Peter J Kelly


Peter Kelly is a research geologist based at the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. He works to better understand magmatic and hydrothermal systems through research and monitoring of volcanic gas emissions. This work includes an emphasis on developing and applying new technologies to implement real-time gas monitoring on volcanoes. Peter works on US volcanoes as a member of the USGS Volcano Emissions Project and internationally as a member of the USAID-USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP).


M.S., Geochemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, 2006

B.S., Geology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 2003

Google Scholar Profile


Kern, C., Lerner, A.H., Elias, T., Nadeau, P.A., Holland, L., Kelly, P.J., Werner, C.A., Clor, L.E., and Cappos, M., 2020. Quantifying gas emissions associated with the 2018 rift eruption of Kīlauea Volcano using ground-based DOAS measurements. Bull Volcanol 82, 55.

Werner, C., Rasmussen, D. J., Plank, T., Kelly, P. J., Kern, C., Lopez, T.,  Gliss, J., Power, J.A., Roman, D.C., Izbekov, P., Lyons, J., 2020. Linking Subsurface to Surface using Gas Emission and Melt Inclusion data at Mount Cleveland volcano, Alaska. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

Kelly, P.J., Kern, C., Werner, C., and Lopez, T., 2020, Volcanic Gas Measurements at Mount Cleveland, Alaska 2016: U.S. Geological Survey data release,

Werner, C., Kern, C., and Kelly, P. J., 2020, Chemical evaluation of water and gases collected from hydrothermal systems located in the central Aleutian arc, August 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2020–1029, 35 p.,

Fischer, T. P., Arellano, S., Carn, S., Aiuppa, A., Galle, B., Allard, P., Lopez, T., Shinohara, H., Kelly, P., Werner, C., Cardellini, C., Chiodini, G., 2019. The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world’s subaerial volcanoes. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 18716.

Neal CA, Brantley SR, Antolik L, Babb J, Burgess M, Calles K, Cappos M, Chang JC, Conway S, Desmither L, Dotray P, Elias T, Fukunaga P, Fuke S, Johanson IA, Kamibayashi K, Kauahikaua J, Lee RL, Pekalib S, Miklius A, Million W, Moniz CJ, Nadeau PA, Okubo P, Parcheta C, Patrick MP, Shiro B, Swanson DA, Tollet W, Trusdell F, Younger EF, Zoeller MH, Montgomery-Brown EK, Anderson KR, Poland MP, Ball J, Bard J, Coombs M, Dietterich HR, Kern C, Thelen WA, Cervelli PF, Orr T, Houghton BF, Gansecki C, Hazlett R, Lundgren P, Diefenbach AK, Lerner AH, Waite G, Kelly P, Clor L, Werner C, Mulliken K, Fisher G, Damby, D., 2019. The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano. Science, 363(6425), 367–374.

Battaglia, A., de Moor, J. M., Aiuppa, A., Avard, G., Bakkar, H., Bitetto, M., Mora Fernandez, M.M., Kelly, P., Giudice, G., Dario Delle Donne, Villalobos, H., 2019. Insights Into the Mechanisms of Phreatic Eruptions From Continuous High Frequency Volcanic Gas Monitoring: Rincón de la Vieja Volcano, Costa Rica. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6.

Syahbana, D.K., Kasbani, K., Suantika, G., Prambada, O., Andreas, A.S., Saing, U.B., Kunrat, S.L., Andreastuti, S., Martanto, M., Kriswati, E., Suparman, Y., Humaida, H., Ogburn, S., Kelly, P.J., Wellik, J., Wright, H.M.N., Pesicek, J.D., Wessels, R., Kern, C., Lisowski, M., Diefenbach, A., Poland, M., Beauducel, F., Pallister, J., Vaughan, R.G., Lowenstern, J.G., 2019. The 2017–19 activity at Mount Agung in Bali (Indonesia): Intense unrest, monitoring, crisis response, evacuation, and eruption. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 8848.

Wright, H.M.N., Pallister, J.S., McCausland, W.A., Griswold, J.P., Andreastuti, S., Budianto, A., Primulyana, S., Gunawan, H., 2013 VDAP Team*, 2018. Construction of probabilistic event trees for eruption forecasting at Sinabung volcano, Indonesia 2013–14, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 382, 233-252. *listed as part of “2013 VDAP team”

Hidalgo, S., Battaglia, J., Arellano, S., Sierra, D., Bernard, B., Parra, R., Kelly, P., Dinger, F., Barrington, C., Samaniego, P., 2018. Evolution of the 2015 Cotopaxi eruption revealed by combined geochemical & seismic observation: Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 2018, 19(7), 2087-2108.  

Crankshaw, I.M., Archfield, S.A., Newman, A.C., Bergfeld, D., Clor, L.E., Spicer, K.R., Kelly, P.J., Evans, W.C., Ingebritsen, S.E., 2018. Multi-Year High-Frequency Hydrothermal monitoring of Selected High-Threat Cascade Range Volcanoes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2018, 356, 24-35.

Lewicki, J.L., Kelly, P.J., Bergfeld, D., Vaughan, R.G., and Lowenstern, J.B., 2017, Gas and heat emission measurements in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (May-October 2016): U.S. Geological Survey data release,

Lewicki, J.L., Kelly, P.J., Bergfeld, D., Vaughan, R.G., Lowenstern, J.B., 2017. Monitoring gas and heat emissions at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA based on a combined eddy covariance and Multi-GAS approach.  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 347, 312-326,

Bergfeld, D., Evans, W.C., Spicer, K.R., Hunt, A.G., Kelly, P.J., 2017. Evidence for degassing of fresh magma during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens: Subtle signals from the hydrothermal system Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 343, 109-121.

Werner, C., Kern, C., Kelly, P., 2017. Volcanic Gas Measurements at Mount Cleveland, 14-15 August 2015: U.S. Geological Survey,

Gunawan, H., Caudron, C., Pallister, J., Primulyana, S., Christenson, B., McCausland, W., Van Hinsberg, V., Lewicki, J.L., Rouwet, D., Kelly, P., Kern, C., Werner, C., Johnson, J.B., Utami, S.B., Syahbana, D.K., Saing, U., Purwanto, S.B.H., Sealing, C., Martinez Cruz, M., Maryanto, S., Bani, P., Laurin, A., Schmid, A., Bradley, K., Nandaka, I., Hendrasto, M., 2017. New insights into Kawah Ijen’s volcanic system from the wet volcano workshop experiment. In: Ohba, T., Capaccioni, B., & Caudron, C. (eds) Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 437, doi: 10.1144/ SP437.7. [Link]

Werner, C., Kern C., Coppola D., Lyons J., Kelly P., Wallace K., Schneider D., Wessels R., 2017. Magmatic degassing, lava dome extrusion, and explosions from Mount Cleveland volcano, Alaska, 2011–2015: Insight into the continuous nature of volcanic activity over multi-year timescales, Journal of Volcanology and Goethermal Research, 337, 98-110, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.03.001.

Lyons, J. J., Haney, M. M., Werner, C., Kelly, P., Patrick, M., Kern, C., Trusdell, F. 2015. Long-period seismicity and very-long-period infrasound driven by shallow magmatic degassing at Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JB012490. [Link]

Cynthia Werner, Deborah Bergfeld, Christopher D. Farrar, Michael P. Doukas, Peter J. Kelly, Christoph Kern, 2014. Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995–2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 289, pp. 51-63. [Link]

Lopez, T., Carn, S., Werner, C., Fee, D., Kelly, P., Doukas, M., Webley, P. W., Cahill, C., Schneider, D., 2013. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements of sulfur dioxide during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 259, pp. 290-307. [Link]

Werner, C.A., Kelly, P.J., Doukas, M.P., Lopez, T., Pfeffer, M., McGimsey, R., Neal, C., 2013. Degassing associated with the 2009 Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 259, pp. 270-284. [Link]

Kelly, P.J., Kern, C., Roberts, T.J., Lopez, T., Werner, C., Aiuppa, A., 2013. Rapid chemical evolution of tropospheric volcanic emissions from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, based on observations of ozone and halogen-containing gases. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 259, pp. 317-333. [Link]

Werner, C.A., Evans, W.C., Kelly, P.J., McGimsey, R., Pfeffer, M., Doukas, M., Neal, C., 2012. Deep magmatic degassing vs. scrubbing: elevated CO2 emissions and C/S in the lead-up to the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. Geophys. Geochem. Geosys. 13, Q03015, doi:1029/2011GC003794. [Link]

Kern, C., Deutschmann, T., Werner, C.A., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., Kelly, P. 2012. Improving the accuracy of SO2 column densities and emission rates obtained from upward-looking UV-spectroscopic measurements of volcanic plumes by taking realistic radiative transfer into account. Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D20302, doi:10.1029/2012JD017936. [Link]

Werner, C.A., Doukas, M.P., Kelly, P.J., 2011. Gas emissions from failed and actual eruptions from Cook Inlet Volcanoes, Alaska, 1989-2006. In: Moran, S.C., Newhall, C.G., Roman, D.C. (eds), Failed Eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent, Bulletin of Volcanology 73(2), pp. 155-173. [Link]

Sims, K.W.W., Blichert-Toft, J., Kyle, P.R., Pichat, S., Gauthier, P-J., Bluzstain, J., Kelly, P., Ball, L., Layne, G., 2008. A Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotope perspective on the genesis and long-term evolution of alkaline magmas from Erebus volcano, Antarctica. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, pp. 606-618. [Link]

Kelly, P.J., Dunbar, N.W., Kyle, P.R., McIntosh, W.C., 2008. Refinement of the late Quaternary geologic history of Mount Erebus volcano, Antarctica using 40Ar/39Ar and 36Cl age determinations. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177, pp. 569-577. [Link]

*Kelly, P.J., Kyle, P.R., Dunbar, N.W., Sims, K.W.W., 2008. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the phonolite lava lake, Mount Erebus volcano, Antarctica: 1972 – 2004 and comparison with older lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177, pp. 589-605. *Selected as Nature Research Highlight. Nature, 457, p. 238. doi:10.1038/457238a. [Link]

Kelly, P.J., 2006. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Mt.Erebus, Antarctica, lava lake from 1972-2004 and comparison with older  lavas. M.S. thesis, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM.