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Filter Total Items: 99
Natural thorium resources and recovery: Options and impacts
Year Published: 2016

Natural thorium resources and recovery: Options and impacts

This paper reviews the front end of the thorium fuel cycle, including the extent and variety of thorium deposits, the potential sources of thorium production, and the physical and chemical technologies required to isolate and purify thorium. Thorium is frequently found within rare earth element–bearing minerals that exist in diverse types of...

Ault, Timothy; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Krahn, Steven; Croff, Allen
Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China
Year Published: 2016

Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at...

Kun-Feng QiuTaylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui SongHao-Cheng YuKai-Rui SongNan
The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran
Year Published: 2016

The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran

The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and...

Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.
Sholeh, A., Rastad, E., Huston, D., Gemmell, J.B., and Taylor, R.D., 2016, The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran: Economic Geology, v. 111, p. 619-639
User’s guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data
Year Published: 2016

User’s guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data

GcClust is a software package developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for statistical clustering of regional geochemical data, and similar data such as regional mineralogical data. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of the user’s guide are...

Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.
Ellefsen, K.J, and Smith, D.B., 2016, User's guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data: U.S. Geological Survey report Techniques and Methods 7–C13, 21 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/tm7c13.
Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015
Year Published: 2016

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and...

Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.
Brownfield, M.E., Schenk, C.J., Klett, T.R., Tennyson, M.E., Pitman, J.K., Gaswirth, S.B., Le, P.A., Leathers-Miller, H.M., Mercier, T.J., Marra, K.R., and Hawkins, S.J., 2016, Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2016-3003, 2 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20163003.
A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals
Year Published: 2016

A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals

To obtain minerals suitable for age-dating and other analyses, it is necessary to first reduce the mineral-bearing rock to a fine, sand-like consistency. Reducing whole rock requires crushing, grinding, and sieving. Ideally, the reduced material should range in size from 80- to 270-mesh (an opening between wires in a sieve). The openings in an 80-...

Strong, Thomas R.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.
Strong, T.R., and Driscoll, R.L., 2016, A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016–1022, 16 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161022.
Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12
Year Published: 2016

Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12

Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, and...

Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.
Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China
Year Published: 2016

Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China...

Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.
Qiu, K.F., Deng, J., Taylor, R.D., Song, K.R., Song, Y.H., Li, Q.Z., and Goldfarb, R.J., 2016, Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian orogenic belt, NW China: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 122, p. 20-40.
Thorium as a nuclear fuel: Chapter 10
Year Published: 2016

Thorium as a nuclear fuel: Chapter 10

No abstract available.

Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Tulsidas, Harikrishnan
Wetting and drying of soil in response to precipitation: Data analysis, modeling, and forecasting
Year Published: 2016

Wetting and drying of soil in response to precipitation: Data analysis, modeling, and forecasting

This paper investigates methods to analyze and forecast soil moisture time series. We extend an existing Antecedent Water Index (AWI) model, which expresses soil moisture as a function of time and rainfall. Unfortunately, the existing AWI model does not forecast effectively for time periods beyond a few hours. To overcome this limitation, we...

Basak, Aniruddha; Kulkarni, Chinmay; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Mengshoel, Ole
A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study
Year Published: 2016

A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study

The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered...

Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.
Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California
Year Published: 2016

Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California

Paleomagnetic study of cores from six deep wells provides an independent temporal framework for much of the alluvial stratigraphy of the Quaternary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley. This stratigraphy consists of 8 upward-fining cycles in the upper 300 m of section and an underlying 150 m or more of largely fine-grained sediment. The eight...

Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.
Filter Total Items: 78
Image shows a sample of cerussite on a black background
2016 (approx.)
This sample is of the mineral cerussite, once an important source of lead for paints and pigments. With the phasing out of lead-based paints, cerussite is now mostly valued as a collectors mineral. Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Mibladen, Morocco, and is 5.6cm in size.
Image shows a sample of clinozoisite against a black background
2016 (approx.)
This sample is clinozoisite, a calcium aluminum silicate mineral. It is mostly prized as a collectors mineral rather than a source of its industrial mineral commodities. Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Hachupa, Pakistan, and is 6.0cm in size.
Image shows a sample of epidote and quartz against a black background
2016 (approx.)
Epidote is a silicate mineral used mostly as a semiprecious gemstone. Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and is 6.0cm in size.
Image shows a sample of gold against a black background
2016 (approx.)
A sample of native gold. Gold has been treasured since ancient times for its beauty and permanence. Most of the gold that is fabricated today goes into the manufacture of jewelry, but it also performs critical functions in computers, communications equipment, spacecraft, jet aircraft engines, and a host of other products. Read more about gold here . Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample...
Image shows a sample of torbernite against a black background
2016 (approx.)
Torbernite is a copper phosphate mineral that contains uranium, making it somewhat radioactive. Although it can be used as a uranium ore, it's more valued as a collectors mineral. It can be used as a good indicator of uranium deposits, however. Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Musonoi Mine, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is 5.0cm in size.
Image shows a sample of augelite and quartz on a black background.
2016 (approx.)
A sample of augelite and quartz. Augelite is an aluminum phosphate mineral, primarily prized for collecting rather than as a source for its industrial mineral components. Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Mundo Nuevo Mine, Peru, and is 3.7cm in size.
Image shows a sample of Apophyllite and Prehnite on a black background
2016 (approx.)
These two minerals are apophyllite and prehnite. Both apophyllite, the clear crystals, and prehnite, the green mineral, are primarily prized as collectors minerals. Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Virginia Crushed Stone Quarry, Virginia, and is 4.6cm in size.
Image shows a sample of azurite and malachite against a black background
2016 (approx.)
A sample of azurite, the blue mineral, and malachite, the green mineral. Both azurite and malachite are copper minerals that were once used as pigments but are now mostly valued as collectors minerals. They do serve as good indicators of copper deposits that can be developed. Read more information about copper here . Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Milpillas Mine,...
Image shows a sample of elbaite on a black background
2016 (approx.)
Elbaite is one of the best-known members of the tourmaline mineral family, particularly for its high-quality gemstones. Read more about the tourmaline mineral family here . Sample provided by Carlin Green, USGS. Sample originated from Himalaya Mine, California, and is 4.9cm in size.
Image shows a large black stone with a silver sign in front
July 20, 2016
Cannel coal is a type of bituminous coal, which is the second-highest rank of coal (just behind anthracite). This particular sample has a high carbon content with high pollen and spore content as well. Unlike most bituminous coal, Cannel coal can be carved into ornaments. This sample came from the Eastern Interior Coalfield in Kentucky.
Image shows a tall, triangular gray stone surrounded by grass and trees
July 20, 2016
Granite is an igneous rock that we’ve used for building materials for thousands of years. It’s name comes from the Latin word “granum,” meaning “grain,” which refers to the grains of quartz and feldspar that define granite. This one is from the Barre formation in Vermont.
Image shows a woman in a green coat working with a drill core
June 3, 2016
USGS scientist Sarah Hawkins, lead scientist for the Mancos Shale assessment, examining a core drilled by the USGS Core Research Center. This core provided valuable data for the assessment. Image credit: Joshua Hicks, USGS.
Filter Total Items: 91
Image shows a map with an aerial image of the study site beneath it
May 9, 2016

These are the first published studies to demonstrate water-quality impacts to a surface stream due to activities at an unconventional oil and gas wastewater deep well injection disposal site.

Image shows gold-bearing veins of quartz
May 6, 2016

Happy Mother's Day from EarthWords!

collage of scientists conducting science related to each mission are
April 12, 2016

The fourth volume of the comprehensive history of the U.S. Geological Survey, Minerals, Lands, and Geology for the Common Defence and General Welfare: Volume 4, 1939‒1961, has been issued as an electronic document.

USGS science for a changing world logo
March 30, 2016

Scientists studying rare earth and critical elements now have a solid foundation for future research, as detailed in a special volume of the Society of Economic Geologists. This review volume, featuring several papers authored and co-authored by the U.S. Geological Survey, provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge for rare earth and critical elements in ore deposits.

USGS science for a changing world logo
March 23, 2016

The Central Asia Salt Basin of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan has the potential to contain between 39 and 54 billion metric tons of undiscovered potash resources, according to a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Known potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin consist of 1.63 billion metric tons.

USGS science for a changing world logo
February 17, 2016

The ongoing resource, climate, hazards and environmental issues of the United States are addressed in a new U.S. Geological Survey product, providing an overview of the USGS Mineral Resources Program's multidisciplinary science.

A piece of limonite, an ore of iron.
February 15, 2016

The naturally occurring material from which a mineral or minerals of economic value can be extracted. Usually minerals, especially metals, are mined first in ore form, then refined later.

USGS science for a changing world logo
February 9, 2016

WASHINGTON—The President’s fiscal year (FY) 2017 budget request for the U.S. Geological Survey reflects the USGS's vital role in addressing some of the most pressing challenges of the 21st Century by advancing scientific discovery and innovation.

Publication Cover for Public Access to USGS Research
February 8, 2016

The U.S. Geological Survey is implementing new measures that will improve public access to USGS-funded science as detailed in its new public access plan.

Collage of photos related to Rare-earth elements (REEs)
January 28, 2016

In 2015, United States mines produced an estimated $78.3 billion of mineral raw materials—down 3percent from $80.8 billion in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey announced today in its Mineral Commodity Summaries 2016.

Image: Brown Bats with White Nose Syndrome
January 19, 2016

FORT COLLINS, Colorado – Reports of bat deaths worldwide due to human causes largely unique to the 21st century are markedly rising, according to a new USGS-led analysis published in Mammal Review.

Alaska Geologic Map
January 5, 2016

ANCHORAGE, Alaska – A new digital geologic map of Alaska is being released today providing land users, managers and scientists geologic information for the evaluation of land use in relation to resource extraction, conservation, natural hazards and recreation.