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Major and EDXRF Trace Element Chemical Analyses of Volcanic Rocks from Lassen Volcanic National Park and Vicinity, California
This open-file report presents WDXRF major-element chemical data for late Pliocene to Holocene volcanic rocks collected from Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California. Data for Rb, Sr, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu obtained by EDXRF are included for many samples. Data are presented in an EXCEL spreadsheet and are keyed to rock...Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Siems, D.F.; Taggart, J.E.; Bruggman, Peggy
Publications of the Volcano Hazards Program 2006
The Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Geologic Hazards Assessments subactivity as funded by Congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out in the Geology and Hydrology Disciplines of the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of...Nathenson, Manuel
Chemical Analyses of Pre-Holocene Rocks from Medicine Lake Volcano and Vicinity, Northern California
Chemical analyses are presented in an accompanying table (Table 1) for more than 600 pre-Holocene rocks collected at and near Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California. The data include major-element X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses for all of the rocks plus XRF trace element data for most samples, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (...Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.
Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park
This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc...Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.
Converting NAD83 GPS Heights Into NAVD88 Elevations With LVGEOID, a Hybrid Geoid Height Model for the Long Valley Volcanic Region, California
A GPS survey of leveling benchmarks done in Long Valley Caldera in 1999 showed that the application of the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) geoid model GEOID99 to tie GPS heights to historical leveling measurements would significantly underestimate the caldera ground deformation (known from other geodetic measurements). The NGS geoid model was able...Battaglia, Maurizio; Dzurisin, Daniel; Langbein, John; Svarc, Jerry; Hill, David P.
Volcan Baru: Eruptive History and Volcano-Hazards Assessment
Volcan Baru is a potentially active volcano in western Panama, about 35 km east of the Costa Rican border. The volcano has had four eruptive episodes during the past 1,600 years, including its most recent eruption about 400?500 years ago. Several other eruptions occurred in the prior 10,000 years. Several seismic swarms in the 20th century and a...Sherrod, David R.; Vallance, James W.; Tapia Espinosa, Arkin; McGeehin, John P.
Constraints and conundrums resulting from ground-deformation measurements made during the 2004-2005 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 14 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
A prolonged period of dome growth at Mount St. Helens starting in September-October 2004 provides an opportunity to study how the volcano deforms before, during, and after an eruption by using modern instruments and techniques, such as global positioning system (GPS) receivers and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), together...Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Poland, Michael P.; Sherrod, David R.; LaHusen, Richard G.
Timing of degassing and plagioclase growth in lavas erupted from Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, from 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria: Chapter 37 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
Disequilibrium between 210Po, 210Pb, and 226Ra was measured on rocks and plagioclase mineral separates erupted during the first year of the ongoing eruption of Mount St. Helens. The purpose of this study was to monitor the volatile fluxing and crystal growth that occurred in the weeks, years, and decades leading up to eruption. Whole-rock...Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Reagan, Mark K.; Cooper, Kari M.; Pallister, John S.; Thornber, Carl R.; Wortel, Matthew
238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria in dacite and plagioclase from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens: Chapter 36 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
Uranium-series disequilibria in whole-rock samples and mineral separates provide unique insights into the time scales and processes of magma mixing, storage, and crystallization. We present 238U- 230Th-226Ra data for whole-rock dacite and gouge samples and for plagioclase separated from two dacite samples, all erupted from Mount St. Helens...Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Cooper, Kari M.; Donnelly, Carrie T.
Trace element and Pb isotope composition of plagioclase from dome samples from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 35 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
We report the results of in-situ laser ablation ICP–MS analyses of anorthite content, trace-element (Li, Ti, Sr, Ba, La, Pr, Ce, Nd, Eu, Pb) concentrations, and Pb-isotope compositions in plagioclase from eight dome-dacite samples collected from the 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens and, for comparison, from three dome samples from 1981-85...Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.
Constraints on the size, overpressure, and volatile content of the Mount St. Helens magma system from geodetic and dome-growth measurements during the 2004-2006+ eruption: Chapter 22 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
During the ongoing eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, lava has extruded continuously at a rate that decreased from ~7-9 m3 /s in October 2004 to 1-2 m3 /s by December 2005. The volume loss in the magma reservoir estimated from the geodetic data, 1.6-2.7×10 7 m3 , is only a few tens of percent of the 7.5×10 7 m3 volume that had...Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Mastin, Larry G.; Roeloffs, Evelyn; Beeler, Nick M.; Quick, James E.
Plagioclase populations and zoning in dacite of the 2004-2005 Mount St. Helens eruption: constraints for magma origin and dynamics: Chapter 34 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
We investigated plagioclase phenocrysts in dacite of the 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens to gain insights into the magmatic processes of the current eruption, which is characterized by prolonged, nearly solid-state extrusion, low gas emission, and shallow seismicity. In addition, we investigated plagioclase of 1980-86 dacite. Light and...Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Streck, Martin J.; Broderick, Cindy A.; Thronber, Carl R.; Clynne, Michael A.; Pallister, John S.
The first priority of any eruption is to assess current status and what might happen next. To accomplish this, Mount St. Helens became one of most heavily monitored volcanoes. At the start of the 2004–08 eruption, 13 permanent seismic stations operated within about 12 miles of Mount St. Helens. By the end of the eruption, the seismic network consisted of 20 stations. Several temporary stations...
Throughout the eruption, scientists installed monitoring stations to track volcanic activity, deployed temporary monitoring ""spiders"", monitored the temperature of lava spines and created time-lapse of dome growth. During the 3+ years of the eruption, lava piled up to form a new dome 460 m (1,500 ft) high. The 92 million cubic meters (121 million cubic yards, or 36,800 Olympic swimming pools...
Events that occurred in the crater during the 2004–2008 eruption were recorded by a network of seven remote, telemetered digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras installed on the crater floor and rim. The resulting time lapse images constitute a valuable and visually compelling record of dome growth and the resulting response of Crater Glacier. The fixed cameras that telemetered images...
Lava spines continue to emerge onto the crater floor of Mount St. Helens in 2005. By April 2005, spine 4 is broken and pushed away by spine 5. The nearly vertical spine 5 has a smooth, gouge-covered surface, growing at an average rate of 4.3 meters per day. Scientists continue helicopter overflights to measure the temperature of the lava dome and assess hazards from dome collapse.
Growth and disintegration of lava spines continued at Mount St. Helens through the first 8 months of 2005. Rather than building a single dome-shaped structure, the new dome grew initially as a series of recumbent, smoothly surfaced spines that extruded to lengths of almost 500 m. The potential for unpredictable explosions induced decisions to minimize the exposure of field crews so most new...
Within the crater of Mount St. Helens, the 2004–2008 lava dome grew by continuous extrusion of degassed lava spines. To track growth and anticipate what the volcano might do next, scientists installed monitoring equipment, including a camera and gas sensing instruments, and made helicopter overflights to collect the temperature (FLIR) of the growing dome.
Compilation video of significant events from the dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, from October 1, 2004 to March 15, 2005, including steam and ash eruptions, growth of lava spines, helicopter deployment of monitoring equipment, collection of lava samples, and FLIR thermal imaging of rock collapse on lava dome.
- Eruption of Mount St. Helens, October 1, 2004 (00:12) ...
By late October 2004, a whaleback-shaped extrusion of solid lava (called a spine) emerged from Mount St. Helens' crater floor. The 2004–2008 lava dome grew by continuous extrusion of degassed lava spines that had mostly solidified at less than 1 km (0.62 mi) beneath the surface. Scientists deployed monitoring equipment and made visual observations to assess the hazards from the eruption during...
Following unrest that began on September 23, 2004 and the steam and ash eruptions in early October, extrusion of solid magma typified the 2004-2008 eruption at Mount St. Helens. The magma is unusually gas poor and crystal rich. Several meters of pulverized, variably sintered rock commonly coat the emergent lava spines, lending them a smooth appearance. Other spines have broken apart to...
On October 11, 2004, spines of solid, but still hot, lava punctured the surface of the deformed glacier, initiating a new dome-building phase of activity in the crater of Mount St. Helens. By late October, a larger whaleback-shaped extrusion of solid lava (called a spine) emerged from the crater floor. During the 3+ years of the eruption a series of hot, solid, smooth-sided lava spines rose...