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Instructions for observing air temperature, humidity, and direction and force of wind

Description of instruments.-The temperature and humidity of the air are obtained from the simultaneous observation of a pair of mercurial thermometers termed the dry and the wet bulb. The air temperature is given by the dry-bulb thermometer, and the humidity is obtained from the combined readings of both. The wet-bulb thermometer differs from the dry-bulb thermometer only in having its bulb covere

Table of differences of altitude to nearest foot for angles from 1 minute to 2 degrees and for distances under 1 mile

The top line represents differences of altitude in feet. The first column gives vertical angles in degrees and minutes. The body of the table gives distances in miles and hundredths of a mile, corresponding to the number of feet at the top of the column, and the angle at the left of the line.

A sketch of the geology of Jamaica

No abstract available.

The molecular stability of metals, particularly of iron and steel

(1) ALLOW me to add some words relative to the very timely lecture on the hardening and tempering of steel, recently published by Prof. Roberts-Austen (NATURE, xli. pp. 11, 42). I desire, in the first place, to point out the bearing of the singular minimum of the viscosity of hot iron (loc. cit., p. 34) on the interpretation given of Maxwell's theory of viscosity (Phil. Mag. (5), xxvi. pp. 183, 39

III.-The Work of Prof. Henry Carvill Lewis in Glacial Geology

The recent notice of the life and work of Prof. Henry Carvill Lewis, whose lamented death occurred in Manchester, July 21st, 1888, in his thirty-fifth year, well indicates the wide range of his scientific labours. He published valuable results of investigations in astronomy, mineralogy and petrology, and especially in glacial geology, the last being based on his exploration of the drift and its te

II.-Subaerial Deposits of the Arid Region of North America

A Comparison of adobe with the loess of China forms the concluding part of this paper; but as no analyses of the Chinese deposit are known to me, a few analyses of the loess of the Mississippi Valley are inserted, not with the assumption, however, that the deposits bearing the same name in these two regions are identical. A comparison of this table with the one showing the composition of adobe is

Instructions to rain-fall observers of U.S. Geological Survey

In the prosecution of the general "survey of the arid lands for purposes of irrigation," authorized by Congress to be undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey, a determination of the amount of water supplied by the natural rain and snow fall in different localities is of fundamental importance. To obtain this knowledge the Geological Survey must depend in large measure upon the residents, to whom

IV.-Some Definitions in Dynamical Geology

In view of the active discussion of the problems of earth-movement and mountain-growth now current, certain fundamental definitions, growing out of the discrimination of processes commonly confounded but really distinct, seem to be timely.The various processes with which the geologist has to deal fall naturally into two principal and antagonistic categories and five subordinate and supplemental ca

II.-The Jordan-Arabah Depression and the Dead Sea

The occurrence of numerous terraces on the mountain slopes over-looking the Dead Sea has been reported by several observers, but no accurate measurements of their elevations or definite correlation of the terraces on the opposite slopes of the depression, seem to have been attempted. In the central part of the Wady Arabah on the west flank of the promontory known as Samrat el Fedan, a terrace, or

VII.—On Hindeastraea, a New Generic Form of Cretaceous Astraeidae

The little Coral here described was discovered in Kaufman County, Texas, in strata of the Kipley Group, by Dr. R. H. Loughridge, and presented by him to me, together with a few characteristic molluscan species of that group which he found associated with it. The Ripley Group is the uppermost division of the Cretaceous series in the States which border upon the Gulf of Mexico; and probably represen

I.-The Jordan-Arabah Depression and the Dead Sea

The following account of the geology of the Dead Sea basin A. has been compiled from the observations of others, and I am especially indebted in this connection to H. J. Johnson, Geologist of the United States Expedition to the Dead Sea, to Professor Louis Lartet, Geologist of the Due de Luynes' Expedition to the same region, and to Prof. Edward Hull, F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey of I