David Stannard

Biography

I was raised in Glastonbury, CT, where I first learned to appreciate nature, which was reinforced with frequent trips to northern New England, especially Maine. I attended Glastonbury High School, where I took college-level physics and calculus, and graduated 15th in a 1971 class of about 250. I studied civil engineering at the University of Connecticut with a focus on “environmental and water resources”, and obtained a BS in 1975. I then moved to Lincoln, NE, and worked for the University of Nebraska on a project studying artificial recharge of groundwater. That led to my current position, in 1979, with the USGS National Research Program, where I have worked on projects involving the unsaturated zone and evapotranspiration.

 

I graduated from the University of Connecticut in 1975 with a BS in civil engineering, specializing in environmental and water resources. My first professional job was with the University of Nebraska, studying the mechanics and potentials of artificial recharge of groundwater aquifers in Nebraska. We designed and built a demonstration project to pipe Platte River water into the Blue River basin (an area of declining water tables), where it was injected through a well directly into the aquifer, and impounded on the land surface to augment natural recharge (Lichtler et al., 1979; Lichtler et al., 1980).

In 1979, I took a position with the USGS National Research Program in Denver, on Ed Weeks’ project entitled “Unsaturated Zone Field Studies”, and have been in that position until present. Initially, I specialized in design of tensiometers, and was awarded the ASTM Hogentogler Award for a comprehensive paper about tensiometers (Stannard, 1990(b)). I was involved in projects related to unsaturated zone gas flow at Yucca Mountain, NV; Los Alamos, NM, and near Gascoyne, ND.

I began research on evapotranspiration (ET) in 1983, using the eddy covariance method to measure ET discharge from the regional groundwater system underlying Yucca Mountain, at Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County, CA (Stannard, 1990(a)). In 1985-88, I investigated relations between water-table decline and ET salvage in the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado with my colleague and mentor, Harold Weaver. During this project, I designed and built an inexpensive Bowen-ratio exchange mechanism that performed reliably under harsh conditions (Stannard, 1985) and has since been used by several researchers in the USGS. I used our measured data (Stannard and Weaver, 1995) to compare the performance of 3 commonly-used ET models in sparsely vegetated rangeland (Stannard, 1993).

In 1987, I participated in one of the first large interagency land-surface-atmosphere experiments, FIFE, held in the grass and crop lands of central Kansas. I helped operate 3 flux stations measuring ET, surface energy balance, and meteorology, generating data and interpretations that were used as ground-truth by remote sensors deployed from aircraft and satellites. This experience led to further collaboration with NASA and the Agricultural Research Service in a similar experiment held in Walnut Gulch, AZ, called Monsoon ’90. I was the Flux Group Leader and maintained 3 flux stations, investigating ET response to rainfall, energy-balance closure and turbulent flux footprints (Stannard et al., 1994). I also used a hemispherical flux chamber I developed (Stannard, 1988), to partition ET between the major species and bare soil evaporation at Walnut Gulch (Stannard and Weltz, 2006). This collaboration led to further involvement with the Washita ’92 experiment in Oklahoma (Stannard et al., 1993) and the BOREAS experiment held in Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1993-94.

Unresolved questions and spotty anecdotal evidence regarding flux footprints of the eddy covariance versus Bowen-ratio (BR) methods led me to develop an analytical expression for the BR footprint (Stannard, 1997(b)), establishing the first defensible quantitative footprint tool for use with BR. I then used this model to analyze an over-water footprint at a wetland in North Dakota (Stannard et al., 2004).

In 1999-2002, I collaborated with the Colorado Water Science Center on a groundwater availability study in the Rocky Mountain foothills of Jefferson County. I installed a 60-ft. tower in a lodgepole forest, and used a water-balance approach to estimate infiltration, an upper limit to recharge (Bossong et al., 2003). This led to a further study of evaporative losses from a foothills residence and leach-field, using my flux chamber to calibrate a Penman-Monteith ET model (Stannard et al., 2010).

Severe water shortages in the Klamath Basin, OR and CA, led to the need for better quantification of ET losses from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) and the extensive surrounding wetlands. During 2008-2010, I led an interagency team in measuring ET at 2 wetland and 2 open-water UKL locations. I developed “crop coefficients” to enable local water authorities to compute real-time wetland ET from nearby Agri-Met weather station data (Stannard, et al., 2012).

Over the years, I’ve also been involved in ET field projects in Nebraska (Stannard and Rosenberry, 1991); Owens Valley, CA (Stannard, 1992(b)); Minnesota (Stannard et al., 1997; Anderson et al., 1999); Oklahoma (Masoner et al., 2008; Masoner and Stannard, 2010); and Nevada (Moreo et al., 2007; Riggs et al., 2009).

 

Publications

Stannard, D.I., Gannett, M.W., Polette, D.J., Cameron, J.M., Waibel, M. S., and Spears, J.M., 2013, Evapotranspiration from wetland and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008-2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5014, 65 p.

Stannard, D.I., Gannett, M.W., Polette, D.J., Cameron, J.M., Waibel, M. S., and Spears, J.M., 2013, Evapotranspiration from wetland and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008-2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5014, 65 p.

 

1.         Lichtler, W. F., Stannard, D. I., and Kouma, Edwin, 1979, Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska, 2-year progress report: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-1492, 58 p.

 

2.         Lichtler, W. F., Stannard, D. I., and Kouma, Edwin, 1980, Investigation of artificial recharge of aquifers in Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 80-93, 112 p.

 

3.         Stannard, D. I., 1985, Design and performance of a machine used in the calculation of Bowen ratios: Proceedings, National Water Well Association (NWWA) Conference on Characterization and Monitoring of the Vadose (Unsaturated) Zone, Denver, Dec., 1985 p. 143-157.

 

4.         Stannard, D. I., 1986, Theory, construction, and operation of simple tensiometers: Ground Water Monitoring Review, v. 6, no. 3, Water Well Journal Publishing Co., p. 70- 78.

 

5.         Weaver, H. L., Weeks, E. P., Campbell, G.S., Stannard, D.I., and Tanner, B. D., 1986, Phreatophyte water use estimated by eddy-correlation methods: Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers Water Forum '86: World Water Issues in Evolution, Long Beach, CA, Aug. 1986, v. 1, p. 847-854.

 

6.         Stannard, D. I., 1988, Use of a hemispherical chamber for measurement of evapotranspiration: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-452, 18 p.

 

7.         Stannard, D. I., 1990(a), Energy-budget eddy-correlation technique: in Czarnecki, J.B., Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-356, p. 32-45.

 

8.         Stannard, D.I., 1990(b), Tensiometers--theory, construction, and use: in Nielsen, D.M., and Johnson, A.I., Ground Water and Vadose Zone Monitoring: American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Special Technical Publication 1053, ASTM, Philadelphia, p. 34-51.

 

9.         Stannard, D. I., and Rosenberry, D. O., 1991, A comparison of short-term measurements of lake evaporation using eddy correlation and energy budget methods: Journal of Hydrology, v. 122, p. 15-22.

 

10.       Blanford, J. H., and Stannard, D. I., 1991, Spatial variability of energy fluxes at Walnut Gulch: Proceedings, American Meteorological Society Special Session on Hydrometeorology, 1991, Salt Lake City, p. 158-160.

 

11.       Kustas, W.P., Moran, M.S., Pinter, P.J., Hipps, L.E., Swiatek, E., Stannard, D.I., and Blanford, J.H., 1991, Issues in mapping evapotranspiration over large areas with remote sensing data from Monsoon '90: Proceedings, American meteorological Society Special Session on Hydrometeorology, 1991, Salt Lake City, p. 151-154.

 

12.       Kustas, W.P., Goodrich, D.C., Moran, M.S., Amer, S.A., Bach, L.B., Blanford, J.H., Chebouni, A., Claassen, H. Clements, W. D., Doraiswamy, P.C., Dubois, P., Clarke, T.R., Daughtry, C. S. T., Gellman, D. I., Grant, T. A., Hipps, L. E., Huete, A.R., Humes, K.S., Jackson, T.J., Keefer, T.O., Nichols, W.D., Parry, R., Perry E.M., Pinker, R.T., Pinter, P. J. Jr., Qi, J., Riggs, A.C., Schmugge, T.J., Shutko, A.M.,Stannard, D.I., Swiatek, E., van Leeuwen, J.D., van Zyl, J., Vidal, A., Washburne, J., and Weltz, M.A., 1991, An interdisciplinary field study of the energy and water fluxes in the atmosphere-biosphere system over semiarid rangelands: description and some preliminary results: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 72, no. 11, p. 1683-1705.

 

13.       Moran, M.S., Kustas, W.P., Vidal, A., Stannard, D.I., and Blanford, J.H., 1991, Use of ground-based remotely sensed data for surface energy balance calculations during Monsoon '90: Proceedings, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1991, Espoo, Finland, p. 33-37.

 

14.       Stannard, D.I., 1992(a), Tensiometers--theory, construction, and use: Geotechnical Testing Journal, v. 15, no. 1, p. 48-58 (revision of Stannard, 1990(b)).

 

15.       Stannard, D.I., 1992(b), Bowen-ratio measurements at sites C and F: in Wilson, D.H., Reginato, R.J., and Hollett, K.J., editors, Evapotranspiration measurements of native vegetation, Owens Valley, California, June, 1986: U. S. Geological Survey Water- Resources Investigations Report 91-4159, Chap. B, p. 19-24.

 

16.       Stannard, D. I., 1993, Comparison of Penman-Monteith, Shuttleworth-Wallace, and modified Priestley-Taylor evapotranspiration models for wild-land vegetation in semiarid rangeland: Water Resources Research, v. 29, no. 5, p. 1379-1392.

 

17.       Humes, K. S., Kustas, W. P., Keefer, T. O., Goodrich, D. C., and Stannard, D. I., 1993, Ground based optical remote sensing measurements: in Jackson, T. J., and Schiebe, F. R., editors, Hydrology Data Report: Washita ’92: Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Water Quality Laboratory Report 93-1, Chap. XI, p. XI1-XI3.

 

18.       Stannard, D.I., Kustas, W.P., Allwine, K.J., and Anderson, D.E., 1993, Micrometeorological data collection: in Jackson, T.J., and Schiebe, F.R., editors, Hydrology Data Report: Washita '92: Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Water Quality Laboratory Report #93-1, Chap. V, p. V1-V11.

 

 

19.       Stannard, D.I., Blanford, J.H., Kustas, W.P., Nichols, W.D., Amer, S.A., Schmugge, T.J., and Weltz, M.A., 1994, Interpretation of surface flux measurements in heterogeneous terrain during the Monsoon '90 experiment: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1227-1239.

 

20.       Kustas, W.P., Blanford, J.H., Stannard, D.I., Daughtry, C.S.T., Nichols, W.D., and Weltz, M.A., 1994, Local energy flux estimates for unstable conditions using variance data in semi-arid rangelands: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1351-1361.

 

21.       Kustas, W.P., Moran, M.S., Humes, K.S., Stannard, D.I., Pinter, P.J., Jr., Hipps, L.E., Swiatek, E., and Goodrich, D.C., 1994, Surface energy balance estimates at local and regional scales using optical remote sensing from an aircraft platform and atmospheric data collected over semiarid rangelands: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1241- 1259.

 

22.       Moran, M.S., Kustas, W.P., Vidal, A., Stannard, D.I., Blanford, J.H., and Nichols, W.D., 1994, Use of ground-based remotely sensed data for surface energy balance evaluation of a semiarid rangeland: Water Resources Research, v. 30, no. 5, p. 1339-1349.

 

23.       Stannard, D.I., and Weaver, H.L., 1995, Measurements of evapotranspiration, surface- energy fluxes, weather variables, and water-table depths in the closed basin of the San Luis Valley, Alamosa County, Colorado, 1985-88: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-639, 61 p.

 

24.       Kustas, W.P., Stannard, D.I., and Allwine, K.J., 1996, Variability in surface flux partitioning during Washita ’92: Resulting effects on Penman-Monteith and Priestley- Taylor parameters: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, v. 82, p. 171-193.

 

25.       Stannard, D.I., 1997(a), Energy-budget eddy-correlation technique: in Czarnecki, J.B., Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California: U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2377, p. 25-35.

 

26.       Stannard, D. I., 1997(b), A theoretically based determination of Bowen-ratio fetch requirements: Boundary-Layer Meteorology, v. 83, p. 375-406.

 

27.       Stannard, D. I., Anderson, D. E., and Rosenberry, D. O., 1997, Problems in comparing short-term eddy-correlation and energy-budget measurements of evaporation from Williams lake: in Winter, T. C., editor, Hydrological and biogeochemical research in the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota: U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4215, p. 41-46.

 

28.       Anderson, D.E., Striegl, R.G., Stannard, D.I., Michmerhuizen, C.A., McConnaughey, T.A., and LaBaugh, J.W., 1999, Estimating lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange: Limnology & Oceanography, v. 44, no. 4, p. 988-1001.

 

29.       Bossong, C.R., Caine, J.S., Stannard, D.I., Flynn, J.L., Stevens, M.R., and Heiny-Dash, J.S., 2003, Hydrologic conditions and assessment of water resources in the Turkey Creek Watershed, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1998-2001: U. S. Geological Survey Water- Resources Investigations Report 03-4034, 140 pgs.

 

30.       Stannard, D.I., Rosenberry, D.O., Winter, T.C., and Parkhurst, R.S., 2004, Estimates of fetch-induced errors in Bowen-ratio energy-budget measurements of evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, USA: Wetlands, v. 24, no. 3, p. 498-513 (companion paper to #31).

 

31.       Rosenberry, D.O., Stannard, D.I., Winter, T.C., and Martinez, M.L., 2004, Comparison of 13 equations for determining evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, USA: Wetlands, v. 24, no. 3, p. 483-497.

 

32.       Stannard, D.I., and Weltz, M.A., 2006, Partitioning evapotranspiration in sparsely vegetated rangeland using a portable chamber: Water Resources Research, v. 42, W02413, doi:10.1029/2005WR004251, 13 pgs.

           

33.       Cooper, D.J., Sanderson, J.S., Stannard, D.I., and Groeneveld, D.P., 2006, Effects of long- term water table drawdown on evapotranspiration and vegetation in an arid region phreatophyte community: Journal of Hydrology, v. 325, p. 21-34, doi 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.035.

 

34.       Moreo, M.T., Laczniak, R.J., and Stannard, D.I., 2007, Evapotranspiration rate measurements of vegetation typical of ground-water discharge areas in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, Nevada and Utah, September 2005-August 2006; U. S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2007-5078, 36 pgs.

 

35.       Masoner, J.R., Stannard, D.I., and Christenson, S.C., 2008, Differences in evaporation between a floating pan and Class A pan on land: Journal of American Water Resources Association, v. 44, no. 3, p. 552-561.

 

36.       Riggs, A.C., Stannard, D.I., Maestas, F.B., Karlinger, M.R., and Striegl, R.G., 2009, Soil CO2 flux in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, during El Niño 1998 and La Niña 1999; U. S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5061, 25 pgs.

 

37.       Stannard, D.I., Paul, W.T., Laws, R., and Poeter, E.P., 2010, Consumptive use and resulting leach-field water budget of a mountain residence: Journal of Hydrology, v. 388, no. 3-4, p. 335-349.

 

38.       Masoner, J.R., and Stannard, D.I., 2010, A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands: Wetlands, v. 30, no. 3, p. 513-524.