Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Science

link

Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems

link

Cryosphere: Earth’s Snow, Ice, and Permafrost

link

Cycling of Carbon and Nutrients

link

Hydrologic Change

link

Landscape Change and Impacts

link

Paleoclimate

FAQs

What gases are emitted by Kīlauea and other active volcanoes?

Ninety-nine percent of the gas molecules emitted during a volcanic eruption are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The remaining one percent is comprised of small amounts of hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, and other minor gas species. Learn more: Volcanic gases can be harmful to health, vegetation and infrastructure

link

What gases are emitted by Kīlauea and other active volcanoes?

Ninety-nine percent of the gas molecules emitted during a volcanic eruption are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The remaining one percent is comprised of small amounts of hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, and other minor gas species. Learn more: Volcanic gases can be harmful to health, vegetation and infrastructure

Learn More

Who monitors volcanic gases emitted by Kīlauea and how is it done?

The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) determines the amount and composition of gases emitted by Kīlauea Volcano. Changes in gas emissions can reveal important clues about the inner workings of a volcano, so they are measured on a regular basis. HVO scientists use both remote and direct sampling techniques to measure compositions and emission rates of gas from Kīlauea...

link

Who monitors volcanic gases emitted by Kīlauea and how is it done?

The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) determines the amount and composition of gases emitted by Kīlauea Volcano. Changes in gas emissions can reveal important clues about the inner workings of a volcano, so they are measured on a regular basis. HVO scientists use both remote and direct sampling techniques to measure compositions and emission rates of gas from Kīlauea...

Learn More

Does vog (volcanic smog) impact plants and animals?

The sulfuric acid droplets in vog have the corrosive properties of dilute battery acid. When vog mixes directly with moisture on the leaves of plants it can cause severe chemical burns, which can damage or kill the plants. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas can also diffuse through leaves and dissolve to form acidic conditions within plant tissue. Farmers on Hawai`i Island, particularly in the Ka`u District...

link

Does vog (volcanic smog) impact plants and animals?

The sulfuric acid droplets in vog have the corrosive properties of dilute battery acid. When vog mixes directly with moisture on the leaves of plants it can cause severe chemical burns, which can damage or kill the plants. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas can also diffuse through leaves and dissolve to form acidic conditions within plant tissue. Farmers on Hawai`i Island, particularly in the Ka`u District...

Learn More