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Illinois

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The USGS Central Midwest Water Science Center collects, analyzes and disseminates the impartial hydrologic data and information needed to wisely and effectively manage water resources in Illinois. Our scientific research affects current issues ranging from flood and drought hazards to the impact and control of invasive species.

Link to Science Center

News

Illinois Department of Natural Resources, logo
February 28, 2019

The Effect of Environmental Changes on Prey Fish in Lake Michigan.

CGG RESOLVE in flight
October 25, 2018

Editor:  In the public interest and in accordance with Federal Aviation Administration regulations, the USGS is announcing this low-level airborne project.  Your assistance informing the local communities is appreciated.  

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USGS Gage 05447500 Green River near Geneseo, Illinois
Date Published: March 18, 2019
Status: Active

Illinois Nutrient Monitoring Sites

Eight nutrient monitoring stations were established in 2015 to continuously monitor nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in support of the Illinois Nutrient Loss Reduction Strategy.  This site provides current and historical monitoring information for the eight nutrient monitoring stations.

Contacts: Paul J Terrio
2017 Midwest Spring Floods
Date Published: February 26, 2019
Status: Completed

2017 Midwest Spring Floods

Learn more about USGS flood activities related to the 2017 Midwest Spring Floods that occurred across large portions of Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Arkansas in late April and early May, 2017.

Measuring floodwater
Date Published: February 26, 2019
Status: Archived

Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring During December 2015-January 2016 Flood Events

During the late December 2015-early January 2016 storm event, two sewage-treatment plants and a drinking-water plant in Missouri were inundated by water and failed, contributing untreated sewage to the floodwaters. The USGS collected water-quality samplesat key locations in the Mississippi and Missouri River Basins and continued to sample the flood surge as it moved down the Mississippi River...

May-June 2013 Midwest floods
Date Published: February 25, 2019
Status: Completed

May-June 2013 Midwest Floods

Learn more about USGS flood activities related to the May-June 2013 Midwest Floods.

April-May 2013 Midwest floods
Date Published: February 25, 2019
Status: Completed

April-May 2013 Midwest Floods

Learn more about USGS flood activities related to the April-May 2013 Midwest Floods caused by heavy rainfall and late snow-melt in six states.

Summer 2011 Mississippi River flood
Date Published: February 25, 2019
Status: Completed

Spring/Summer 2011 Mississippi River Basin Floods

Learn more about USGS flood activities related to the Spring/Summer 2011 floods throughout the Mississippi River Basin.

New Madrid Floodway - before and after 2011 breach
Date Published: February 25, 2019
Status: Completed

May 2011 New Madrid Floodway

Learn more about USGS flood activities related to the May 2011 New Madrid Floodway breaches.

Canoe coring platform in Potomac River
Date Published: November 28, 2018
Status: Active

Natural Drought and Flood Histories from Lacustrine Archives

Previous work performed as part of the USGS Holocene Synthesis project illuminated complex centennial-scale patterns of drought and wetter-than-average conditions across the North American continent interior during the past two millennia, where paleorecord data coverage is sparse.  In order to explain the patterns of naturally-occurring drought, floods, and storms for the past, identified by...

Sediment Acoustics
Date Published: October 17, 2018
Status: Active

Sediment Acoustics- Molly Wood

Acoustic instruments are increasingly being used to measure suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in fluvial environments. The USGS Office of Surface Water, USGS Sediment Acoustics Leadership Team, and the Federal Interagency Sedimentation Project are developing standardized methods and software for estimating SSC from acoustic backscatter from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs).

Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) for measuring complex flows
Date Published: October 16, 2018
Status: Active

Large-scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) for Measuring Complex Flows- Frank Engel

Valuable hydraulic data such as water levels, estimates of discharge, inundated areas, etc., can be extracted from photos and movies taken by engineers and scientists that can be used to help improve the analysis and understanding of flood hazards.

Photo of Chicago Skyline at nightime
Date Published: September 27, 2018
Status: Active

Data for Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Near Lemont, IL

Approved Mean Annual Discharge

The stream flow monitoring station on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont, Illinois has been in operation since December 7, 2004.  The site is operated in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, Chicago, Illinois.

Link to Approved Mean Annual Discharge...

Wabash River
Date Published: September 27, 2018
Status: Active

Illinois Water Conditions Summary Table

A water conditions summary table that includes historical and current river stage data and combines National Weather Service forecast river stages for stream-monitoring sites in Illinois is available. The table is updated every 30 minutes and the stream-monitoring sites are operated by various agencies. River stages above flood stage are shown in red to help monitor flooding conditions. ...

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Web Application
/data-tools/national-water-information-system-nwis-mapper

National Water Information System (NWIS) Mapper

NWIS Mapper screenshot
March 5, 2019

The NWIS mapper provides access to over 1.5 million sites contained in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), including sites where current and historical surface-water, groundwater, springs, and atmospheric data has been collected. Users can search by site type, data type, site number, or place.

Real-time Data
/data-tools/annual-water-data-reports-iowa-illinois-and-missouri

Annual Water Data Reports - Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri

Water Data Reports for Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina
October 5, 2018

Beginning with Water Year 2006 and ending with Water Year 2013, annual water data reports were made available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. As of 2014, NWISWeb now provides an on-demand, print-ready Water-Year Summary as an annual water-data product.

Science Datasets
/data-tools/long-term-trends-midwestern-milkweeds-and-their-relevance-monarchs

Long-term Trends in Midwestern Milkweeds and their Relevance for Monarchs

USGS science for a changing world
September 11, 2017

This is the dataset used in the BioScience publication of the same name.

Water
/data-tools/national-water-information-system-web-interface-nwisweb-0

National Water Information System web interface (NWISweb)

Application screenshot thumbnail
September 1, 2017

The National Water Information System (NWIS) web application provides access to real-time and historical surface-water, groundwater, water-quality, and water-use data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites across all 50 states.

GIS Data
/data-tools/structures-data

Structures Data

Structure datasets for the nation from The National Map
April 20, 2016

USGS data portray selected structures data, including the location and characteristics of manmade facilities. Characteristics consist of a structure's physical form (footprint), function, name, location, and detailed information about the structure. The types of structures collected are largely determined by the needs of the disaster planning and response and homeland security organizations.

GIS Data
/data-tools/boundaries

Boundaries Data

Boundaries datasets for the nation from The National Map.
April 19, 2016

Boundaries data or governmental units represent major civil areas including states, counties, Federal, and Native American lands, and incorporated places such as cities and towns.

GIS Data
/data-tools/hydrography-data

Hydrography Data

Illustration related to the the river corridor
April 19, 2016

The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) are used to portray surface water on The National Map.

GIS Data
/data-tools/united-states-interagency-elevation-inventory-usiei

The United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

3D Lidar Point Cloud Image of San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate Bridge
April 19, 2016

The USIEI is a comprehensive, nationwide listing of known high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a collaborative effort of the USGS and NOAA with contributions from other federal agencies. The inventory supports the 3D Elevation Program and the Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping effort. This resource is updated in Spring and Fall.

GIS Data
/data-tools/elevation-data

Elevation Data

Digital Elevation Model in the Atchafalaya Basin, LA
April 19, 2016

The 3DEP products and services available through The National Map consist of lidar point clouds (LPC), standard digital elevation models (DEMs) at various horizontal resolutions, elevation source and associated datasets, an elevation point query service and bulk point query service. All 3DEP products are available, free of charge and without use restrictions.

GIS Data
/data-tools/orthoimagery

Orthoimagery Data

Orthoimagery of Augusta Ga
April 12, 2016

Orthoimagery data typically are high resolution aerial images that combine the visual attributes of an aerial photograph with the spatial accuracy and reliability of a planimetric map. The National Map offers public domain, 1-meter orthoimagery for the conterminous United States with many urban areas and other locations at 2-foot or finer resolution.

GIS Data
/data-tools/national-map-small-scale-collection

The National Map Small-Scale Collection

Small Scale Collection USA
April 12, 2016

The National Map offers a collection of small-scale datasets, most of which are at 1:1,000,000. The National Map publishes two data collections at one million-scale: one for Global Map users and one for National Map users. In terms of vector geometry, the lines, points, and areas in these data collections are identical. The difference is in the attributes assigned to these features.

Science Datasets
/data-tools/long-term-resource-monitoring-program

Long Term Resource Monitoring

Upper Mississippi River Restoration Program
March 4, 2016

This web resource provides decision makers with the information needed to maintain the Upper Mississippi River System as a viable multiple-use large river ecosystem.

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Digital Elevation Model in the Atchafalaya Basin, LA
April 19, 2016

The 3DEP products and services available through The National Map consist of standard digital elevation models (DEMs) at various horizontal resolutions, elevation source and associated datasets, an elevation point query service and bulk point query service. All 3DEP products are available, free of charge and without use restrictions.

Filter Total Items: 47
Year Published: 2018

Using reverse-time egg transport analysis for predicting Asian Carp spawning grounds in the Illinois River

Identifying spawning grounds of Asian carp is important for determining the reproductive front of invasive populations. Ichthyoplankton monitoring along the Illinois Waterway (IWW) has provided information on abundances of Asian carp eggs in the IWW's navigation pools. Post-fertilization times derived from egg development stages and water...

Zhu, Zhenduo; Soong, David T.; Garcia, Tatiana; Behrouz, Mina Shahed; Butler, Steven E.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Diana, Matthew J.; Duncker, James J.; Wahl, David H.
Zhu, Z.D., Soong, D.T., Garcia, T., Behrouz, M.S., Butler, S.E., Murphy, E.A., Diana, M.J., Duncker, J.J., Wahl, D.H., 2018, Using reverse-time egg transport analysis for predicting Asian carp spawning grounds in the Illinois River, Ecological Modeling, V384, September 2018, pp 53-62.

Year Published: 2018

Flooding in the southern Midwestern United States, April–May 2017

Excessive rainfall resulted in flooding on numerous rivers throughout the southern Midwestern United States (southern Midwest) in late April and early May of 2017. The heaviest rainfall, between April 28 and 30, resulted in extensive flooding from eastern Oklahoma to southern Indiana including parts of Missouri, Arkansas, and Illinois.Peak-of-...

Heimann, David C.; Holmes, Robert R.; Harris, Thomas E.
Heimann, D.C., Holmes, R.R., Jr., and Harris, T.E., 2018, Flooding in the southern Midwestern United States, April–May 2017: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1004, 36 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181004.

Year Published: 2018

Development of a hydraulic model and flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois

A two-dimensional hydraulic model and digital flood‑inundation maps were developed for a 30-mile reach of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/...

Boldt, Justin A.
Boldt, J.A., 2018, Development of a hydraulic model and flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5140, 13 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175140.

Year Published: 2018

River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois

Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the...

Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.
Lant, J.G., and Boldt, J.A., 2018, River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5117, 12 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175117.

Year Published: 2016

Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed tests to evaluate the hydrologic connection between the open interval of the well and the surrounding Calumet aquifer in response to fouling of extraction well pumps onsite. Two rounds of air slug testing were performed on seven monitoring wells and step drawdown and subsequent recovery tests on three...

Lampe, David C.; Unthank, Michael D.
Lampe, D.C., and Unthank, M.D., 2016, Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5125, 50 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20165125.

Year Published: 2016

St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any...

Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver S.; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha
Cramer C.H., Bauer R.A., Chung J.-W., Rogers J.D., Pierce L., Voigt V., Mitchell B., Gaunt D., Williams R.A., Hoffman D., Hempen G.L., Steckel P.J., Boyd O.S., Watkins C.M., Tucker K., McCallister N.S. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps Seismological Research Letters, January, 2017, Vol. 88, Issue 1, pp. 206-223

Year Published: 2016

Estimating suspended sediment using acoustics in a fine-grained riverine system, Kickapoo Creek at Bloomington, Illinois

Acoustic technologies have the potential to be used as a surrogate for measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). This potential was examined in a fine-grained (97-100 percent fines) riverine system in central Illinois by way of installation of an acoustic instrument. Acoustic data were collected continuously over the span of 5.5 years....

Manaster, Amanda D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Boldt, Justin A.
Manaster, A.D, Domanski, M.M., Straub, T.D., and Boldt, J.A., 2016, Estimating suspended sediment using acoustics in a fine-grained riverine system on Kickapoo Creek at Bloomington, Illinois: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016–1117, 42 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161117.

Year Published: 2016

Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

The Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs were active over the period 1950–1974. Under these programs, the Federal Government contributed financial assistance in the exploration for certain strategic and critical minerals. The...

Frank, David G.
Frank, D.G., 2016, Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1004, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds1004.

Year Published: 2015

Ground motion-simulations of 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, central United States

We performed a suite of numerical simulations based on the 1811–1812 New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) earthquakes, which demonstrate the importance of 3D geologic structure and rupture directivity on the ground‐motion response throughout a broad region of the central United States (CUS) for these events. Our simulation set consists of 20...

Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Graves, Robert; Olsen, Kim B.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Cramer, Chris H.; Hartzell, Stephen H.; Ni, Sidao; Somerville, Paul G.; Williams, Robert; Zhong, Jinquan

Year Published: 2015

Crustal deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone and the role of postseismic processes

Global Navigation Satellite System data across the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) in the central United States over the period from 2000 through 2014 are analyzed and modeled with several deformation mechanisms including the following: (1) creep on subsurface dislocations, (2) postseismic frictional afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation from the...

Boyd, Oliver S.; Robert Smalley, Jr; Zeng, Yuehua
Boyd, O. S., R. Smalley Jr., and Y. Zeng (2015), Crustal deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone and the role of postseismic processes, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JB012049.

Year Published: 2014

Why the New Madrid earthquakes are M 7–8 and the Charleston earthquake is ∼M 7

Estimates of magnitudes of large historical earthquakes are an essential input to and can seriously affect seismic‐hazard estimates. The earthquake‐intensity observations, modified Mercalli intensities (MMI), and assigned magnitudes Mof the 1811–1812 New Madrid events have been reinterpreted several times in the last decade and have...

Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver S.
Cramer, C. H., and O. S. Boyd (2014), Why the New Madrid Earthquakes are M7–8 and the Charleston Earthquake is ~M7, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 104, 2884–2903, doi:10.1785/0120120257.

Year Published: 2014

Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel picornavirus from baitfish in the USA

During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20) of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni). Following the...

Phelps, Nicholas B.D.; Mor, Sunil K.; Armien, Anibal G.; Batts, William N.; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Hopper, Lacey; McCann, Rebekah; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Puzach, Corey; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Delwart, Eric; Winton, James; Goyal, Sagar M.

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Image from an application that navigates users through USGS National Oil and Gas Assessment Provinces
November 14, 2018

National Oil and Gas Assessment Provinces

This is a graphic from the USGS National Oil and Gas Assessment Explorer application, which allows user to drill into 70 oil and gas assessment provinces throughout the United States.

June 1, 2018

PAMF Participation Cycle

This video describes the annual participation cycle for those enrolled in the Phragmites Adaptive Management Framework (PAMF). PAMF encompasses three annual steps including enrolling, monitoring and managing. As participants employ management actions and submit monitoring reports they will receive management guidance generated by the PAMF model, which provides the most

...
June 1, 2018

PAMF Participation Cycle (Audio-Described)

This video describes the annual participation cycle for those enrolled in the Phragmites Adaptive Management Framework (PAMF). PAMF encompasses three annual steps including enrolling, monitoring and managing. As participants employ management actions and submit monitoring reports they will receive management guidance generated by the PAMF model, which provides the most

...
December 31, 2017

Acoustic Deterrent Emiquon Preserve

James Wamboldt (USGS – La Crosse, WI), Kelsie Murchy (University of Victoria - BC Canada), and Doug Blodgett (The Nature Conservancy- Illinois Rivers Office at Emiquon) testing an underwater acoustic deterrent for Asian Carp at the water control structure located at The Nature Conservancy’s Emiquon Preserve, Lewiston, Illinois in 2017. Underwater speakers were activated in

...
June 15, 2016

The Phragmites Adaptive Management Framework (PAMF)

This is an introductory video to an adaptive management approach for the invasive plant Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes basin. An adaptive management framework is an iterative process of robust decision making aimed at reducing uncertainty over time, for a variety of stakeholders with differing backgrounds and interests, via system monitoring.

October 20, 2015

Timelapse of Brandon Road Lock during USGS Dye Study

This is a timelapse video of a dye tracer study at Brandon Road Lock, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) facility in Joliet, IL, on the Des Plaines River on October 20, 2015. This video was collected using a digital camera mounted on the upstream gates of the lock looking downstream with a 5-second interval between images and played back at 10 frames per second (fps).

...
December 9, 2014

Visualizing Flow Through the Brandon Road Lock & Dam

This video portrays two areas near the Brandon Road Lock and Dam, a US Army Corps of Engineers facility in Joliet, IL. This video was collected as the lock was emptied through the downstream valves, refilled with water, and then emptied again. This data collection is supporting efforts to combat the spread of invasive Asian carp into the Great Lakes Basin. Brandon Road has

...
R/V Sturgeon leaving dock
August 12, 2014

R/V Sturgeon leaving dock at the Navy Pier in Chicago, IL

The R/V Sturgeon setting sail from the Navy Pier in Chicago, IL on its fall survey of Lake Michigan.  The Sturgeon is based in Cheboygan, MI at the Cheboygan Vessel Base.

Large blue pipes convey water from a public-supply well
December 31, 2010

Public-supply well in Illinois

Public-supply wells pump higher volumes of water than domestic-supply wells.  This photo appears in Circular 1352, Water Quality in the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, one of a series of circulars on groundwater quality in the

...
View of bridge and river from webcam

Salt Creek at Wood Dale, IL (05531175)

 

This site is located at Irving Park Road in Wood Dale, Illinois. The time is reported in Central Standard Time and the bridge-pier elevations are referenced to NGVD 1929.

This site is operated in cooperation with the DuPage County, Illinois, Stormwater Management Division

USGS
October 10, 2018

Internship: Large-scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) for...

Large-scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) for Measuring Complex Flows

Summary: Valuable hydraulic data such as water levels, estimates of discharge, inundated areas, etc., can be extracted from photos and movies taken by engineers and scientists that can be used to help improve the analysis and understanding of flood hazards. The objective of this internship is

Filter Total Items: 79
Illinois Department of Natural Resources, logo
February 28, 2019

The Effect of Environmental Changes on Prey Fish in Lake Michigan.

CGG RESOLVE in flight
October 25, 2018

Editor:  In the public interest and in accordance with Federal Aviation Administration regulations, the USGS is announcing this low-level airborne project.  Your assistance informing the local communities is appreciated.  

Photo of a young girl drinking water, which likely originated from groundwater sources. 
December 7, 2017

A regional assessment of untreated groundwater in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, which includes parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri and Indiana, is now available from the U.S. Geological Survey.

Exterior of a municipal water pumping station
December 6, 2017

Oxygen levels, dissolved minerals among factors responsible for high concentrations of radium in untreated water from aquifer that underlies six states

Image shows a geologic map of the Lower 48
August 21, 2017

A carbonatite here, a glacial moraine there, a zig-zagging fault or two, even a behemoth of a batholith. The geology of the 50 States is an enormous patchwork of varied forms, beautiful in their variance but challenging to present as a single map.

Lake Michigan at Sunset
August 16, 2017

Invasive mussels and less nutrients from tributaries have altered the Lake Michigan ecosystem making it more conducive to the stocking of lake trout and steelhead than Chinook salmon, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey and Michigan State University study.

Image of a red dye study conducted in the Brandon Road Lock on the Des Plaines River near Joliet, Illinois, in 2015.
June 6, 2017

U.S. Geological Survey scientists will inject a harmless, bright red fluorescent dye into the auxiliary lock at Locks and Dam 14 on the Mississippi River near Pleasant Valley, Iowa, Tuesday, June 13, 2017, weather permitting. If needed, a backup date is scheduled for June 27, 2017.  

Jumping Silver Carp
April 26, 2017

If invasive bighead carp and silver carp spread into Lake Michigan, there would be enough food available for these particular species of Asian carp to survive, according to a new study by the U.S. Geological Survey.

River with blue reflection, in late summer, leaves just starting to turn from green to gold.
March 2, 2017

Human and bovine, or cattle, viruses were detected in a small percentage of some Great Lakes Basin streams, with human viruses more prevalent in urban streams and bovine viruses more common in streams in agricultural areas, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey-led study.

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