Joseph S Walder, Ph.D.

I have worked on a variety of topics during my career, all of them involving water in some way: mainly the role of surface water or shallow groundwater in Earth surface processes. My present research covers the following topics: physics of Surtseyan volcanism; interaction of hot eruptive products with wet soil; floods from breaching of earthen dams.

Biography

NAME: Joseph S. Walder                                                                                     

DUTY STATION: Vancouver, Washington

REGION: Western

CLASSIFICATION TITLE: Hydrologist

DATE OF ENTRANCE ON DUTY TO FEDERAL SERVICE: December 1988

EDUCATION:

            INSTITUTION                                 MAJOR                     DEGREE

California Institute of Technology     Geophysics                  B.S., 1976

Stanford University                            Geology                      M.S., 1980

Stanford University                            Geophysics                  Ph.D., 1984

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

Present Assignment

DATES From: 1992              To: present

PROJECT TITLE: Interaction of volcanoes with glaciers, surface water and groundwater.

Until October 2005, I was with the Water Resources Discipline and supervised by the WRD chief at CVO. In October 2005, all WRD staff at CVO were transferred to the Geologic Discipline and came under the supervision of the CVO scientist-in-charge. In consultation with the SIC, I have chosen research topics that fall broadly under the rubric of hydrologic hazards associated with volcanoes, or physical processes involved in such hazards. Research pursuits that have been active in the last four years are described next. 

Floods from earthen-dam failures: In summer 2009, I did preliminary experimental work at the USGS debris-flow flume to examine the feasibility of experiments on overtopping failure of earthen dams. Two-week experimental campaigns were carried out at the USGS debris-flow flume in the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2013. Collaborators are R.M. Iverson and J. Godt. 

Volcano interactions with surface water: Part of this is a lingering study in which I’ve explored how to make inferences about the energetics of Surtseyan-type eruptions through water by applying what is known about the fluid mechanics of underwater explosions. Another part is an experimental study of the interaction of a hot “volcanic” deposit with a wet substrate. This will test a hypothesis about the formation of rootless cones that was proposed decades ago but never tested experimentally.

b. Previous Professional Positions

DATES From: December 1988         To: 1992

Hydrologist, USGS, Vancouver, Washington. I was project chief of an effort to study rapid geomorphic change and debris flows associated with deglaciation and glacier outburst floods in Mount Rainier National Park. The study was partly funded by the US National Park Service to provide scientific background for management decisions.

DATES From: September 1984        To: December 1988

Postdoctoral research associate, University of Washington. Lab and theoretical work on physics of frost weathering plus theoretical studies of subglacial hydrology and debris entrainment at glacier beds.

DATES From: March 1984               To: September 1984.

Physical scientist, USGS Glaciology Project Office, Tacoma, Washington. Theoretical studies in glacier hydrology.

PUBLICATIONS:

Walder, J., and Hallet, B., 1979, Geometry of former subglacial water channels and cavities: Journal of Glaciology, v. 23, p. 335-346.

Walder, J.S., 1980, Field and theoretical studies of subglacial hydrology: M.S. thesis, Stanford University, 88 pp.

Walder, J., 1982, Stability of sheet flow of water beneath temperate glaciers and implications for glacier surging: Journal of Glaciology, v.28, p. 273-293.

Anderson, R.S., Hallet, B., Walder, J., and Aubry, B.F., 1982, Observations in a cavity beneath Grinnell Glacier: Earth Surface Processes, v. 7, p. 63-70.

Walder, J., 1983, The coupling between a glacier and its bed: Journal of Glaciology, v. 29, p. 196-198.

Walder, J., and Nur, A., 1984, Porosity reduction and crustal pore pressure development: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 89, p. 11,539-11,548.

Walder, J.S., 1984, Coupling between fluid flow and deformation in porous crustal rocks: Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 252 pp.

Walder, J., and Hallet, B., 1985, A theoretical model of the fracture of rock during freezing: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 96, p. 336-346.

Walder, J., 1986a, Motion of ice past particles at subfreezing temperatures with applications to wire regelation and frozen soils: Journal of Glaciology, v. 32, p. 404-414.

Walder, J., 1986b, Hydraulics of subglacial cavities: Journal of Glaciology, v. 32, p. 439-445.

Walder, J., and Hallet, B., 1986, The physical basis of frost weathering: toward a more fundamental and unified perspective: Arctic and Alpine Research, v. 18, p. 27-32.

Walder, J., and Nur, A., 1986, Permeability measurement by the pulse-decay method: effects of poroelastic phenomena and nonlinear pore-pressure diffusion: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, v. 23, p. 225-232.

Walder, J., 1988, Review of: Rates of chemical weathering of rocks and minerals: Quaternary Research, v. 29, p. 190.

Nur, A., and Walder, J., 1990, Time-dependent hydraulics of the Earth's crust, in Studies in geophysics: The role of fluids in crustal processes, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, p. 113-127.

Driedger, C.L., and Walder, J.S., 1991, Recent debris flows at Mount Rainier:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 91-242, 2 pp.  [Published as a Water Fact Sheet and used for public distribution by National Park Service..]

Nur, A., and Walder, J., 1992, Hydraulic pulses in the Earth's crust, in Evans, B., and Wong, T.-F., eds., Fault mechanics and transport properties of rocks, London, Academic Press, p. 461-473.

Hallet, B., Walder, J.S., and Stubbs, C.W., 1991, Weathering by segregation ice growth in microcracks at sustained sub-zero temperatures: verification from an experimental study using acoustic emissions:  Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, vol. 2, p. 283-300.

Walder, J.S., and Driedger, C.L., 1993, Glacier-generated debris flows at Mount Rainier:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 93-124, 2 p.  [Published as a Water Fact Sheet and used for public distribution by National Park Service.  Replaces OFR 91-242 by Driedger and Walder.]

Fowler, A., and Walder, J., 1993, Creep closure of channels in deforming subglacial till:  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, v. 441, p. 17-31.

Walder, J.S., 1994, Comments on "Subglacial floods and the origin of low-relief ice-sheet lobes," by E.M. Shoemaker: Journal of Glaciology, v. 40, no. 134, p. 199-200.

Walder, J.S., and Driedger, C.L., 1994a, Geomorphic change caused by glacial outburst floods and debris flows at Mount Rainier, Washington, with emphasis on Tahoma Creek valley:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4093, 93 p.

Walder, J.S., and Driedger, C.L., 1994b, Rapid geomorphic change caused by glacial outburst floods and debris flows along Tahoma Creek, Mount Rainier, Washington, U.S.A.:  Arctic and Alpine Research, vol. 26, no. 4, p. 349-57.

Walder, J.S., and Fowler, A.C., 1994, Channelized subglacial drainage over a deformable bed:  Journal of Glaciology, v. 40, no. 134, p. 3-15.

Clark, P.U., and Walder, J.S., 1994, Subglacial drainage and deforming beds beneath the Laurentide, British and Scandinavian ice sheets:  Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, no. 2, p. 304-314.

Pringle, P.T. (ed.), Driedger, C.L., Frank, D., McKenna, J., Murphy, M.T., Scott, K.M., Sisson, T.W., Vallance, J.W., Venezky, D.Y., Walder, J.S., and Zimbelman, D.R., 1994, Mount Rainier, a Decade Volcano GSA field trip, in Swanson, D.A., and Haugerud, R.A., eds., Geologic field trips in the Pacific Northwest: 1994 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, chapter 2G, 24 pp. 

Walder, J.S., 1995, Debris-flow hazards at Mount Rainier: U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook, p. 20-22.

Walder, J.S., and Driedger, C.L., 1995a, Frequent outburst floods from South Tahoma Glacier, Mount Rainier, U.S.A.: relation to debris flows, meteorological origin and implications for subglacial hydrology:  Journal of Glaciology, vol. 137, p. 1-10.

Walder, J.S., and Driedger, C.L., 1995b, Living with a volcano in your backyard: volcanic hazards at Mount Rainier: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 95-421, 2 pp. [Public awareness fact sheet.]

Hoblitt, R.P., Walder, J.S., Driedger, C.L., Scott, K.M., Pringle, P.T., and Vallance, J.W., 1995, Volcanic hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 95-273, 10 pp.

Walder, J.S, and Costa, J.E., 1996, Outburst floods from glacier-dammed lakes: the effect of mode of lake drainage on flood magnitude:  Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 21, p. 701-723.

Waythomas, C.F., Walder, J.S., McGimsey, R.G., and Neal, C.A., 1996, A catastrophic flood caused by drainage of a caldera lake at Aniakchak volcano, Alaska, and implications for volcanic-hazards assessment: Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 108, p. 861-871. 

Walder, J.S., 1997, Nature of depositional contacts between pyroclastic deposits and snow or ice, in Pierson, T.C., ed., Hydrologic consequences of hot-rock/snowpack interactions at Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, 1982-84, U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 96-179, pp. 9-18 and 109-117.

Walder, J.S., and Fountain, A.G., 1997, Glacier generated floods, in Leavesley, G.H., Lins, H.F., Nobilis, F., Parker, R.S., Schneider, V.R., and van den Ven, F.H.M., eds., Destructive water: water-caused natural disasters, their abatement and control, International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 239, p. 107-113.

Walder, J.S., and O’Connor, J.E., 1997, Methods for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams: Water Resources Research, v. 33, p. 2337-2348.

Walder, J.S., O'Connor, J.E., and Costa, J.E., 1997, A physically based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams: in Leavesley, G.H., Lins, H.F., Nobilis, F., Parker, R.S., Schneider, V.R., and van den Ven, F.H.M., eds., Destructive water: water-caused natural disasters, their abatement and control, International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 239, p. 217-224.

Walder, J.S., and O’Connor, J.E., 1998, Methods for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams: Water Resources Journal, v. 197, p. 43-56. [Reprint of the Walder and O’Connor article in Water Resources Research.  Water Resources Journal is a review journal published by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.]

Fountain, A.G., and Walder, J.S., 1998, Water flow through temperate glaciers: Reviews of Geophysics, p. 299-328.

Walder, J.S., 1999, Nature of depositional contacts between pyroclastic deposits and snow or ice, in Pierson, T.C., ed., Hydrologic consequences of hot-rock/snowpack interactions at Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, 1982-84, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1586, pp. 9-18 and 109-117. [Replaces Open-file Report 96-179.]

Walder, J.S., Gardner, C.A., Fisher, B.J., and Schilling, S.P., 1999, Volcano hazards in the Mount Jefferson region, Oregon: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-24, 14 pp.

Walder, J.S., 2000a, Pyroclast/snow interactions and thermally driven slurry formation. Part 1: theory for monodisperse grain beds: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 62, p. 105-118.

Walder, J.S., 2000b, Pyroclast/snow interactions and thermally driven slurry formation. Part 2: experiments and theoretical extension to polydisperse tephra: Bulletin of Volcanology,v. 62, p. 119-129.

Risley, J.C, Walder, J.S., and Denlinger, R.P, 2003, Usoi Dam wave overtopping and flood routing in the Bartang and Panj rivers, Tajikistan: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigation Report 03-4004, 55 p.

Walder, J.S., and Watts, P., 2003, Evaluating tsunami hazards from debris flows: in J. Locat and J. Mienert, eds., Submarine mass movements and their consequences, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Publ., p. 155-162.

Walder, J.S., Watts, P., Sorensen, O.E., and Janssen, K., 2003, Water waves generated by subaerial mass flows: Journal of Geophysical Research, v.108, no. B5, 2236, doi:10.1029/2001JB000707.

Walder, J.S., Comment on “anonymous reviews.” [Letter to editor.] Eos, v. 84, no. 38, 2003.

Watts, P., and Walder, J.S., 2003, Evaluating tsunami hazards from debris flows, in D. Rickenmann and C.-l. Chen, eds., Debris-flow hazards mitigation, Rotterdam, Millpress, p. 1245-1256.  

 Anderson, S.P., Walder, J.S.. Anderson, R.S., Kraal, E.R., Cunico, M. Fountain, A.G., and Trabant, D.C., 2003, Integrated hydrologic and hydrochemical observations of Hidden Creek Lake jökulhlaups, Kennicott Glacier, Alaska: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, no. F1, 6003, doi:10.1029/2002JF000004.

Watts, P., Grilli, S., Enet, F., Walder, J.S., and Waythomas, C.F., 2004, Constructing landslide tsunami sources: in Satake, K., ed., Tsunamis: Sources, Monitoring and Coastal Hazards, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2004.

Walder, J.S., LaHusen, R.G., Vallance, J.W., and Schilling, S.P., 2005, Crater glaciers on active volcanoes: hydrological anomalies: Eos, v. 86, no. 50, p. 521 & p. 528.

Walder, J.S., Trabant, D.C., Cunico. M, Anderson, S.P., Anderson, R.S., and Fountain, A.F., 2005, Faulting and flow in an ice dam associated with annual filling and drainage of a glacier-dammed lake: Annals of Glaciology, v. 40, pp. 174-178.

Anderson, R.S., Walder, J.S., Anderson, S.P., Trabant, D.C., and Fountain, A.F., 2005, The dynamic response of Kennicott Glacier to the Hidden Creek Lake outburst flood: Annals of Glaciology, v. 40, pp. 237-242.

Walder, J.S., Watts, P., and Waythomas, C.F., 2006, Case study: Mapping tsunami hazards associated with debris flow into a reservoir: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 132, no. 1, pp. 1-11.

Risley, J.C., Walder, J.S., and Denlinger, R.P., 2006, Usoi Dam wave overtopping and flood routing in the Bartang and Panj rivers, Tajikistan: Natural Hazards, v. 38, no. 3, p. 375 - 390.

Walder, J.S., Trabant, D.C., Cunico, M., Fountain, A.F., Anderson, S.P., Anderson, R.S., and Malm, A., 2006, Local response of a glacier to annual filling and drainage of an ice-marginal lake: Journal of Glaciology, v. 52, no. 178, p. 440-450.

Waythomas, C.F., Watts, P., and Walder, J.S., 2006, Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, v. 6, p. 671-685.

Walder, J.S., LaHusen, R.G., Vallance, J.W., and Schilling, 2007, S.P. Response of the Mount St. Helens crater glacier to the eruption of 2004-06: Annals of Glaciology, v. 45, pp. 14-20.

Price, S.F., and Walder, J.S., 2007, Modeling the dynamic response of a crater glacier to lava-dome emplacement: Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA: Annals of Glaciology, v. 45, pp. 21-28.

Walder, J.S., Schilling, S.P., Vallance, J.W., and LaHusen, R.G., 2008, Effects of lava dome growth on the Crater Glacier of Mount St. Helens, Washington: in Sherrod, D.R., Scott, W.E., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-06: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750, p. 257-273.

Walder, J. S., 2010, Röthlisberger channel theory: its origins and consequences: Journal of Glaciology, v. 56, pp. 1079-1086.

Walder, J.S., S.P. Schilling, D. Sherrod, and J.W. Vallance, 2010, Photographic documentation of the evolution of Crater Glacier, Mount St. Helens, Washington, September 2006--November 2009. USGS Open-File Report 2010-1141, 34 pp.

O’Connor, J., Clague, J. J., Walder, J. S., Manville, V., and Beebee, R. A., 2013, Outburst floods: in Shroder, J.F., ed., Treatise on geomorphology, Academic Press, pp. 475-510.

Walder, J.S., Iverson, R.M., Godt, J.W., Logan, M., and Solovitz, S.A., 2015, Controls on the breach geometry and flood hydrograph during overtopping of noncohesive earthen dams: Water Resources Research, v. 51, pp. 6701-6724, doi:10.1002/2014WR016620.

Walder, J.S., 2015, Dimensionless erosion laws for cohesive sediment: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 142: 04015047.