Mission Areas

Energy and Minerals

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Filter Total Items: 584
Year Published: 2016

Structure of the Hat Creek graben region: Implications for the structure of the Hat Creek graben and transfer of right-lateral shear from the Walker Lane north of Lassen Peak, northern California, from gravity and magnetic anomalies

Interpretation of magnetic and new gravity data provides constraints on the geometry of the Hat Creek Fault, the amount of right-lateral offset in the area between Mt. Shasta and Lassen Peak, and confirmation of the influence of pre-existing structure on Quaternary faulting. Neogene volcanic rocks coincide with short-wavelength magnetic anomalies...

Langenheim, Victoria; Jachens, Robert C.; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick
Langenheim, V.E., Jachens, R.C., Muffler, L.P.J., and Clynne, M.A., 2015, Structure of the Hat Creek graben region: Implications for the structure of the Hat Creek graben and transfer of right-lateral shear from the Walker Lane north of Lassen Peak, northern California, from gravity and magnetic anomalies: Geosphere, v. 12, no. 3, 19 p.

Year Published: 2016

Wetting and drying of soil in response to precipitation: Data analysis, modeling, and forecasting

This paper investigates methods to analyze and forecast soil moisture time series. We extend an existing Antecedent Water Index (AWI) model, which expresses soil moisture as a function of time and rainfall. Unfortunately, the existing AWI model does not forecast effectively for time periods beyond a few hours. To overcome this limitation, we...

Basak, Aniruddha; Kulkarni, Chinmay; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Mengshoel, Ole

Year Published: 2016

Book review: Mineral resource estimation

Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools...

Mihalasky, Mark J.

Year Published: 2016

Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile...

Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.
Dusel-Bacon, C., Bacon, C.R., O’Sullivan, P.B., and Day, W.C., 2016, Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.53, p. 260–280, dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2015-0138. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/cjes-2015-0138

Year Published: 2016

A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study

The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered...

Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

Year Published: 2016

Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding...

Collins, Brian; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye; Fairley, Helen C.; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin
Collins, B. D., Bedford, D. R., Corbett, S. C., Cronkite-Ratcliff, C., and Fairley, H. C. (2016) Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 41(7): 899–917. doi: 10.1002/esp.3874.

Year Published: 2016

Reconnaissance sediment budget for selected watersheds of West Maui, Hawai‘i

Episodic runoff brings suspended sediment to the nearshore waters of West Maui, Hawaiʻi. Even small rainfalls create visible plumes over a few hours. We used mapping, field experiments, and analysis of recent (July 19–20, 2014) and historic rainfall to estimate sources of land-based pollution for two watersheds in West Maui: Honolua, and...

Stock, Jonathan D.; Falinski, Kim A.; Callender, Tova
Stock, J.D., Falinksi, K.A., Callender, T., 2015, Reconnaissance sediment budget for selected watersheds of West Maui, Hawai‘i: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1190, 42 p., http://www.dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151190.

Year Published: 2016

Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California

Paleomagnetic study of cores from six deep wells provides an independent temporal framework for much of the alluvial stratigraphy of the Quaternary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley. This stratigraphy consists of 8 upward-fining cycles in the upper 300 m of section and an underlying 150 m or more of largely fine-grained sediment. The eight...

Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.

Year Published: 2016

Copper speciation in variably toxic sediments at the Ely Copper Mine, Vermont, United States

At the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Cu concentrations exceed background values in both streamwater (160–1200 times) and sediments (15–79 times). Previously, these sediment samples were incubated with laboratory test organisms, and they exhibited variable toxicity for different stream sites. In this study we combined bulk- and...

Kimball, Bryn E.; Foster, Andrea L.; Seal II, Robert R. ; Piatak, Nadine M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

Year Published: 2016

Analysis and interpretation of stress indicators in deviated wells of the Coso Geothermal Field

Characterizing the tectonic stress field is an integral part of the development of hydrothermal systems and especially for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). With a well characterized stress field the propensity of fault slip on faults with known location and orientation can be identified. Faults that are critically oriented for faulting with...

Schoenball, Martin; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Davatzes, Nicholas C.
Schoenball, M., Glen, J. M. G., & Davatzes, N. C. (2016). Analysis and Interpretation of Stress Indicators in Deviated Wells of the Coso Geothermal Field. In 41st Workshop on Geiothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford, California.

Year Published: 2016

Regional and local correlations of feldspar geochemistry of the Peach Spring Tuff, Alvord Mountain, California

The chemical composition of feldspar grains in an ignimbrite from the Spanish Canyon Formation in the Alvord Mountain area, California, have been used to confirm similarities in three measured sections locally, and they are similar to exposures of the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) regionally. Feldspar grains were identified on the basis of texture (...

Buesch, David C.

Filter Total Items: 110
Image shows a sample of lignite on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
A sample of lignite, the lowest rank of coal. It is primarily mined for burning in steam-generation power plants. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of anthracite coal on a rock backdrop
2013 (approx.)
This is anthracite, the highest rank of coal. It is a hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Anthracite is not as commonly mined as other ranks of coal. It played a significant role in Pennsylvania coal during the Industrial Revolution in the United States. Learn more about our...
Image shows a sample of lignite on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
A sample of lignite, the lowest rank of coal. It is primarily mined for burning in steam-generation power plants. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of anthracite coal on a rock backdrop
2013 (approx.)
This is anthracite, the highest rank of coal. It is a hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Anthracite is not as commonly mined as other ranks of coal. It played a significant role in Pennsylvania coal during the Industrial Revolution in the United States. Learn more about our...
Image shows a sample of peacock coal against a rock background
2013 (approx.)
This sample is of peacock coal. Peacock coal is not a specific class of coal, but rather the name for an effect in which oxidizing materials in the coal create a dazzling array of colors on the surface of the coal. Usually it is short-lived, as the material fully oxidizes away shortly after exposed to air. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/...
Image shows a sample of clinker on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
Clinker coal is the result of a seam of coal catching fire and burning so hot that it baked surrounding rock layers into brick-like formations. Some of the most famous clinker formations in the United States can be seen at the Theodore Roosevel National Park in North Dakota. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of clinker on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
Clinker coal is the result of a seam of coal catching fire and burning so hot that it baked surrounding rock layers into brick-like formations. Some of the most famous clinker formations in the United States can be seen at the Theodore Roosevel National Park in North Dakota. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of lignite on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
A sample of lignite, the lowest rank of coal. It is primarily mined for burning in steam-generation power plants. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of bituminous coal on a rock backdrop
2013 (approx.)
This sample is of bituminous coal, a middle rank coal (between subbituminous and anthracite) formed by additional pressure and heat on lignite. Usually has a high Btu value and may be referred to as "soft coal." Read more about USGS coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of peat against a rock background
2013 (approx.)
Peat is the precursor to coal. It's made up of decayed plant materials or other organic matter that, over time, can undergo heat and pressure to become lignite. Read more about our coal resources here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of clinker on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
Clinker coal is the result of a seam of coal catching fire and burning so hot that it baked surrounding rock layers into brick-like formations. Some of the most famous clinker formations in the United States can be seen at the Theodore Roosevel National Park in North Dakota. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Image shows a sample of cannel coal on a rock background
2013 (approx.)
Cannel coal is a type of bituminous coal that is also sometimes referred to as a type of oil shale. It's name likely came from the word " candle ." Cannel coal was once used as a source for kerosene. Read more about our coal research here: https://energy.usgs.gov/Coal/AssessmentsandData/CoalAssessments.aspx
Filter Total Items: 111
Map showing percentage of hydraulic fracturing water use
June 30, 2015

The amount of water required to hydraulically fracture oil and gas wells varies widely across the country, according to the first national-scale analysis and map of hydraulic fracturing water usage detailed in a new USGS study accepted for publication in Water Resources Research, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.

collage of scientists conducting science related to each mission are
June 19, 2015

SPOKANE, Wash. — Significant amounts of undiscovered copper may be present in northeast Asia according to a new U.S. Geological Survey report. USGS scientists evaluated the potential for copper in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in Russia and northeastern China as part of a global mineral resource assessment.

USGS science for a changing world logo
June 8, 2015

North America may have once been attached to Australia, according to research just published in Lithosphere and spearheaded by U.S. Geological Survey geologist James Jones and his colleagues at Bucknell University and Colorado School of Mines.

Image: Ordovician Fracking Sand
May 27, 2015

Newly released research from the U.S. Geological Survey describes U.S. hydraulic fracturing (frac) sand deposits and their locations, and provides estimates of frac sand production, consumption, and reserves. A companion map of producing and potential frac sand and resin-coated sand source units in the conterminous U.S. is also included.

collage of scientists conducting science related to each mission are
May 14, 2015

USGS has released a preliminary methodology to assess the population level impacts of onshore wind energy development on birds and bats. This wind energy impacts assessment methodology is the first of its kind, evaluating national to regional scale impacts of those bats and birds that breed in and migrate through the United States.

collage of scientists conducting science related to each mission are
May 12, 2015

The latest coal resource assessment of the Powder River Basin showcases the newly revised USGS’ assessment methodology, which, for the first time, includes an estimate of the reserve base for the entire basin.

USGS science for a changing world logo
May 12, 2015

Mining companies, land managers, and regulators now have a wealth of tools to aid in reducing potential mining impacts even before the mine gets started. USGS and various research partners released a special edition of papers specifically targeted at providing modern environmental effect research for modern mining techniques.

Marcellus Shale Storage Tanks
May 11, 2015

In a study of 13 hydraulically fractured shale gas wells in north-central Pennsylvania, USGS researchers found that the microbiology and organic chemistry of the produced waters varied widely from well to well.

Map of basement domains
April 23, 2015

A map showing the many different pieces of Earth’s crust that comprise the nation’s geologic basement is now available from the U.S. Geological Survey.

USGS science for a changing world logo
April 7, 2015

The important mining industries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone were able to largely maintain their operations during the deadly 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey.

USGS science for a changing world logo
March 31, 2015

Cuba is among the top 10 producers of cobalt and nickel and has significant other mineral and petroleum resources, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey publication.

collage of scientists conducting science related to each mission are
March 30, 2015

SPOKANE, Wash. — A new U.S. Geological Survey report covering major parts of the world’s largest mountain belt in central Asia estimates the existence of about five times as much copper in undiscovered deposits as has been identified to date. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s.