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Browse more than 160,000 publications authored by our scientists over the past 100+ year history of the USGS.  Publications available are: USGS-authored journal articles, series reports, book chapters, other government publications, and more.

Filter Total Items: 6011

Hydrological cycle and water budgets

In this chapter, we describe the hydrological cycle and each of its components (pools). The hydrological cycle is important to the transport and cycling of nutrients and energy. Quantifying the various components of the hydrological cycle, referred to as constructing water budget for a defined area, is an important framework for wise and equitable water management. The hydrological cycle has chang
Dale M. Robertson, Howard A. Perlman, T. N. Narisimhan

Worldwide wetland loss and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services

Aim: Best strategies for future conservation and management to address global and regional trends in wetland loss and degradation are assessed in this article.Main concepts covered: Direct drivers of wetland loss and change include land drainage and filling, hydrologic alteration, degradation from pollutants and sediments, and conversion to agriculture, urban and industrial usage. Estimates of glo
Beth Middleton

An introduction to current climate projections and their use in climate impacts research

Using climate projections to evaluate future climate impacts and their associated risks requires a background knowledge of the nature of climate change, use of climate models to develop future projections, and knowledge of how to address climate scenario uncertainty. This chapter provides an overview of climate and climate change, some of the foundational climate science that underlies current cli
Jeremy S. Littell

Wetlands under global change

Wetlands are among the ecosystem types most threatened by global change, including both climate change and other anthropogenic factors such as sea level rise, urban development, deforestation, agricultural land use, drainage, levees, tidal flow restrictions, pollution, eutrophication, and fires. Wetlands not only store disproportionate amounts of carbon compared to other terrestrial ecosystems, bu
Eric Ward

Earthquakes and tsunami

Earthquakes occur as a burst of sudden ground shaking created by the release of accumulated stress along a fault, often influenced by movement of the world’s tectonic plates. Ground shaking from an earthquake can generate additional hazards, including landslides, liquefaction, and tsunami. According to the 2019 “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”, earthquakes combined with tsunam
Julia S. Becker, Sara McBride, Lauren Vinnell, Wendy Saunders, Graham S. Leonard, Timothy J. Sullivan, Ken Gledhill

Societal values of inland fishes

a.Aim: To demonstrate the societal values of inland fishes through nine services provided by inland fishes. Each service is defined, key stakeholders identified, and threats enumerated. Diverse case studies (geography, taxonomy, fishery-type) provide examples to highlight the societal values around the world.b.Main concepts: Nine societal services of inland fishes – 1. Livelihoods and subsistence
Abigail Lynch, Robert I. Arthur, Claudio Baigun, Julie E. Claussen, Külli Kangur, Aaron A. Koning, Karen J. Murchie, Bonnie Myers, Gretchen L. Stokes, Ralph William Tingley, So-Jung Youn

Greenhouse gas balances in coastal ecosystems: Current challenges in “blue carbon” estimation and significance to national greenhouse gas inventories

Coastal wetlands are defined herein as inundated, vegetated ecosystems with hydrology, and biogeochemistry influenced by sea levels, at timescales of tides to millennia. Coastal wetlands are necessary components of global greenhouse gas estimation and scenario modeling, both for continental and oceanic mass balances. The carbon pools and fluxes on coastal lands, especially those influenced by tida
Lisamarie Windham-Myers, James R. Holmquist, Kevin D. Kroeger, Tiffany G. Troxler

Hot spots and hot moments in the Critical Zone: Identification of and incorporation into reactive transport models

Biogeochemical processes are often spatially discrete (hot spots) and temporally isolated (hot moments) due to variability in controlling factors like hydrologic fluxes, lithological characteristics, bio-geomorphic features, and external forcing. Although these hot spots and hot moments (HSHMs) account for a high percentage of carbon, nitrogen and nutrient cycling within the Critical Zone, the abi
Bhavna Arora, Martin Briggs, Jay P. Zarnetske, James Stegen, Jesus Gomez-Velez, D. Dwivedi

Leading change with diverse stakeholders

The shift to holistic approaches to managing wildlife health, and the complex landscape of partners and stakeholders, has led to a focus on the development of leadership skills in addition to technical expertise. This chapter introduces key elements and core skills for successful cross-sectoral and transdisciplinary leadership that will help wildlife health practitioners effectively lead change to
Catherine Machalaba, Jonathan M. Sleeman

Pollution and wildlife health

Pollution is a pervasive and growing threat to wildlife health. This chapter discusses two broad groups of pollution, those whose abatement could have immediate beneficial effects including light, air, and noise pollution, and those that will take relatively longer to address due to their environmental persistence or their continuing discharge. Whilst we are very good at detecting the presence of
Thierry M. Work

Social and reproductive behaviors

Sirenian social and reproductive behaviors lack much complexity or diversity. Whereas sirenians are usually sighted as solitary, or as cows with single calves, aggregations of many individuals can occur. Persistent social groupings are unknown. Home ranges are widely overlapping. Mating systems of dugongs (Dugong dugon) have been variously described as leks or as scramble promiscuity (mating herds
Thomas J. O'Shea, Cathy Beck, Amanda J. Hodgson, Lucy W Keith-Diagne, Miriam Marmontel

Laurentia in transition during the Mesoproterozoic: Observations and speculation on the ca. 1500–1340 Ma tectonic evolution of the southern Laurentian margin

An accretionary tectonic model for the Mesoproterozoic ca. 1500–1340 Ma tectonic evolution of the southern Laurentian margin is presented. The tectonic model incorporates key observations about the nature and timing of Mesoproterozoic deposition, magmatism, regional metamorphism, and deformation across the 5000-km-long southern Laurentian margin. This time period was one of transition in the super
Christopher G. Daniel, Ruth Aronoff, Aphrodite Indares, James V. Jones