Science Explorer

Exploring: Sinkhole Formation

The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States

Modified 2016-04-28
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160226 (HTML Document 32.47 KB)

Geological Survey has developed and maintains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional ... The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States Hydrogeology ... Journal Eve L. Kuniansky, David J. Weary, and James E. Kaufmann Abstract Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common ... States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee ...

Geologic and anthropogenic factors influencing karst development in the Frederick region of Maryland

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032857 (HTML Document 19.06 KB)

differing susceptibilities of karst feature creation. Although the Triassic Leesburg Member of the Bull Run Formation and Rocky Springs Station Member ... of the Cambrian Frederick Formation have many surface depressions within their outcrop belts, the Lime Kiln Member of the Frederick Formation and the ... Ceresville, Fountain Rock, and Woodsboro members of the Ordovician Grove Formation have the greatest potential for development of catastrophic ... collapse sinkholes. Although these four members have the highest relative susceptibility, human activity can increase the potential for sinkhole activation ...

Identification, prediction, and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033261 (HTML Document 21.69 KB)

sinkhole formation is required to estimate the probability of occurrence of sinkholes (number of sinkholes/km2 year). Such spatial and temporal ... phased approach is needed for sinkhole identification, investigation, prediction, and mitigation. Identification techniques include field surveys and ... geomorphological mapping combined with accounts from local people and historical sources. Detailed sinkhole maps can be constructed from sequential ... data sources make a valuable database-the karst inventory. From this dataset, sinkhole susceptibility zonations (relative probability) may be produced ...

Catastrophic sinkhole formation in Kansas: A case study

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030696 (HTML Document 18.26 KB)

. In most cases, the subsidence rate of a sinkhole represents the most significant potential impact and risk to public safety. Since 1979, the Kansas ... their formation. Most sinkholes in central Kansas form as a result of dissolution of the Permian Hutchinson salt (Figure 1). The fluid source and ...

Geologic controls on the formation of Florida sinkhole lakes

Modified 2012-02-02
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr00294 (HTML Document 15.51 KB)

Open-File Report 2000-294 Series title: Open-File Report Series number: Description: 1 folded sheet (4 p.) :ill. (some col.), col. maps ;28 cm. Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). For best results viewing and printing PDF documents, it is recommended that you download the documents ...

Transport of suspended solids from a karstic to an alluvial aquifer: The role of the karst/alluvium interface

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024436 (HTML Document 20.69 KB)

analyses, SEM, and traces. Transport from the sinkhole to the spring appeared to be dominated by flow through karst: particulate transport was apparently ... infiltrating the sinkhole and of those discharging from the spring. Qualitatively, the mineralogy of the infiltrating and discharging material was ... system; these particles were not found in samples from the sinkhole or the spring. The differences between the particulates discharging from the ... interface between the underlying chalk formation and the gravel at the base of the overlying alluvial system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights ...

Climate change in southern Illinois, USA, based on the age and δ13C of organic matter in cave sediments

Modified 2015-05-05
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027204 (HTML Document 22.04 KB)

and sinkhole formation appear to have been important mechanisms for deposition of the ancient subterranean deposits. Slumping of these surficial ... deposits and associated vegetation can occur along the flanks of sinkholes (in addition to sinkhole formation) and enter caves; however, the finer ...

Sinkholes in West-Central Florida, in Circular 1182 - Tihansky, A.B., 1999, Sinkholes, West-Central Florida, p. 121-140, in Galloway, Devin, Jones, D.R., and Ingebritsen, S.E., 1999, Land Subsidence in the United States: USGS Circular 1182, 177p. Introduction

https://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/c1182_tihansky.html (HTML Document 3.06 KB)

capturing surface-water flow and can create new wetlands, ponds, and lakes. Most of Florida is prone to sinkhole formation because it is underlain by thick ... municipal, industrial and agricultural water supplies creates regional ground-water-level declines that play a role in accelerating sinkhole formation ...

Geology and evolution of lakes in north-central Florida

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021255 (HTML Document 20.56 KB)

formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic ... (mature); and (4) polje (drowned prairie) - broad flat-bottom that have one or all phases of sinkhole. Using these criteria, Florida lakes can be ... slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Case ... sinkhole. Using these criteria, Florida lakes can be classified by size, fill, subsurface features, and geomorphology. Additional publication details Series title: Environmental Geology ...

Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

Modified 2016-09-28
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20161166 (HTML Document 33.26 KB)

surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance ... , and economic value to the community. The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures ... about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the ... Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and ...

Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009

Modified 2017-01-18
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20125018 (HTML Document 33.68 KB)

of the well field southwest of Albany in order to examine the occurrence of subsurface features conducive to sinkhole formation. Monitored groundwater ... -level data were used to assess the possible relations between sinkhole formation, precipitation, and water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer ... sinkhole-formation data continue to be collected to allow further study and analysis. Study Area Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of ... Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009 Scientific ...

Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona

Modified 2012-02-10
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20111063 (HTML Document 22.90 KB)

Montezuma Well, a flowing sinkhole in a desert setting, is poorly understood. Water emerges from the middle limestone facies of the lacustrine Verde ... Formation, but the precise origin of the water and its travel path are largely unknown. Some have proposed artesian flow to Montezuma Well through the Supai ... Formation, which is exposed along the eastern margin of the Verde Valley and underlies the Verde Formation. The groundwater recharge zone likely lies ...

Using geochemistry to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in Central Arizona, USA: Part 2

Modified 2013-09-20
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048307 (HTML Document 25.54 KB)

unique natural spring located in a sinkhole surrounded by travertine. Montezuma Well is managed by the National Park Service, and groundwater development ... ) upgradient, (2) deep groundwater with carbon dioxide, (3) shallow Verde Formation, and (4) mixing zone. δ18O and δD values, along with noble gas ... age for Montezuma Well and Soda Springs groundwaters at 5,400–13,300 years, while shallow groundwater in the Verde Formation appears to be older ... groundwater in the surrounding Verde Formation appears to be largely disconnected from deeper groundwater flowing to Montezuma Well. Study Area Title ...

Photogeologic map showing distribution of sinkholes south of Fairplay, Park County, Colorado--a possible geologic hazard

Modified 2014-03-25
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/mf2295 (HTML Document 23.43 KB)

Minturn Formation, and in Quaternary soil, alluvium, and glacial outwash gravels that overlie the evaporite beds. Sinkholes range in size from small ... large cluster of small craters is about 1,8000 ft long and 600 ft wide. As reported to us by a resident rancher, one small sinkhole collapsed about 10 ...

Surface subsidence and collapse in relation to extraction of salt and other soluble evaporites

Modified 2012-02-02
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr791666 (HTML Document 18.74 KB)

soluble minerals, whether by natural or man-induced processes, can result in localized land-surface subsidence and more rarely sinkhole formation. One ...

The role of sandstone in the development of an Ozark karst system, south-central Missouri

Modified 2012-03-12
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035312 (HTML Document 19.75 KB)

: Abstract Cave, spring, and sinkhole development in the Ozarks of south-central Missouri is placed in a geologic framework through detailed geologic ... Ordovician Roubidoux Formation, where sinkholes are rimmed with and contain sandstone that has collapsed into voids in the underlying Ordovician Gasconade ...

USGS Floridan Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study

https://fl.water.usgs.gov/floridan/visual_gallery.html (HTML Document 45.73 KB)

, water levels can fall increasing the likelyhood of catastrophic sinkhole formation. Landuse changes can cause focused runoff and and infiltration of ... Winter Park, FL sinkhole of May 1981 In May of 1981, a 350 ft wide and 75 ft deep cover-collapse sinkhole opened up in the town of ... named in honor of a resident whose home was destroyed by the sinkhole. see more Sudden and sometimes catasrophic subsidence associated with collapse ... surface water resulting in the erosion of sinkhole-prone earth materials ( Tihansky, 1999 ). Springs: Bowls of Liquid Light ...

Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Survey Data and Maps, Seco Creek Area, Medina and Uvalade Counties, Texas

Modified 2012-02-02
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr03226 (HTML Document 20.01 KB)

airborne geophysical data and a summary of the hydrologic application. The survey area was centered on the Valdina Farms sinkhole along the Seco Creek ... aquifer in this area consists of three hydrologic zones: catchment, recharge, and confined. The Glen Rose Formation is exposed in the catchment area ...

Geologic controls on the formation of lakes in north-central Florida

Modified 2014-10-14
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70128721 (HTML Document 21.90 KB)

Geologic controls on the formation of lakes in north-central Florida By: Jack G. Kindinger, Jeffrey B. Davis, and James G ... understanding the formation of individual lakes. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical ... , subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone ... to partially filled collapse structures typically associated with sink holes; (2) transitional phase (middle age) - the sinkhole is plugged as the ...

Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir

Modified 2013-08-16
https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047667 (HTML Document 23.54 KB)

zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 ... project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its ... commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side ...