Mission Areas

Energy and Minerals

Mission Areas L2 Landing Page Tabs

Filter Total Items: 521
Year Published: 2016

Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater...

Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.
Wynn, Jeff, Orris, G.J., Dunlap, Pamela, Cocker, M.D., and Bliss, J.D., 2016, Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report SIR 2010–5090–AA, 106 p., and spatial data, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20105090AA.

Year Published: 2016

Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12

Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge,...

Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.

Year Published: 2016

Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are...

Collins, Brian; Stock, Greg M.
Collins, B.D. and Stock, G.M., 2016, Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures, Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, pp. 395-401, doi:10.1038/ngeo2686.

Year Published: 2016

Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic...

Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.
Qiu, K.F., Deng, J., Taylor, R.D., Song, K.R., Song, Y.H., Li, Q.Z., and Goldfarb, R.J., 2016, Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian orogenic belt, NW China: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 122, p. 20-40.

Year Published: 2016

Slow-moving and far-travelled dense pyroclastic flows during the Peach Spring super-eruption

Explosive volcanic super-eruptions of several hundred cubic kilometres or more generate long run-out pyroclastic density currents the dynamics of which are poorly understood and controversial. Deposits of one such event in the southwestern USA, the 18.8 Ma Peach Spring Tuff, were formed by pyroclastic flows that travelled >170 km from...

Roche, Olivier; Buesch, David C.; Valentine, Greg A.
Roche, O., Buesch, D.C., and Valentine, G.A., 2016, ​​Slow-moving and far-travelled dense pyroclastic flows during the Peach Spring super-eruption: Nature Communications,​ 7:10890, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10890.

Year Published: 2016

Geologic map of the Sauvie Island quadrangle, Multnomah and Columbia Counties, Oregon, and Clark County, Washington

Introduction The Sauvie Island 7.5' quadrangle is situated in the Puget-Willamette Lowland northwest of downtown Portland, Oreg. This lowland, which extends from Puget Sound to west-central Oregon, is a complex structural and topographic trough between the Coast Range and the Cascade Range. Since late Eocene time, the Cascade Range has been the...

Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim; Cannon, Charles M.
Evarts, R.C., O'Connor, J.E., and Cannon, C.M., 2016, Geologic map of the Sauvie Island quadrangle, Multnomah and Columbia Counties, Oregon, and Clark County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3349, scale 1:24,000, pamphlet 34 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3349.

Year Published: 2016

High-resolution gravity and seismic-refraction surveys of the Smoke Tree Wash area, Joshua Tree National Park, California

We describe high-resolution gravity and seismic refraction surveys acquired to determine the thickness of valley-fill deposits and to delineate geologic structures that might influence groundwater flow beneath the Smoke Tree Wash area in Joshua Tree National Park. These surveys identified a sedimentary basin that is fault-controlled. A profile...

Langenheim, Victoria E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Watt, Janet T.; Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.
Langenheim, V.E., Rymer, M.J., Catchings, R.D., Goldman, M.R., Watt, J.T., Powell, R.E., and Matti, J.C., 2016, High-resolution gravity and seismic-refraction surveys of the Smoke Tree Wash Area, Joshua Tree National Park, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016–1027, 15 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161027.

Year Published: 2016

Thorium as a nuclear fuel: Chapter 10

No abstract available.

Hore-Lacy, Ian; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Tulsidas, Harikrishnan

Year Published: 2016

Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic impacts from Lago Paixban, a perennial wetland in Peten, Guatemala

Analyses of an ~ 6 m sediment core from Lago Paixban in Peten, Guatemala, document the complex evolution of a perennial wetland over the last 10,300 years. The basal sediment is comprised of alluvial/colluvial fill deposited in the early Holocene. The absence of pollen and gastropods in the basal sediments suggests intermittently dry conditions...

Wahl, David B.; Hansen, Richard D.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna; Schreiner, T.
Wahl, D., Hansen, R.D., Byrne, R., Anderson, L., 2015. Holocene Climate Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts from Lago Paixban, a Perennial Wetland in Peten, Guatemala. Global and Planetary Change 138, 70-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.09.011

Year Published: 2016

Structure of the Hat Creek graben region: Implications for the structure of the Hat Creek graben and transfer of right-lateral shear from the Walker Lane north of Lassen Peak, northern California, from gravity and magnetic anomalies

Interpretation of magnetic and new gravity data provides constraints on the geometry of the Hat Creek Fault, the amount of right-lateral offset in the area between Mt. Shasta and Lassen Peak, and confirmation of the influence of pre-existing structure on Quaternary faulting. Neogene volcanic rocks coincide with short-wavelength magnetic anomalies...

Langenheim, Victoria; Jachens, Robert C.; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick
Langenheim, V.E., Jachens, R.C., Muffler, L.P.J., and Clynne, M.A., 2015, Structure of the Hat Creek graben region: Implications for the structure of the Hat Creek graben and transfer of right-lateral shear from the Walker Lane north of Lassen Peak, northern California, from gravity and magnetic anomalies: Geosphere, v. 12, no. 3, 19 p.

Year Published: 2016

Wetting and drying of soil in response to precipitation: Data analysis, modeling, and forecasting

This paper investigates methods to analyze and forecast soil moisture time series. We extend an existing Antecedent Water Index (AWI) model, which expresses soil moisture as a function of time and rainfall. Unfortunately, the existing AWI model does not forecast effectively for time periods beyond a few hours. To overcome this limitation, we...

Basak, Aniruddha; Kulkarni, Chinmay; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Mengshoel, Ole

Year Published: 2016

Book review: Mineral resource estimation

Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools...

Mihalasky, Mark J.

Filter Total Items: 81
Image shows a USGS scientist leaning against a rock outcropping with trees in the background
2015 (approx.)
Geologist and cataclastic shear zones in the Melozitna granite in the Ruby batholith. This granite contains abundant monazite and high levels of thorium and rare earth elements. The shear zones accelerate erosion of the granite into streams, where the monazite that contains the rare earth elements can be concentrated. This area is part of the Bureau of Land Management's Central Yukon Planning...
Image shows a woman sitting on a rock in a stream
2015 (approx.)
A USGS geologist pans for monazite and rare earth minerals in Wolf Creek, which cuts through the Melozitna granite. This area is part of the Bureau of Land Management's Central Yukon Planning Area, which USGS did a mineral assessment of in 2015.
Image shows sand in a hand
2015 (approx.)
Frac sands used in unconventional oil and gas development.
October 21, 2015
Elliott Barnhart, a hydrologist with the USGS Wyoming-Montana Water Science Center, describes his work developing what could be a cleaner way to develop coal.
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 16, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 16, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
A vehicle is shown at night, with its trunk open and floodlights on
September 16, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 16, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 16, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 16, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 14, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Image shows USGS scientists standing beside a drill rig in protective gear.
September 14, 2015
USGS scientists drilling a research core near Waco, Texas. This core was drilled by USGS during field work for an oil and gas assessment for the Eagle Ford of the Gulf Coast Basins. Cores like these provide information on the various rock layers, such as their make-up, their age, etc. The USGS assesses undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for the onshore United States and...
Filter Total Items: 98
Map: Area of Uranium Assessment in Texas
December 2, 2015

The uranium oxide is located in sandstone formations throughout the South Texas Coastal Plain, which borders the Gulf of Mexico. The area has long been known to contain uranium, and two mines are currently in operation, with a number of companies actively exploring for uranium.

Map of Undiscovered Cooper Estimate in the Middle East
November 18, 2015

More than 180 million metric tons of undiscovered copper resources may be found in an area of the Middle East that covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, western Pakistan and southwestern Afghanistan, according to a recent assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey.

USGS science for a changing world logo
November 3, 2015

On average, streams in the Niobrara-Mowry Play of eastern Wyoming, Fayetteville Play of Arkansas, and Barnett Play of Texas ranked most vulnerable to unconventional oil and gas development, but for different reasons, according to recent U.S. Geological Survey coauthored research.

USGS science for a changing world logo
October 14, 2015

Many grassland bird species in the Bakken shale region, including some seriously declining populations, are displaced from their habitats as a result of oil and gas development, according to new U.S. Geological Survey research.

Aerial view of the Grabens, Canyonlands National Park
October 12, 2015

A graben is a piece of Earth’s crust that is shifted downward in comparison to adjacent crust known as “horsts,” which are shifted upward.

Map of San Joaquin Basin Province
October 6, 2015

The Monterey Formation in the deepest parts of California’s San Joaquin Basin contains an estimated mean volumes of 21 million barrels of oil, 27 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids, according to the first USGS assessment of continuous (unconventional), technically recoverable resources in the Monterey Formation.

An image of calcite.
September 21, 2015

The process in which magnesium is removed from the mineral dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) leaving behind the minerals calcite (calcium carbonate) and periclase (magnesium oxide.)

Image: Moon over Half Dome
September 7, 2015

Despite sounding like something out of Harry Potter, a batholith is a type of igneous rock that forms when magma rises into the earth’s crust, but does not erupt onto the surface. The magma cools beneath the earth’s surface, forming a rock structure that extends at least one hundred square kilometers across (40 square miles), and extends to an unknown depth.

Side by side comparison of a malformed and normal chitinozoan specimen
August 31, 2015

Toxic metals such as iron, lead and arsenic may have helped cause mass extinctions in the world’s oceans millions of years ago, according to recent research from the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Center for Scientific Research, France; and Ghent University, Belgium.

The USGS streamgage on Cement Creek at Silverton, Colorado, measures continuous stream stage and discharge. Cement Creek is part
August 20, 2015

On August 5, while investigating the Gold King Mine in southwestern Colorado, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency accidentally triggered the release of approximately three million gallons of acidic, metal-rich mine wastewater from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek, a tributary of the Animas River.

collage of scientists conducting science related to each mission are
August 10, 2015

ANCHORAGE, Alaska — In the 20th century, Baranof Island in Southeastern Alaska has drawn attention for its gold, chrome and nickel deposits, timber industry, potential activity of the dormant Mount Edgecumbe volcano, and for numerous commercially developed hot springs.

Map showing percentage of hydraulic fracturing water use
June 30, 2015

The amount of water required to hydraulically fracture oil and gas wells varies widely across the country, according to the first national-scale analysis and map of hydraulic fracturing water usage detailed in a new USGS study accepted for publication in Water Resources Research, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.