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Natural thorium resources and recovery: Options and impacts
This paper reviews the front end of the thorium fuel cycle, including the extent and variety of thorium deposits, the potential sources of thorium production, and the physical and chemical technologies required to isolate and purify thorium. Thorium is frequently found within rare earth element–bearing minerals that exist in diverse types of...Ault, Timothy; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Krahn, Steven; Croff, Allen
Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China
Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at...Kun-Feng QiuTaylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui SongHao-Cheng YuKai-Rui SongNan
The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran
The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and...Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.
User’s guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data
GcClust is a software package developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for statistical clustering of regional geochemical data, and similar data such as regional mineralogical data. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of the user’s guide are...Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.
Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and...Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.
A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals
To obtain minerals suitable for age-dating and other analyses, it is necessary to first reduce the mineral-bearing rock to a fine, sand-like consistency. Reducing whole rock requires crushing, grinding, and sieving. Ideally, the reduced material should range in size from 80- to 270-mesh (an opening between wires in a sieve). The openings in an 80-...Strong, Thomas R.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.
Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12
Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, and...Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.
Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China
The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China...Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.
Thorium as a nuclear fuel: Chapter 10
No abstract available.Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Tulsidas, Harikrishnan
Wetting and drying of soil in response to precipitation: Data analysis, modeling, and forecasting
This paper investigates methods to analyze and forecast soil moisture time series. We extend an existing Antecedent Water Index (AWI) model, which expresses soil moisture as a function of time and rainfall. Unfortunately, the existing AWI model does not forecast effectively for time periods beyond a few hours. To overcome this limitation, we...Basak, Aniruddha; Kulkarni, Chinmay; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Mengshoel, Ole
A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study
The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered...Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.
Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California
Paleomagnetic study of cores from six deep wells provides an independent temporal framework for much of the alluvial stratigraphy of the Quaternary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley. This stratigraphy consists of 8 upward-fining cycles in the upper 300 m of section and an underlying 150 m or more of largely fine-grained sediment. The eight...Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.
These are the first published studies to demonstrate water-quality impacts to a surface stream due to activities at an unconventional oil and gas wastewater deep well injection disposal site.
Happy Mother's Day from EarthWords!
The fourth volume of the comprehensive history of the U.S. Geological Survey, Minerals, Lands, and Geology for the Common Defence and General Welfare: Volume 4, 1939‒1961, has been issued as an electronic document.
Scientists studying rare earth and critical elements now have a solid foundation for future research, as detailed in a special volume of the Society of Economic Geologists. This review volume, featuring several papers authored and co-authored by the U.S. Geological Survey, provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge for rare earth and critical elements in ore deposits.
The Central Asia Salt Basin of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan has the potential to contain between 39 and 54 billion metric tons of undiscovered potash resources, according to a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Known potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin consist of 1.63 billion metric tons.
The ongoing resource, climate, hazards and environmental issues of the United States are addressed in a new U.S. Geological Survey product, providing an overview of the USGS Mineral Resources Program's multidisciplinary science.
The naturally occurring material from which a mineral or minerals of economic value can be extracted. Usually minerals, especially metals, are mined first in ore form, then refined later.
WASHINGTON—The President’s fiscal year (FY) 2017 budget request for the U.S. Geological Survey reflects the USGS's vital role in addressing some of the most pressing challenges of the 21st Century by advancing scientific discovery and innovation.
The U.S. Geological Survey is implementing new measures that will improve public access to USGS-funded science as detailed in its new public access plan.
In 2015, United States mines produced an estimated $78.3 billion of mineral raw materials—down 3percent from $80.8 billion in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey announced today in its Mineral Commodity Summaries 2016.
FORT COLLINS, Colorado – Reports of bat deaths worldwide due to human causes largely unique to the 21st century are markedly rising, according to a new USGS-led analysis published in Mammal Review.
ANCHORAGE, Alaska – A new digital geologic map of Alaska is being released today providing land users, managers and scientists geologic information for the evaluation of land use in relation to resource extraction, conservation, natural hazards and recreation.