the Sahel, farmers began to protect and manage woody species that re
Suzanne E. (Contractor) Cotillon, G. Gray Tappan, Chris Reij

Total alkali-silica diagram

The total alkali-silica (TAS) diagram is a scatterplot of the chemical concentrations of silica oxide (SiO2) versus total alkali-sodium oxide (Na2O) plus potassium oxide (K2O) – in volcanic rocks.
Ricardo A. Olea

Foreword: Wetland carbon and environmental management

No abstract available.
Scott Covington, Debra A. Willard

Random forest

This entry defines and discusses the random forest machine learning algorithm. The algorithm is used to predict class or quantities for target variables using values of a set of predictor variables. It uses decision trees that are generated from bootstrap sampling of the training data set to create a "forest". The entry discusses the algorithm steps, the interpretative tools of the resulting mode
Emil D. Attanasi, Timothy Coburn

International importance of Percids: Summary and looking forward

Research presented in the preceding chapters emphasizes recent advancements in the research, management, and aquaculture of Walleye, Sauger, and Yellow Perch in North America. These percid fishes, along with the European Perch and Pikeperch, are economically and ecologically important fishes in their native geographic range. Advances in techniques to evaluate current habitat and predict future hab
Robin L. DeBruyne, Edward F. Roseman

Multilayer perceptrons (MLPs)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are adaptable systems that can solve problems that are difficult to describe with a mathematical relationship. They seek relationships between different types of datasets with their abilities to learn either with supervision or without. ANNs recognize patterns between input and output space and generalize solutions, in a way simulating the human brain’s learning e
C. Özgen Karacan