Programs L2 Landing Page
Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9
Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and...Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.
Crisis GIS--Preparing for and responding to volcanic eruptions in the United StatesRamsey, D.W.; Robinson, J.E.; Schilling, S. P.; Schaefer, J.R.; Trusdell, Frank A.
Modeling the dynamic response of a crater glacier to lava-dome emplacement: Mount St Helens, Washington, USA
The debris-rich glacier that grew in the crater of Mount St Helens after the volcano's cataclysmic 1980 eruption was split in two by a new lava dome in 2004. For nearly six months, the eastern part of the glacier was squeezed against the crater wall as the lava dome expanded. Glacier thickness nearly doubled locally and surface speed increased...Price, Stephen F.; Walder, Joseph S.
Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcano-tectonic system-Campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987-2004
The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain tectonomagmatic province resulted from Late Tertiary volcanism in western North America, producing three large, caldera-forming eruptions at the Yellowstone Plateau in the last 2 Myr. To understand the kinematics and geodynamics of this volcanic system, the University of Utah conducted seven GPS campaigns at 140...Puskas, C.M.; Smith, R.B.; Meertens, Charles M.; Chang, W. L.
A user-friendly one-dimensional model for wet volcanic plumes
This paper presents a user-friendly graphically based numerical model of one-dimensional steady state homogeneous volcanic plumes that calculates and plots profiles of upward velocity, plume density, radius, temperature, and other parameters as a function of height. The model considers effects of water condensation and ice formation on plume...Mastin, Larry G.
Explosive eruptive record in the Katmai region, Alaska Peninsula: an overview
At least 15 explosive eruptions from the Katmai cluster of volcanoes and another nine from other volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula are preserved as tephra layers in syn- and post-glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) loess and soil sections in Katmai National Park, AK. About 400 tephra samples from 150 measured sections have been collected between...Fierstein, Judy
Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry
The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of...Fournier, R.O.
Late pleistocene and holocene caldera-forming eruptions of Okmok Caldera, Aleutian Islands, AlaskaEichelberger, J.; Gordeev, Evgenii I.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, Minoru; Lees, Jonathan; Larsen, Jessica; Neal, C.; Schaefer, Janet; Beget, J.; Nye, C.
Strombolian explosive styles and source conditions
Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) cameras offer a unique view of explosive volcanism by providing an image of calibrated temperatures. In this study, 344 eruptive events at Stromboli volcano, Italy, were imaged in 2001–2004 with a FLIR camera operating at up to 30 Hz. The FLIR was effective at revealing both ash plumes and coarse...Patrick, Matthew R.; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Ripepe, Maurizio; Dehn, Jonathan; Rothery, David A.; Calvari, Sonia
Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and...Johnston, Malcolm J. S.
This image is from a temporary research camera positioned on the north rim of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, looking into the crater. The current crater is about 250 m (~275 yds) across.
The webcams are operational 24/7 and faithfully record the dark of night if there are no sources of incandescence or other lights. Thermal webcams record heat rather than light and get...
This image is from a temporary thermal camera positioned on the northwest flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, looking southeast at Puʻu ʻŌʻō's summit crater. The temperature scale is in degrees Celsius up to a maximum of 500 degrees (932 degrees Fahrenheit) for this camera model, and scales automatically based on the maximum and minimum temperatures within the frame. Thick fume, image pixel size and other...
This image is from a research camera positioned on the northwest flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, looking northeast toward the active flow field.
The webcams are operational 24/7 and faithfully record the dark of night if there are no sources of incandescence or other lights. Thermal webcams record heat rather than light and get better views through volcanic gas....
There is a known issue with the timestamp on images from this camera: they are an hour ahead. AVO is working on a solution for this problem. This camera is co-located with seismic station BLHA, and looks southwest to Pavlof. Read more about Pavlof volcano.
This image is from a temporary research camera positioned just south of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, looking north at the southern flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō's cone.
The webcams are operational 24/7 and faithfully record the dark of night if there are no sources of incandescence or other lights. Thermal webcams record heat rather than light and get better views through volcanic...
The Pavlof team (Ketner/Wech/Wellik) activated a new camera at station DOL on Tuesday (July 4). This camera looks north and provides good coverage of the volcanic complex in this region. Read more about Pavlof volcano.
This image is from a temporary research camera positioned northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, on Puʻu Halulu, looking southwest toward the northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō.
The webcams are operational 24/7 and faithfully record the dark of night if there are no sources of incandescence or other lights. Thermal webcams record heat rather than light and get better views...
Camera is located at Whale Mountain, showing a flank of Peulik, Becharof Lake, the Gas Rocks, and Chiginagak in the distance. Current image interval is 60 minutes. This camera lens is often covered by snow and ice.