"Recovery factor (RF) is one of the most fundamental parameters that define engineering and economical success of any operational phase in oil and gas production. The effectiveness of the operation, e.g. CO2-EOR (enhanced oil recovery with carbon dioxide injection), is usually defined by multiplying the resultant recovery factor by the original oil in place. Moreover, investment decisions for such engineering projects are also performed based on predicted recovery factors. Despite its importance, though, it is not easy to predict recovery factors as they are affected by many factors including the type of the recovery process, reservoir type, fluid properties, reservoir heterogeneity, depth, thickness, to name a few. The usual method of estimating recovery factors is laboratory experiments or numerical modeling, each of which has their own limitations due to data requirements, boundary conditions and scale effects.
In this work, a fuzzy inference system approach has been adopted to predict miscible CO2-EOR recovery factors of the major field applications in the United States with the premise that it can be used as a guidance tool for making decisions based on different inputs. The fuzzy system was build using a Mamdani-type fuzzy logic inference engine, and by using reservoir data compiled from different sources as inputs and recovery factors gathered from a literature survey. Due to the limited number of field cases that could be used for this purpose, 24 sets of applications were included in the study. Selected input variables were water saturation after waterflood (Sorw), well spacing, porosity, permeability, depth, net pay thickness, initial pressure, API gravity of oil, hydrocarbon pore volume CO2 injected, and reservoir lithology. The type of membership functions were decided based on the system’s predictive performance. The model showed reasonable predictive capability for the field observations of recovery factor despite the complexity of this parameter. In addition, since the fuzzy solution was multi-dimensional due to multiple inputs, system behavior was used to demonstrate response of miscible CO2-EOR recovery factor to different inputs.
- Digital Object Identifier: 10.1016/j.petrol.2019.106533
- Source: USGS Publications Warehouse (indexId: 70205851)