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Applications of nonergodic site response models to ShakeAlert case studies in the Los Angeles area

In this study, we explore whether the Parker and Baltay (2022) site response models for the Los Angeles (LA) basin region can improve ground‐motion forecasts in the U.S. Geological Survey ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system (hereafter ShakeAlert). We implement the peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity site response models of Parker and Baltay (2022) in ShakeAlert via the earthqu
Rongrong Lin, Grace Alexandra Parker, Jeffrey McGuire, Annemarie S. Baltay

Using corrected and imputed polarity measurements to improve focal mechanisms in a regional earthquake catalog near the Mt. Lewis Fault Zone, California

We utilized relative polarity measurements and machine learning techniques to better resolve focal mechanisms and stress orientations considering a catalog of ∼29,000 relocated earthquakes that occurred during 1984–2021 in the southeastern San Francisco Bay Area. Earthquake focal mechanisms are commonly produced using P wave first motion polarities, which traditionally requires events to be well-r
Robert Skoumal, Jeanne L. Hardebeck, David R. Shelly

Damage amplification during repetitive seismic waves in mechanically loaded rocks

Cycles of stress build-up and release are inherent to tectonically active planets. Such stress oscillations impart strain and damage, prompting mechanically loaded rocks and materials to fail. Here, we investigate, under uniaxial conditions, damage accumulation and weakening caused by time-dependent creep (at 60, 65, and 70% of the rocks’ expected failure stress) and repeating stress oscillations
Anthony Lamur, Jackie E. Kendrick, Lauren N. Schaefer, Yan Lavallée, Ben M. Kennedy

On the scale-dependence of fault surface roughness

Defining roughness as the ratio of height to length, the standard approach to characterize amplitudes of single fault, joint and fracture surfaces is to measure average height as a function of profile length. Empirically, this roughness depends strongly on scale. The ratio is approximately 0.01 at a few mm but 10× smaller at a few tens of meters. Surfaces are rougher at small scales. However, thes
Nicholas M. Beeler

Solid Earth–atmosphere interaction forces during the 15 January 2022 Tonga eruption

Rapid venting of volcanic material during the 15 January 2022 Tonga eruption generated impulsive downward reaction forces on the Earth of ~2.0 × 1013 N that radiated seismic waves observed throughout the planet, with ~25 s source bursts persisting for ~4.5 hours. The force time history is determined by analysis of teleseismic P waves and Rayleigh waves with periods approximately <50 s, providing i
Ricardo Garza-Giron, Thorne Lay, Fred Pollitz, Hiroo Kanamori, Luis Rivera

Fracture-mesh faulting in the swarm-like 2020 Maacama sequence revealed by high-precision earthquake detection, location, and focal mechanisms

In August of 2020, an earthquake sequence initiated within the Maacama fault zone in northern California, raising questions about its relationship with the larger-scale fault. To investigate the faulting geometry and its implications for physical processes driving seismicity, we applied an integrated, multi-faceted seismic analysis including waveform-correlation-based event detection, relative rel
David R. Shelly, Robert John Skoumal, Jeanne L. Hardebeck

Using seismic noise correlation to determine the shallow velocity structure of the Seattle basin, Washington

Cross-correlation waveforms of seismic noise in the Seattle basin, Washington, were analyzed to determine the group velocities of surface waves and constrain the shear-wave velocity (VS) for depths less than about 2 kilometers (km). Twenty broadband seismometers were deployed for about 3 weeks in three dense arrays separated by about 5 km, with minimum intra-array station spacing of about 0.5 km.
Arthur Frankel, Paul Bodin

Estimates of k0 and effects on ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area

Ground‐motion studies are a key component of seismic hazard analyses and often rely on information of the source, path, and site. Extensive research has been done on each of these parameters; however, site‐specific studies are of particular interest to seismic hazard studies, especially in the field of earthquake engineering, as near‐site conditions can have a significant impact on the resulting g
Tara Nye, Valerie J. Sahakian, Elias King, Annemarie S. Baltay, Alexis Klimasewski

COSMOS Ground-Motion Simulation Working Group workshops #1 and #2

These 2 workshops were held in response to interest generated from sessions on the use of simulated earthquake ground motions at the 2020 and 2021 Consortium of Organizations for Strong Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) Technical Sessions. The discussions at the Technical Sessions highlighted desires to promote the use of simulated earthquake ground motions for engineering applications and the n
Brad T. Aagaard, Aysegul Askan, Sanaz Rezaeian, Sean Kamran Ahdi, Alan Yong

Using a grid-search approach to validate the Graves-Pitarka broadband simulation method

This work assesses the ability of the Graves–Pitarka simulation approach to reproduce observed ground motions for 12 California and Baja California earthquakes. A total of 240 realizations are computed for each earthquake and compared with recorded strong motions from near-fault sites. In addition to spatial variability in slip, each realization samples from discrete combinations of average ruptur
Robert Graves

Hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation validation of small magnitude active shallow crustal earthquakes in New Zealand

This article presents a comprehensive validation of the hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation approach (via the commonly used Graves and Pitarka method) in a New Zealand context with small magnitude point source ruptures using an extensive set of 5218 ground motions recorded at 212 sites from 479 active shallow crustal earthquakes across the country. Modifications to the simulation method infe
Robin L. Lee, Brendon A. Bradley, Peter J. Stafford, Robert Graves, Adrian Rodriguez-Marek

Regional-scale mapping of landscape response to extreme precipitation using repeat lidar and object-based image analysis

Extreme precipitation events may cause flooding, slope failure, erosion, deposition, and damage to infrastructure over a regional scale, but the impacts of these events are often difficult to fully characterize. Regional-scale landscape change occurred during an extreme rain event in June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota. Landscape change was documented by 8,000 km2 of airborne lidar data collected
Stephen B. DeLong, Morena N Hammer, Zachary T. Engle, Emilie Richard, Andrew Breckenridge, Karen B. Gran, Carrie E. Jennings, Andre Jalobeanu